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Brigham Young 






Full Discussion of the Subject of Polygamy 



Editor of the "Baptist and Reflector," Nashville, Tenn. 



Fleming H. Revell Company 

Chicago, New York & Toronto 


Copyright, 1901, by Fleming H. Revell Company. 


To all who love our Lord Jesus 
Christ in sincerity, and who 
believe in the purity of the Home, 
this volume is affectionately dedi- 
cated by 

The Author. 


Salt Lake City, Utah, Sept 24, 1900 

We have looked over the proofs of this book, and 
find that it is replete with important information for 
those who are unacquainted with the history, teachings 
and tendencies of Mormonism. 

R. W. WAKE, 

Pastor H. E. Church, Salt Lake City. 

Presiding Elder M. E. Church, Salt Lake City. 


Pastor First Baptist Church, Salt Lake City. 

fM. M. PADEN, 

Pastor First Presbyterian Church, Salt Lake City. 


Pastor at Large, Utah Presbytery. 


In the preparation of the following volume I have 
sought information from every source possible. Among 
the books consulted were: The Bible, "The Book of 
Mormon," "The Doctrine and Covenants," "The Pearl 
of Great Price" (All of these are claimed by the Mor- 
mons as their sacred books) : "The Articles of Faith/' 
by J. E. Talmage ; "The Gospel," "Outlines of Ecclesias- 
tical History," and "New Witness for God," by B. H. 
Roberts; "Key to Theology," by Parley P. Pratt; "Mor- 
mon Doctrine," by C. W. Penrose ; "Catechism for Chil- 
dren," by John Jaques; "Rocky Mountain Saints," by 
T. B. H. Stenhouse; "An Englishwoman in Utah," by 
Mrs. T. B. H. Stenhouse ; "Mormon Portraits," by Dr. 
W. Wyl; "The Golden Bible," by M. T. Lamb; "The 
Book of Mormon," by S. J. S. Davis ; "Pen Pictures of 
Mormonism," by M. L. Oswalt; "Mormon Doctrine of 
God and Heaven," by A. C. Osborn; "Some Latter Day 
Religions," by G. H. Combs; various tracts published 
by the League for Social Service and others too numer- 
ous to mention. Besides these I have made use also 
of articles in "The Salt Lake Herald," "The Salt Lake 
Tribune," "The Deseret Evening News," which is the 
official organ of the Mormon Church, "The Kinsman," 
and "Living Issues," all of Salt Lake City; Munsey's 
Magazine for June, 1900; and other articles. 

I have made frequent quotations from these books, 
tracts and articles to give the reader a statement of the 
Mormon position in their own words, or to show how 


others regard these people. I gratefully acknowledge 
my indebtedness to the writers indicated above. 

I should say that the substance of these chapters was 
originally published in the Baptist and Reflector, and there 
were numerous calls for the publication of the articles 
in book form. 

I have, however, revised and considerably enlarged 
them in preparing them for publication in this more per- 
manent form. 

May God's blessings rest upon the volume. 

Very truly, 

Edgar E. Folk. 

Nashville, Tenn., July 28, 1900. 



Preface 3 

Introduction 5 

I. Introductory 11 

II. Its History — 

The Origin — Sidney Rigdon — Joseph Smith, 
Jr. — The Book of Mormon 17 

III. Its History — 

Kirtland — Zion's Camp — Temple Dedicated — 
Fraudulent Bank 25 

IV. Its History — 

Missouri — Rigdon's Fourth of July Sermon — 
Danite Band 30 

V. Its History — 

Nauvoo— City Charter — Candidate for Presi- 
dent — Nauvoo a Hell 35 

VI. Its History — 

Nauvoo Continued — "Brother Rushton"— Nancy 
Rigdon — Martha Brotherton — William Law — 
Death of Smith 42 

VII. Its History — 

Split into Factions — Brigham Young — Moving 
Westward — Great Salt Lake Basin — "Irrepressi- 
ble Conflict" — Mountain Meadows Massacre.. 61 

VIII. Its History — 

Brigham Young — Rebellion — Albert Sidney 
Johnston — Judge Cradlebaugh— Apostasy — John 
Taylor — Wilford Woodruff— Lorenzo Snow... 69 

IX. Its History — 

Polygamy — "Revelation" on Subject 77 




X. Its History— 

Laws against Polygamy— Cullom Law— Ed- 
munds Law— Edmunds-Tucker Law 83 

XL Its History— 

Statehood — Polygamy Prohibited — Polygamy 
Practiced 90 

XII. Its History— 

The Roberts Case— Arguments For and Against 
—Excluded from Congress 94 

XIII. As a Religious System— 

Its Doctrine as to God— God a Man— A Married 
Man— A Polygamist 108 

XIV. As a Religious System— 

Its Doctrine as to God— God Was Adam— Many 
Gods "5 

XV. As a Religious System — 

Its Doctrine as to God— Men May Become Gods. 119 

XVI. As a Religious System— 

Its Doctrines as to Christ and the Holy Spirit — 
Christ a Polygamist— The Holy Spirit a Sub- 
stance 128 

XVII. As a Religious System— 

The Fall— A Fall Upward— The Atonement- 
Saved by Obedience 133 

XVIII. As a Religious System— 

Faith — Repentance — Baptism — Laying on of 
Hands— The Priesthood 142 

XIX. As a Religious System— 

Apostles— Prophets, etc.— Smith's Prophecies.. 151 

XX. As a Religious System — 

Gifts of Tongues— Visions— Healing, etc 156 

XXI. As a Religious System — 

Its Belief as to the Bible— Book of Mormon — 
Testimonials as to Origin 160 



XXII. As a Religious System— 

The Book of Mormon— Outline of Book— "Re- 
formed Egyptian" — Evidences of Fraudulent 
Character 170 

XXIII. As a Religious System — 

The Book of Mormon — Improbable Stories — 
Bad English — "Clumsiest Hoax Ever Invented" 182 

XXIV. As a Religious System — 

The Doctrine and Covenants and Pearl of Great 
Price— "Book of Abraham" 188 

XXV. As a Religious System— 

New Revelations — Danite Band — Blood Atone- 
ment — Arguments for it 196 

XXVI. As a Religious System — 

Blood Atonement — Instances of it — "Obedient 
to Law" 210 

XXVII. As a Social System — 

Polygamy — Arrests 217 

XXVIII. As a Social System — 

Polygamy — What the Mormons say about it — 
New Cases 222 

XXIX. As a Social System — 

Reasons for Belief in Polygamy 231 

XXX. As a Social System — 

Interview with Editor Charles W. Penrose 236 

XXXI. As a Social System— 

Comments on Interview with Editor Charles W. 
Penrose 245 

XXXII. As a Social System — 

Immoral Results of Polygamy — Forced Mar- 
riages — Remarks of Apostle John W. Taylor — 
B. Y. T. Co. — Z. C. M. I. — Dancing — Swearing 
— Stealing— Lying 250 

XXXIII. As a Social System — 

Testimony of Others— Mr. Scott Anderson — 
Mr. A. T. Schroeder ! 259 



XXXIV. As a Social System— 

Testimony of Others— Dr. Wyl— Statistics- 
Christiansen — Summing Up 265 

XXXV. A Menace- 

To the Home— To the Christian Religion— To 
Our Political Institutions 275 

Appendix — 

A. Observations and Experiences in Salt Lake City. . 285 

B. The Relation of Sidney Rigdon to the Book of 

Mormon 307 

C. The Temple Service 318 

D. Some Experiences of a Mormon Woman 336 

E. Mountain Meadows Massacre— Complete Confes- 

sion of Major John D. Lee 342 

F. Mormon Morals— A Recent Experience 362 


Portrait of Brigham Young . . . Frontispiece 

The Angel Maroni n 

Portrait of Joseph Smith 27 

Assembly Hall 43 

Amelia Palace 55 

The Grave of Brigham Young . . . 75 

Portrait of Lorenzo Snow .... 89 

Man's Endowment Cap 103 

Revealed Fig Leaf Apron 103 

Reformed Egyptian, in which Joseph Smith 

Claimed the Golden Plates were Written 119 

Portrait of Lucy Smith 133 

Woman's Cap and Slipper 133 

First Presidency and Twelve Apostles . . 147 

Mormon Temples 157 

Lion and Bee Hive, with Office of President 

Between 167 

Portrait of Wilford Woodruff . . . .181 

Abraham and Pharaoh 195 

The Resurrection of Osiris 215 

Portrait of John Taylor 225 

Adam's Endowment Garment 247 

Brigham Young Statue 263 

Tabernacle 279 

Interior of Tabernacle 295 

Temple Block 311 

Statue of Brigham Young, with Mormon Temple 

in Background 323 

Eagle Gate 343 

Portrait, Ann Eliza Webb 357 

Tithing Office 363 


By Geo. A. Lofton, D. D. 

The freedom of the 19th century has been prolific of 
religious fads, fancies and monstrosities. The preced- 
ing centuries of superstition and despotism which domi- 
nated the human conscience and enforced conformity to 
human creeds were productive, on the one hand, of a 
dead formalism, and on the other of the miseries of 
persecution — all in the name of orthodoxy. Millions 
went to the dungeon and the stake for the testimony of 
Jesus Christ; but the horrors of religious sterility and 
tyranny were largely compensated by martyr zeal and 
spirituality constantly kindled by suppression. The reign 
of light and liberty which dawned in the Reformation 
of the 1 6th Century opened the world to the truth which 
might have a fair field upon which to combat error; 
and the great floodgate of evangelical Christianity has 
been lifted and the tide of salvation turned upon the 
nations of the earth. With this great boon and blessing, 
however, came a flood of evils, only not so bad as the 
former because bereft of the power to enforce their 
authority. Other forms of false religion have multi- 
plied and been propagated by the very liberty won for 
conscience at the hands of evangelical Christianity. 
Satan, who once forged physical chains for the bodies of 
men, knows how to break the golden bands of enlight- 
ened freedom and turn loose the demons of licentious 
anarchy ; and there never was a period in which religious 
and political freedom was so prostituted, or so greatly 
in danger of usurpation, by false ideals of Christianity, 



as the present. The demons of Spiritism, Theosophy, 
Christian Science, Adventism, Faith Cure, Holiness, So- 
cialism and the like are everywhere posing in the name 
of Christ and Christianity ; and there is nothing so false 
or so bad under the pretension of religion that it does 
not have a deluded following. 

One form of these latter day developments, the worst 
of all, is Mormonism which, like a great Python, trails 
its slimy length over the vast regions of this and other 
countries. The title of the present volume has been 
rightly called : "The Mormon Monster." The religious 
system of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young is not only 
a stupendous humbug which ought to be patent to the 
most stupid, but it is a moral and spiritual enormity — a 
vicious departure from the true type of the Christian re- 
ligion — an abnormal development and horrible deform- 
ity — which, though disguised in the very terms and titles 
of the gospel, ought to be abhorrent to the most wicked. 
It is ostentatiously paraded as the "Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints," established under a fraud-' 
ulent revelation; and in the habiliments of pompous titles' 
and pretentious sanctity it incarnates every unclean beast 
of lust, guile, falsehood, murder, despotism and spiritual 
wickedness in high places. It is polytheistic in theology, 
polygamistic in life and polypragmatic in zeal and activity ; 
and tolerated or encouraged it engulfs religion, society 
and government in the deepest debauchery, superstition 
and despotism known to Paganism, Mohammedanism or 
Mediaeval Papacy. Its chief cornerstone is polygamy. 
It reveals God as the very impersonation of anthropo- 
morphic licentiousness. Its Christ is the redeemer of 
those only who are sealed in polygamous matrimony — 
himself being a polygamist; and its Paradise is only a 


celestial harem for God and for men and women ran- 
somed from the doom of anti-polygamous infidelity — 
essentially nothing more. 

To be sure Mormonism preaches in the terms of gospel 
faith, repentance, baptism, obedience and righteousness 
—under the claims of regeneration, justification and holi- 
ness— in the names of Father, Son and Holy Spirit, just 
as we do; but these terms, claims and names mean noth- 
ing in the light of Biblical interpretation. The Bible is 
wholly neutralized and misapplied by supplementary rev- 
elations and teachings. Before the deceived masses the 
Mormon appears fairly evangelical. They know nothing 
of his theological definitions, nor of his underlying dogma 
of polygamy, and it is only from .the original sources of 
this hideous system that the secrets of Mormonism can be 
learned and its designs exposed— as fully exhibited in the 
present volume. The ecclesiastical orthography and 
orthoepy of Mormonism in certain respects and for 
public effect are not so bad. It spells and pronounces some 
words correctly and often uses the same words 
that we do; but the theological and spiritual meaning of 
its terms is the language of Ashdod and not of Canaan. 
At its very best it is an external and superficial ritualism 
based upon a discursive belief and a dead repentance 
which depend for salvation upon baptismal remission; 
and internally it is theologically rotten and spiritually 
sterile under a false conception of God and of human 
depravity, the chief phase of which depravity in others, 
according to the Mormon creed, is anti-polygamous infi- 
delity. Corresponding with its theological and spiritual 
turpitude its organism is a politico-ecclesiasticism headed 
by an anti-Christian priesthood, bound by a blood atone- 
ment and a Danite covenant which are in league with 


hell against all personal liberty and civil government out- 
side of itself and grounded in the polygamous degrada- 
tion of the human race. If ever the government of the 
United States had a perilous problem on hand it is that 
of Mormonism; and its only remedy is to cut the Gor- 
dian knot, by prohibition of polygamy. 

It is needless to say that such a work as this volume 
is in great demand at such a time as this. The hour 
has come for the rescue of manhood and womanhood 
from its deepest degradation under the sanctions of the 
most immoral religion ever yet conceived by the devil. 
Now or never is the time to strike the "Monster" a most 
deadly blow. Mormonism was never more active and 
aggressive. In all the States of this Union and in many 
of the countries of Europe its missionaries are numbered 
by hundreds and thousands ; and if the statistical reports 
of Mormonism can be trusted, its growth in 1899 com- 
paratively outstrips that of any other reilgious body. 
More than 60,000 were added to its ranks in the last 
year; and in spite of all kinds of opposition, in almost 
every outraged community, its missionaries continue their 
depredations upon our families. Though turned from 
many a door, or prohibited from preaching in our public 
buildings, they scatter their misleading literature and 
gain audience to individuals, or seize upon street-corner 
opportunities to spread their heresy. Like all new and 
false religions Mormonism is full of zeal, debate and 
proselytism; and its propagandists not infrequently gain 
advantage by the cry of "persecution." The great moral 
octopus which clutches Utah and surrounding territories 
is reaching out its suckered arms to every State in the 
Union ; and nothing can so effectively cut of! those arms 
as full and elaborate information up to date and circulated 


among the masses. The present volume in popular form 
meets this demand of a perilous hour. It is a great con- 
tribution to the cause of truth and righteousness and so 
presented as to attract universal investigation. 

The author of this volume is the distinguished editor 
of The Baptist and Reflector, of Nashville, Tenn. He is 
a man of scholarly attainments, of judicial ability and 
of lofty purpose; a gospel preacher and writer of rare 
capacity and experience; and he has for years devoted 
himself to the study of the great religious and social 
problems which affect the destiny of our country and 
Christianity. Upon the subject of Mormonism he is an 
especial authority, having devoted much study and labor 
to the question, not only by reading and observation at 
home, but by personal contact with the vital center of 
Mormon life and activity. With a view to the present 
volume Dr. Folk spent sometime in Utah and the West ; 
and with his well-known conservatism as a judicial in- 
vestigator, the public can safely trust his utterances upon 
this subject. Having a long personal acquaintance with 
the author and having read the published articles which 
constitute the body of this work, the writer takes great 
pleasure in thus contributing to the introduction and cir- 
culation of a volume which ought to be in the hand of 
every Christian and American who loves religious and 
political liberty and who represents the manhood or the 
womanhood of this generation. As a critical and histor- 
ical production it is a high compliment to the author's 
ability; and all who write on the subject for the future, 
pro or con, will have to reckon with this book. It is a 
valuable contribution to the literature of the day ; and may 
God's richest blessing be upon the author and his work. 
Nashville, Tenn., July 26, 1900, 



The Mormon Monster. 


There are several plague spots upon our national body 
politic. One of these is the saloon, which is the upas 
tree of our civilization, the greatest curse which could 
befall a people. 

But one of the most terrible of the plague spots is 
what is known as Mormonism. This is a travesty upon 
the name of religion, a stench in the nostrils of decency, 
a constantly running sore, an immense octopus reaching 
out its slimy tentacles and seeking to seize hold upon our 
religious, social and political institutions, an ugly and 
misshapen monster. This is not so bad as the saloon, 
only because it is not so widely extended. But where 
it exists its influence is even more baneful than that of 
the saloon, because touching more lives with its deadly 

For sometime Mormonism gave considerable trouble 
to the people of this country. Then it seemed to be 
brought under control, and it was hoped that the sore 
might be healed, or the system left to perish of its 
own rottenness. But recently there has been a revival 
of Mormonism. 

The election to Congress from Utah in 1898 of a Mor- 
monelder, Brigham H. Roberts, who was known to 



be living with at least three wives, suddenly brought the 
subject of Mormonism into national prominence again. 

Contemporary with the agitation as to whether he 
should be seated, and as if to manufacture public senti- 
ment and influence legislation in his favor, Mormon 
missionaries were sent everywhere. There are now 
about 2,000 of them laboring in different parts of the 
world. About 500 are laboring in the South, with head- 
quarters in Chattanooga, Tenn., where they have what 
they call their propaganda. They are very zealous. 

They are going two and two into every county in the 
South and into every home where they can gain admit- 
tance, and seeking at least to leave their literature. Two 
of them came to my home on June 30, 1899. They did 
not get farther than the door. They are coming to your 
home, if they have not already been there. They are 
sleek and slick, insidious and insinuating. 

Now who are these Mormons? Where do they come 
from ? What do they represent ? What is their belief ? 
Why are they here? How shall we treat them? These 
are questions which occur to every one to whose home 
they come or who anticipates their coming. A great 
many people, knowing little about them, are really a good 
deal troubled as to what they should do with these Mor- 
mons. In my capacity as editor of the Baptist and Reflec- 
tor I decided to write a few articles upon the subject 
of Mormonism to give our people information. 

By way of preparation I re-read several tracts on the 
subject. These whetted my appetite for more informa- 
tion and I got some books and read them. These in- 
creased my interest still more. I sent to Salt Lake City 
and got other books. The subject was growing on me. 
I then decided to go to Salt Lake City and see for myself 


this strange people and find out whether the things I had 
read about them were true and what kind of people they 
were, anyhow. I went last November. I spent nearly 
two weeks in Salt Lake City. This may not seem a very 
long time. But remember, I had been studying the subject 
from books for five months before going. My purpose as 
I said was especially to see from personal observation on 
the ground whether the things told in the books were 
really true and also to study the social conditions existing 
there. For this purpose two weeks was long enough time. 

With letters of introduction to a number of prominent 
citizens of Salt Lake City, I had exceptional opportunities 
for information as to Mormonism. I moved quietly 
among all classes of people — Mormons, ex-Mormons and 
non-Mormons. I sought information from every source 
possible. I made it a special point to talk with every 
Mormon I could, to learn from their own lips what they 
really believed. I talked with all grades, from President 
Snow down to a bootblack.* I went to their Tabernacle 
services, to their Sunday School, their ward meetings, 
their stores, their offices. 

For these reasons I think I have some information 
upon the subject of Mormonism and am somewhat pre- 
pared to answer the questions with reference to Mor- 
mons which were asked above. This I shall try to do 
fully, and I trust to the satisfaction of every one — except, 
perhaps, the Mormons. If any one should think that 
some things in the book are hardly suitable for publi- 
cation, I have only to say that I gave the facts as I 
found them. I thought it best to do so in order that 
the reader might be able to see Mormonism in all of its 
hideousness. If when I went down into the pool of 

*An account of my futile attempt to interview President Snow is ginev 
on ppge 236. 


Mormonism I brought up some mud, please remember 
that it was not my mud. I shall discuss the subject 
under the following general heads: 

I. The history of Mormonism. 

II. Mormonism as a religious system. 

III. Mormonism as a social system. 

IV. Mormonism as a political system. 
Meanwhile it will be of interest to give the Mormon 

articles of faith, as contained in the tracts which these 
Mormon missionaries are leaving at every house where 
they will be received: 


of the 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 

i. We believe in God the Eternal Father, and in His 
Son Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. 

2. We believe that men will be punished for their own 
sins, and not for Adam's transgression. 

3. We believe that through the atonement of Christ all 
mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordi- 
nances of the Gospel. 

4. We believe that the first principles and ordinances 
of the Gospel are : First, Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ ; 
second, Repentance; third, Baptism by immersion for 
the remission of sins; fourth, Laying on of hands for 
the Gift of the Holy Ghost. 

5. We believe that a man must be called of God, by 
"prophecy and by the laying on of hands," by those who 
are in authority, to preach the Gospel and administer in 
the ordinances thereof. 


6. We believe in the same organization that existed 
in the primitive church — namely: Apostles, Prophets, 
Pastors, Teachers, Evangelists, etc. 

7. We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, reve- 
lations, .visions, healing, interpretation of tongues, etc. 

8. We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as 
far as it is translated correctly ; we also believe the Book 
of Mormon to be the word of God. 

9. We believe all that God has revealed, all that He 
does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal 
many great and important things pertaining to the King- 
dom of God. 

10. We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and 
in the restoration of the Ten tribes; that Zion will be 
built upon this [the American] continent; that Christ 
will reign personally upon the earth, and that the earth 
will be renewed and receive its paradisaical glory. 

11. We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty 
God according to the dictates of our conscience, and 
allow all men the same privilege, let them worship how, 
where or what they may. 

12. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, 
rulers and magistrates; in obeying, honoring and sus- 
taining the law. 

13. We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benev- 
olent, virtuous, and in doing good to all men; indeed, 
we may say that we follow the admonition of Paul, 
"We believe all things, we hope all things," we have 
endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all 
things. If there is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good 
report, or praiseworthy, we seek after these things. 

Joseph Smith. 


These articles of faith look innocent enough on the 
surface. But as a matter of fact some of the principal 
articles do not mean what they appear to say, but quite 
the opposite. 

But I shall discuss them more fully later on. 



I cannot undertake to write a detailed history of Mor- 
monism. To do so would require a volume. I can only 
give a general outline of it as a foundation for a more 
intelligent discussion of the system. 

The history of Mormonism forms one of the strangest 
and most romantic chapters in our American history. 
Says Mr. George Hamilton Combs, in that excellent book 
recently published by the Fleming H. Revell Co., "Some 
Latter Day Religions": 

"For climacteric comicality Mormonism should be 
awarded the palm. Its romancing is refreshing in its 
very audaciousness. Jules Verne dreaming is here 
eclipsed. Baron Munchausen marvels seem common- 
place. Of absurdities Pelions are piled upon Ossas, but 
the pile rises ever higher. Untruth was never more 
picturesque. From first to last the history of this cult 
is dramatic and spectacular. One feels that he has 
stumbled upon a scene in the Arabian Nights, rather than 
upon a sober chapter of a real religion. 

"Yet Mormonism is to be reckoned with. It takes 
itself seriously. Upon most transparent frauds it would 
yet build an enduring temple. It has the evangelistic 
spirit. Its emissaries are spread over all the world. 
They win converts ; the religion grows. This ism is be- 
ing felt in the councils of the nation, is adding gravity 
to our political problems, concerns, and deeply, every 



defender of our political institutions, as well as the lovers 
of our Lord." 

In the early part of this century, before the days of 
railroads, telegraphs and telephones, the new frontier 
of our country lay between the' Allegheny Mountains and 
the Mississippi River, and stretched from Canada to the 

People rushed into this region then as they did into 
California in 1849, or mto tne Klondike recently. They 
were full of the spirit of adventure and ready to take up 
with any new thing. 

There were a few godly preachers among them, but 
the increasing demand for preaching gave rise to the 
camp meeting. Great excitement prevailed. Religious 
emotions expressed themselves in the strange phenome- 
non called the jerks. People would jerk back and forth, 
shout, dance, sing, laugh and cry in the most violent 
and uncontrollable manner. New and strange sects 
sprang into existence. Some died early ; others have re- 
mained until this day. 

Among these is Mormonism, which is a direct prod- 
uct of those times. Two young men were thrown to the 
surface during that period. One was 


He had been a Baptist preacher, but disappointed in 
leadership among the Baptists, he had' joined the Camp- 
bellites. But offending them by his "restless disposition 
and cunning methods," he became pastor of an independ- 
ent church in Pittsburg, Pa. While there he made the 
book-store of Patterson & Lamdin a place of frequent 

Among the manuscripts in the store was a novel writ- 
ten by Solomon Spaulding. Spaulding had been a Pres- 


byterian preacher. He was a sort of harmless ne'er-do- 
well. He had failed at everything, and to recover his for- 
tunes he concluded to try his hand at literature. His 
curiosity was excited by the Indian mounds in that 
country, which were attracting considerable attention. 
So he based his story on these mounds. He called it 
"The Manuscript Found." He claimed to have found 
a manuscript in one of the mounds which explained their 
existence and also the existence of the inhabitants of 
North and South America. He said that a party under 
the leadership of Jared came from the old world after 
the confusion of tongues at the tower of Babel and settled 
in South America. Many years after a party came from 
Jerusalem in the first year of the reign of Zedekiah, the 
last of the Kings of Judah, and settled in the Southern 
part of North America. Eleven years after another 
party wandered forth and settled in the Northern part 
of South America. They wrote out on plates their his- 
tory and buried it under one of these mounds, and he 
had got possession of it and so wrote their history. It 
was a very pretty story and would have made an inter- 
esting novel. Mr. Spaulding read it over to a number 
of persons, but he died without having the book pub- 

Mr. Rigdon became deeply interested in this novel, 
and according to abundant and indisputable testimony 
which I shall give later* he copied it and changed it by 
introducing many passages of Scripture so as to make 
it appear to be a revelation from God. He left Pitts- 
burg and went Westward, preaching that the latter days 
were at hand, and that God was about to reveal new truth 
to his chosen few. He organized a church near Mentor, 
Ohio, to which he preached. So much for Mr. Rigdon at 


* See Appendix B, Page 307. 


The other young man thrown to the surface was 


He was born in Sharon, Vermont, Dec. 23, 1805. His 
family was poor and shiftless. His father was a kind of 
vagabond, selling blessings at $3.00 each. His mother 
was a fortune teller. One who knew her well describes 
her as follows: ''She looked very vulgar. She was full 
of low cunning; no trick was too mean for her to make 
a little money. You could not believe a word of what 
she said. * * * Everybody's opinion of her was that 
she was a thorough liar." Both parents were ignorant 
and superstitious. It is said that "lying was as natural 
to them as drinking water." 

They became followers of a Mr. Wingate, who claimed 
to be able, by the use of an instrument called "St. John's 
Rod," to discover gold, silver, currents of water under 
ground and medicinal roots and herbs, and to cure all 
kinds of diseases. His disciples talked much about the 
"Lost Ten Tribes of Israel," and promised a gathering 
of the people of God and a "Latter Day Glory," far ex- 
ceeding the glory of former days. 

The whole movement proved to be a swindle. The 
leader was arrested and the movement failed. The birth 
of Joseph Smith occurred when this movement was at 
its height, and while his mother was a member of it. 

Ten years later his parents moved to Palmyra, N. Y., 
and four years afterward to Manchester, in the same 
county. He grew up in a home without refinement. His 
parents were illiterate, and intemperate. In addition 
to health and strength he had an active mind and a vivid 
imagination. Being without school advantages, he fol- 
lowed his own crude ideas. He was fascinated with the 
adventures of Captain Kidd, and with some young friends 


he would hunt at night for buried money in the fields 
about his father's house. He is said to have had a reli- 
gious turn of mind, and during a revival he was exercised 
very deeply on the subject. His imagination, his super- 
stitions and his religious excitement combined to create 
wonderful visions in his untutored mind. 

At the age of about fifteen he began, as he claimed, to 
see visions and dream dreams. These experiences con- 
tinued through seven years, four of which he spent away 
from home, seeking employment in Pennsylvania and else- 
where. His visions attracted attention. The newspapers 
began to talk about him. 

Sidney Rigdon read what they said. It seemed to him 
that here was a fine opportunity to get Spaulding's Manu- 
script, as emended by himself, published in such a way 
as to secure a hearing and be successful. Spaulding 
claimed that his manuscript was found in a mound. 
Smith was a mound-digger and a seer of visions. He 
would get him to have a vision about finding a manuscript 
in a mound and would then publish it. 

So Rigdon visited Smith, induced him to marry a 
lady who was under Rigdon's influence— he had to run 
away with her— and soon after proposed his scheme, to 
which the romantic Smith readily agreed. The marriage 
took place Jan. 18, 1827. On Sept. 22d, of that year, 
Smith professed to have made his great discovery. He 
said that he was told in dreams and visions that he was 
chosen of the Lord to be a great prophet to restore the 
gospel which had been taken from the world many cen- 
turies ago ; that an angel came to his room at midnight, 
awoke him and read to him five chapters of the Bible 
and afterwards took him to a hill which he called Cumo- 
rah. This is four miles from Palmyra, N. Y., and is 


now the property of Admiral Sampson. He said the 
angel had told him about these plates four years before, 
but had forbidden him to unearth them until now, which 
he proceeded to do by the help of the angel, they being 
covered by a stone of considerable size. 

He described the plates as being deposited in a stone 
box, formed by laying stones together in some kind of 
cement. They were bound by rings in the form of a 
book, four inches wide, eight inches long and six inches 
thick. Accompanying these were the Urim and Thum- 
mim, the two stones by which he was enabled to inter- 
pret them. During the winter of 1827-28 Smith copied a 
number of the engravings by the aid of an amanuensis, 
Martin Harris. He concealed himself behind a curtain, 
which was a bed-blanket, and there read by means of 
the Urim and Thummdm, what he claimed was a trans- 
lation of the engravings on the plates, and Harris wrote 
down what he read. Afterwards Oliver Cowdery per- 
formed this service. The work thus produced was pub- 
lished as "The Book of Mormon," which is the sacred 
book, the Bible (or at least one of them) of the Mor- 
mons. A copy of it lies before me as I write. I shall 
have a good deal more to say about it later. 

The word Mormon is a Greek word and means a spec- 
tre, a hobgobblin, "a hideous she monster." (Liddell & 
Scott.) Certainly the name is very appropriate to Mor- 
monism. One of the angels who is represented as ap- 
pearing to Smith was named Mormon, and the book was 
to have begun with his revelation. But Mrs. Harris, 
wife of the scribe, seeing her husband devoting so much 
of his time and money to Mr. Smith, determined to have 
some compensation, and so she stole, says Mr. Smith, 
the part of the manuscript containing the revelation of 


Mormon and burned it up. And so he had to leave it 
out, as it would have been too much trouble to trans- 
late it again. The book, therefore, begins with the reve- 
lation of another angel, Nephi, and does not contain 
the revelation of Mormon at all. 

Ah, these women! What trouble they do cause in 
the world! Witness Eve and Pandora and Helen — and 
Mrs. Harris. Just think what a loss she caused to the 
world, one which can never be replaced! 

As to the plates themselves, eleven witnesses testified 
to having seen them — Oliver Cowdery, Martin Harris, 
David Whitmer, whose testimony is prefixed to the Book 
of Mormon, the father and two brothers of Joseph 
Smith, four of the Whitmer family and one Page. They 
affirmed that they had seen the original plates, "hefted" 
them, and that they had "the appearance of gold and 
were of ancient work and curious workmanship." Mr. 
Stenhouse, author of "The Rocky Mountain Saints," who 
was himself a Mormon for over a quarter of a century, 
says that he "entered into correspondence with one of 
the Whitmers to elicit from him information concerning 
his mental condition during the time that he affirms he 
saw the plates. Whitmer was asked if he was in his 
usual condition of consciousness, and was sensible to sur- 
rounding objects when he beheld the plates. But he re- 
fused to answer the inquiry. Harris is reported to have 
said that he witnessed them by 'the eye of faith/ " 
What became of the plates no one knows. Smith said 
an angel carried them back to heaven when he got through 
with them. 

During the translation of the plates, while Smith was 
dictating to Cowdery, they came to a portion of the nar- 
rative which asserted that baptism by immersion for the 


remission of sins had been taught and commanded to 
the ancient inhabitants of America. Smith proposed that 
they should "inquire of the Lord their duty in regard 
to the matter." "The Lord/' instructed them through 
a messenger, who claimed to be John the Baptist, and 
they went into the water together and Smith immersed 
Cowdery and Cowdery immersed Smith. Smith laid 
his hands on Cowdery's head and ordained him to the 
Aaronic priesthood, and Cowdery laid his hands on Smith's 
head and ordained him to the same priesthood. This 
was the beginning. It was some time in 1829. On April 
6, 1830, the "Church of Christ" was organized in the 
house of Peter Whitmer in Fayette, Seneca County, N. 
Y., with six members, as follows: Joseph Smith, Jr., 
Oliver Cowdery, Hyrum Smith, Peter Whitmer, Jr., 
Samuel H. Smith and David Whitmer. The Smiths were 
brothers and so were the Whitmers. 

Now, put together the above facts — the religious ex- 
citement, the romance of Solomon Spaulding, its emenda- 
tion by Sidney Rigdon, a former Campbellite preacher, 
its similarity to the gold plates discovered ( ?) by Jos- 
eph Smith and translated behind a curtain, the organi- 
zation of a church based on this Bible ( ?) — and you 
have the beginnings of Mormonism in a nutshell. It is 
certainly a most curious record for the beginning of a 
church (?), 




For a time conversions to the new faith were slow. 
Among the first converts was Parley P. Pratt. Soon 
afterward he visited Sidney Rigdon at Mentor, and of 
course succeeded in converting him without much trouble. 
He then attempted to convert his church and was largely 
successful. In December, 1830, Rigdon paid a visit to 
Joseph Smith and remained for some time. 

Orson Pratt was another early convert. These three 
—the two Pratts and Rigdon— were men of ability. They 
endeavored to justify Mormonism on Biblical grounds, 
basing it on literalistic interpretations of some passages 
of Scripture. 

During the visit of Rigdon to Smith "the Lord" com- 
manded the Saints in New York to gather in Ohio, which 
they proceeded to do, settling at Kirtland in the North- 
ern part of the State. But Smith had before him vis- 
ions of the "New Jerusalem" to be built in the last days. 
In February, 1831, his followers were commanded to ask 
the Lord, and he "would in due time reveal unto them 
the place where the New Jerusalem should be built, and 
where the saints should eventually be gathered in one." 

About the middle of July, of that year, Smith and sev- 
eral of the elders met at Independence, Mo., when the 
following "revelation" was received : 

"Hearken, O ye elders of my Church, saith the Lord 
your God, who have assembled yourselves together ac- 



cording to my commandments in this land, which is the 
land of Missouri, which is the land which I have appointed 
and consecrated for the gathering of the Saints; where- 
fore this is the land of promise and the place for the city 
of Zion, And thus saith the Lord your God, if you will 
receive wisdom, here is wisdom. Behold the place which 
is now called Independence is the centre place, and a spot 
for the Temple is lying westward upon a lot which is not 
far from the courthouse." 

This revelation is dated Zion, 183 1. In another reve- 
lation dated Sept. 22, 1832, it is stated that the place 
was appointed by "the finger of the Lord." On August 
2d the foundation of the first house was laid at Far West, 
Mo., twelve miles west of Independence, twelve men 
taking part, in honor of the twelve tribes of Israel. 

Soon afterward Smith and Rigdon returned to Kirt- 
land. On arrival there, Smith found that things had not 
been going well. There was a disposition to free love- 
ism, which was noticed during all of Smith's lifetime. 
"The new spirit," says Mr. Stenhouse, "was very affec- 
tionate, and needed to be strictly guarded." Evidently so. 

Some of the new converts were charged with being 
"adulterers and adulteresses." They were said to have 
"turned away," and the others were warned to "Beware 
and repent speedily" — a difficult thing to do with the 
example set them. In a revelation (?) about this time, 
Smith declared, "With whom God is angry he is not well 
pleased" — a very plain proposition. 

In March, 1832, Smith and Rigdon were tarred and 
feathered by a mob, and Smith was nearly killed, but 
escaped with his life. In April, 1833, Brigham Young, 
a painter and glazier, who was destined to play so im- 
portant a part in the history of Mormonism, was bap- 



tized, and in November of that year he and Smith first 


On July 23d the first stone was laid for the Temple to 
be built in Kirtland. Meanwhile the boastful spirit of 
the Mormons, together with their political ambition, led 
to friction between them and the people of Missouri. 

On July 20th, a mob tore down the office of the Star, 
the Mormon paper at Independence, tarred, feathered and 
whipped a number of the Mormons and ordered them to 
leave the county. 

On Nov. 4th a battle between the Missourians and 
Mormons took place, which resulted in victory to the 
former, and led to many of the Mormons being driven 
out of Jackson County. 

Joseph Smith, still occupied with building the Temple 
in Kirtland, had himself elected "Commander-in-Chief of 
the Armies of Israel," and had a revelation from "the 
Lord," commanding him to destroy the enemies of "the 


A company consisting of 130 men, including some 
prominent Mormon elders, was organized at Kirtland, 
called "Zion's Camp." This company marched to Mis- 
souri, intending to restore the banished Mormons to 
Jackson County. But the cholera broke out among them. 
Smith got another revelation from "the Lord," telling 
him that thes£ Mormons did not deserve to be restored 
until they had been chastised and had learned obedience, 
and that the disappointment to the warriors who had 
come all the way from Ohio by direction of a revelation 
from "the Lord" to fight their enemies,- was simply "a 
trial of their faith," and they were instructed to dis- 
perse and either to go among the settlements of the Mor- 
mons or to return to their homes in Ohio. 


Meanwhile, Smith was making considerable preten- 
sions in Kirtland. He chose twelve apostles, appointed 
seventy elders, and sent them out to convert the world. 
The temple, which was erected at a cost of about $40,000, 
was dedicated March 27, 1836. Preceding the ceremony 
of dedication the "Saints" had quite a lively time. Smith 
said that "visions of eternity" were opened to the elders ; 
angels ministered ; "the power of the highest rested upon 
them" ; and "the house was filled with the glory of God." 

One writer accused them of being merry from another 
"spirit" than that which they claimed from above. 

At the dedication 1,000 "Saints" assembled. Smith 
offered a dedicatory prayer. Brigham Young led off with 
speaking in tongues, and the services of the day closed 
with continued shouting of "Hosannas" and "Amens." 

Everything seemed to be i-.oving along finely. But 
elated by success Smith began to put on airs. He be- 
came proud, despotic. It was a system of theocracy he 
had established, in which he was the prophet and mouth- 
piece of "the Lord." It was for him to speak; it was 
for his followers to obey. Many of them grew weary 
of such despotism, and the first great apostasy took place. 

In order to provide sufficient revenues for his grow- 
ing needs, Smith established in Kirtland a Safety Society 
Bank, of which he was cashier and Rigdon president. A 
Pittsburg banker said : 

"The names of Joseph Smith as cashier and Sidney 
Rigdon as president were signed to the beautifully en- 
graved bank-notes. As these men professed to be the 
prophets of the Lord, having daily communion with an- 
gels, with Christ and even with God himself, no one sup- 
posed that they would lend themselves to a fraudulent 
issue of bank paper. Those who saw the notes to which 


their names were attached supposed the bank to be 
simply a savings institution in which the Saints could 
deposit their earnings, while they would be invested so 
as to pay interest, and that the notes represented actual 
money in bank, or the paper of good men." 

But this was not the case. One who had opportunity 
of knowing testifies also that "In the bank they kept eight 
or nine window glass boxes, which seemed to be full 
of silver; but the initiated knew very well that they were 
full of sand, only the top being covered with 50-cent 
pieces" The cold, hard-hearted, unsympathetic bankers 
of Pittsburg demanded that the paper of the bank should 
be redeemed, either in cash or in convertible paper of 
other banks. They sent an agent to Kirtland to arrange 
matters. He was coolly informed that the paper had 
been put out as a "circulating medium" for the accom- 
modation of the people, that it would be an injury for 
the paper to come home and be redeemed, that it could 
only benefit them by remaining out and that the bank 
redeemed nothing. The Pittsburg bankers then refused 
to take the paper. It was forced back on the Safety So- 
ciety Bank. And finally the bank failed utterly, and to 
escape an angry mob the president and cashier of the 
bank were compelled to leave hurriedly for Missouri 
"between two days," being pursued by their "enemies" 
for about 200 miles, and making some narrow escapes. 
This experience Smith called "persecution." He never 
returned to Kirtland, although he had previously an- 
nounced that "the Lord" had accepted the Saints there 
and had established his name in Kirtland for the salva- 
tion of nations. 



Smith and Rigdon reached Far West, Mo., March 12, 
1838. Many of the "Saints" from Kirtland soon fol- 
lowed. A new gathering place was established about 
twenty miles from Far West at a place called Spring 
Hill, to which Smith gave the name of Adam-Ondi-Ah- 
man, "'the valley of God in which Adam blessed his 
children." This was said to be the "centre of the earth," 
the identical place where Adam and Eve betook them- 
selves after their expulsion from the garden of Eden. 

The Saints were now commanded to gather here in 
these last days, But "the Lord" who revealed the com- 
mand to Smith did not seem to communicate the intel- 
ligence of his wishes in the matter to the people of Mis- 
souri. They were sturdy, hard-working pioneers. They 
had had enough experience already with these Mormons 
who called themselves "Saints" and claimed to have the 
direction of "the Lord" in everything they did, so that 
they were arrogant and overbearing, and it was impos- 
sible for any one else to get along with them. 

In a Fourth of July oration Sidney Rigdon delivered 
a Mormon declaration of independence, informing the 
Missourians that they must cease their oppressions and 
persecutions of the "Saints of the Most High God." 

In the speech Rigdon said : "And the mob that comes 
on usj to disturb us, it shall be between us and them a 
war of extermination, for we will follow them till the 



last drop of our blood is spilled, or else they will have 
to exterminate us; for we will carry the seat of war to 
their own houses and to their own families, and one part 
or the other shall be utterly destroyed. Remember it 
then, all men." 

And again : "Neither will we indulge any man or set 
of men in instituting vexatious law suits against us to 
cheat us out of our just rights; ; if they attempt it, we 
say woe be unto them. We this day, then, proclaim our- 
selves free, with a purpose and a determination that can 
never be broken ; no, never ! no, never ! ! no, never ! ! !" 

Naturally such language set the Missourians on fire. 
They resolved on action. An election furnished the oc- 
casion for the beginning of hostilities. There were rows, 
mobs, fights, etc. 

During the second session of the 26th Congress, a 
document of nearly fifty pages was published by order 
of the Senate giving the testimony taken before the judge 
of the fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Missouri, on 
the trial of Joseph Smith, Jr., and others for high trea- 
son and crimes against that State. This document as- 
serts that the Mormon leaders were guilty of the grossest 
outrages upon the Gentiles. Burning their houses and 
stealing from them were common occurrences ; threaten- 
ings of death to apostates, or those who would not take 
part in the general fight against the Missourians, were 
the teachings of the pulpit orators. 

Mr. Stenhouse says: 

"With such an array of circumstantial evidence, con- 
firmed by a variety of persons — Mormons and anti-Mor- 
mons — it is difficult not to believe that the few leading 
men around Joseph Smith, particularly Lyman Wight 
and Sidney Rigdon, were not thorough fanatics and 


guilty of gross crimes; and if Joseph was less culpable 
it was due to his greater realization of responsibility and 
better judgment." 

In an affidavit made at this time, Thomas B. Marsh, 
the first President of the twelve apostles, says : 


"They have among them a company, considered true 
Mormons, called the Danites, who have taken an oath 
to support the heads of the Church in all things that they 
say or do, whether right or wrong. Many, however, of 
this band are much dissatisfied with this oath, as being 
against moral and religious principles. On Saturday last, 
I am informed by the Mormons, that they had a meeting 
at Far West at which they appointed a company of twelve, 
by the name of the Destruction Company, for the pur- 
pose of burning and destroying, and that if the people of 
Buncombe came to do mischief upon the people of Cald- 
well, and committed depredations upon the Mormons, 
they were to burn Buncombe ; and if the people of Clay 
and Ray made any movement against them, this com- 
pany were to burn Liberty and Richmond. 

"The plan of said Smith, the Prophet, is to take this 
State; and he professes to his people to intend taking 
the United States, and ultimately the whole world. This 
is the belief of the Church, and my own opinion of the 
Prophet's plans and intentions. The Prophet inculcates 
the notion, and it is believed by every true Mormon that 
Smith's prophecies are superior to the laws of the land. 
I have heard the Prophet say that he would yet tread 
down his enemies and walk over their dead bodies ; that 
if he was not let alone he would be a second Mohammed 
to this generation, and that he would make it one gorge 


of blood from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic 
Ocean; that like Mohammed, whose motto in treating 
for peace was 'the Alcoran or the Sword,' so should it 
be eventually with us, 'Joseph Smith or the Sword.' 
These last statements were made during the last sum- 
mer. The number of armed men at Adam-Ondi-Ahman 
was between three and four hundred. 

Thomas B. Marsh. 

To this was added the affidavit of Orson Hyde, as 
follows : 

"The most of the statements in the foregoing dis- 
closures I know to be true; the remainder I believe to 
be true." 

To these affidavits is appended a "certificate" of seven 
persons, a "committee on the part of the citizens of Ray 
county," who assure the world that Marsh was Presi- 
dent of the Twelve Apostles, that Hyde was one of the 
Twelve, that they had left the Church, "and abandoned 
the faith of the Mormons from a conviction of their 
immorality and impiety." 

Of this famous, or rather infamous, Danite band, 
which was organized at this time, Mr. Stenhouse, him- 
self for twenty-five years a prominent Mormon, says: 

"The intelligent Mormon knows today that though 
there may be no bona fide organization called the Dan- 
ites, there have been in church fellowship, from the days 
of Avard up to the present, men who have done the deeds 
charged to the Danites, ready to execute the dirtiest and 
most diabolical plans that ever human or demoniac vin- 
dictiveness could conceive." 

The significance of the word Danite is found in Gen. 
xlix, 17: "Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder 
in the path, that biteth the horse's heels, so that his rider 
shall fall backward." 


The friction between the Missourians and Mormons 
continued and grew in intensity, and finally resulted, by 
the aid of the State troops, in the triumph of the Mis- 
sourians, and the capture and imprisonment of the Mor- 
mon leaders. In a speech to the Mormons just before 
they were sent to jail, Gen. Clark said : 

"You have always been the aggressors, you have 
brought upon yourselves these difficulties by being dis- 
affected and not being subject to rule. And my advice 
is that you become as other citizens, lest by a recurrence 
of these events you bring upon yourselves irretrievable 

Gen. Clark also said in a dispatch to Boggs, dated 
Nov. io, 1838. 

"There is no crime, from treason down to petit larceny, 
but these people, or a majority of them, have been guilty 
of — all, too, under the counsel of Joseph Smith, Jr., the 
Prophet. They have committed treason, murder, arson, 
burglary, robbery, larceny, and perjury. They have so- 
cieties formed under the most binding covenants in form 
and the most horrid oaths to circumvent the laws and 
put them at defiance ; and to plunder and burn and mur- 
der, and divide the spoils for the use of the Church." 

After confinement in jail for several months, Smith 
and his fellow Mormons, in April, 1839, were indicted 
on charges of treason, murder, larceny, theft and steal- 
ing. They asked for a change of venue, which was 
granted. While they were being conveyed from one coun- 
ty to another, the sheriff who had them in charge, to get 
rid of them, gave them permission to escape, of which 
courtesy they very readily availed themselves, and they 
unceremoniously fled from the "land of promise" and 
never returned. 



The new gathering place of the "Saints" was on the 
east bank of the Mississippi in Illinois, forty miles above 
Quincy and twenty miles below Burlington, Iowa. Here 
a town was located, called Nauvoo, "the beautiful." By 
revelation the scattered "Saints" from Missouri and 
from all parts of the earth were commanded to gather 
to this new Zion. 

Under the direction of Smith they now began to enter 
actively into politics. By concentrating their votes they 
wielded a potent influence upon elections. Both politi- 
cal parties, Whigs and Democrats, sought their influ- 
ence. They contributed largely to the success of the 
Whig ticket in 1840. 

The Legislature of Illinois during its session of 1840-41, 
readily granted to the agents of Joseph Smith their re- 
quest for a charter for the City of Nauvoo, and the incor- 
poration of the militia into a body called the "Nauvoo 

One section of the city charter read : "All power is 
granted to the City Council to make, ordain, establish, 
and execute all ordinances not repugnant to the Consti- 
tution of the State or of the United States, or, as they 
may deem necessary for the peace and safety of said city." 

This was all that Smith wanted. It was now for him 
to decide what was "necessary" for the peace and safety 



of the city. The City Council passed an ordinance that 
no citizen could be taken from Nauvoo by any process 
of law whatever without the endorsement of the mayor 
as to its legality. 

Commenting on this law Governor Ford, in his his- 
tory of Illinois, said: 

"Thus it was proposed to re-establish for the Mor- 
mons a government within a government, a legislature 
with power to pass ordinances at war with the laws of 
the State ; courts to execute them, with but little depend- 
ence upon the constitutional judiciary, and a military force 
at their own command, to be governed by its own laws 
and ordinances, and subject to no State authority but 
that of the Governor." Gov. Ford signed the charter, 
but before long he saw his own warrant for the arrest 
of Smith set aside. In a communication dated Sept. 
7, 1842, he says : 

"I must express my surprise at the extraordinary as- 
sumption of power by the board of aldermen, as con- 
tained in said ordinance; from my recollection of the 
charter, it authorizes the municipal court to issue writs 
of habeas corpus, in all cases of imprisonment or cus- 
tody, arising from the authority of the ordinances of said 
city, but that power was granted or intended to be grant- 
ed to release persons held in custody under the authority 
of writs issued by the courts or the executive of the State, 
is most absurd and ridiculous, and an attempt to exercise 
it is a gross usurpation of power that cannot be tolerated." 

On April 6, 1841, the corner stone of the new temple 
was laid in Nauvoo with elaborate ceremonies in which 
the military authorities blended with the ecclesiastical, 
''Lieutenant-General Smith," of the Nauvoo Legion tak- 
ing precedence of Joseph Smith the Prophet. 


Smith was. now in the height of his glory. He thought 
himself secure from all outside interference. But there 
was trouble ahead. Governor Boggs, of Missouri, made 
a requisition upon Governor Carlin, of Illinois, to sur- 
render Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon and other leading 
Mormons as "fugitives from justice." A writ was issued 
for their arrest, but the sheriff "could not find them." 
The matter was dropped for a time. 

But the people of Illinois, becoming better acquainted 
with their new fellow-citizens, became as dissatisfied with 
their presence as the Missourians had been. Charges 
were preferred against Smith and other Mormon lead- 
ers. Other writs were issued against them. These were 
set aside by the courts. 

Governor Ford says : 

"No further demand for the arrest of Joe Smith hav- 
ing been made by Missouri, he became emboldened by 
success. The Mormons became more arrogant and over- 
bearing. In the winter of 1843-4 the common council 
passed some further ordinances to protect their leaders 
from arrest on demand from Missouri. They enacted 
that no writ issued from any other place than Nauvoo 
for the arrest of any person in it should be executed in 
the city, without an approval endorsed thereon by the 
mayor ; that if any public officer, by virtue of any foreign 
writ, should attempt to make an arrest in the city, without 
such approval of his process, he should be subject to 
imprisonment for life, and that the Governor of the State 
should not have the power of pardoning the offender with- 
out the consent of the mayor. When these ordinances 
were published they created general astonishment. Many 
people began to believe in good earnest that the Mormons 


were about to set up a separate government for them- 
selves in defiance of the laws of the State." 

In 1844 the name of Joseph Smith was put forward as a 
candidate for the presidency of the United States, against 
Polk and Clay, and hundreds of elders were sent over the 
States preaching Mormonism and electioneering for 
Smith. He was not elected, however; Polk was, you 
remember. Judge C. C. Goodwin says in Munsey's Maga- 
zine for June, 1900, that Dan Rice, of circus fame, told 
him "some years ago that he knew Joe Smith intimately at 
Nauvoo ; that one day Smith said to him : 'Dan, the people 
are growing restless. We must give them a miracle. The 
river is muddy; you build, on the quiet, a platform, and 
anchor it about a foot below the surface of the water. I 
will walk on the water.' 'Well/ Rice went on, 'I fixed the 
platform all right, only about twelve feet out from shore 
I left out a couple of planks. Smith walked the water all 
right until he came to where the planks were out ; then he 
went down and the miracle was smashed all to smither- 
eens/ " 

About this time he promulgated his "spiritual wife" 
doctrine, by which a Mormon may be "sealed" spiritually 
to the wife of another man, which sealing gives him mat- 
rimonial privileges in the next' world, and frequently in 
this world, also. This doctrine was evidently invented to 
cover up with some sort of excuse his various adulterous 
intentions and practices. 

A woman who, with two small children, made her 
escape from Nauvoo about this time, is quoted as saying : 

"Nauvoo is nearer like hell than any other place on 
earth can be. None who have any regard for virtue 
would stay there a day if they could get away with their 
lives. Doubtful members are closely watched by a band 


of organized police, called 'Danites.' I have known many 
to start, but soon a party of Danites would start in pur- 
suit. Generally the pursued were never again heard from. 
This fear of death keeps numbers of their followers from 

She continued : "All the leaders are more or less guilty 
of the most gross violations of the laws of decency, but 
Joe Smith is the most perfect monster of licentiousness 
that ever an all-wise God permitted to live. I have often 
wondered why he was permitted to live. Not content with 
the ordinary forms of indecency, he seems always invent- 
ing some new and more odious forms. I know he has 
ruined hundreds, yes, hundreds, of young girls, besides 
debauching scores of other men's wives, and I doubt if 
five hundred would cover the number of his illegitimate 

In enumerating Smith's achievements, Mr. Stenhouse 

"The poor farm laborer merges in the preacher, the 
preacher becomes a translator, a prophet, a seer, a reve- 
lator, a banker, an editor, a mayor, a lieutenant-general, a 
candidate for the presidency of the world's greatest repub- 
lic, and, last of all, though not the least difficult of his 
achievements, he becomes the husband of many wives." 

He also says : : 

"It is well known in Utah that two sisters, Mrs. B 

and Mrs. J , were 'sealed' wives to Joseph while they 

were still the wives of Mr. B and Mr. J — • — . To the 

latter a son was born, long after Mrs. J. had been 'sealed' 
to Joseph." 

He speaks of the "personal testimony" as being (( so 
abundant that Joseph Smith both taught and practiced 


polygamy, or, as a Mormon lady who knew him well once 
said, practiced something else." 

Dr. W. Wyl says: "It is now a well established his- 
torical fact that the origin of Mormon polygamy, or 'celes- 
tial marriage/ was nothing but the unbounded and un- 
governed passion of the prophet for the other sex." 

Mr. Webb, an old Mormon, who knew Smith for eleven 
years, told Dr. Wyl: "Joseph [Smith] and John D. Lee 
were the most libidinous men I ever knew." 

Mrs. Sarah M. Pratt, a Mormon woman who resisted 
Smith's advances — about the only one who ever did — and 
who was slandered and persecuted for doing so, said: 
"Joseph was the most licentious and Brigham Young the 
most bloodthirsty of men." Dr. Wyl once said to Mrs. 
Pratt: "I have seen a statement in a book that Joseph 
had eighty wives at the time of his death. Is that true ?" 

Mrs. Pratt smiled and said : "He had many more, my 
dear sir; at least he had seduced many more, and those 
with whom he had lived without their being sealed to him, 
were sealed to him after his death, to be among the num- 
ber of his 'queens' in the other world. All those women 
were divided among his friends after his tragic death, so 
that they might be 'proxy-husbands' to them on earth ; 
while in the celestial kingdom they would, with their off- 
spring, belong to Brother Josepji, the Christ of this dis- 

Again Mrs. Pratt said : "Everybody knew in Nauvoo 
that the Partridge girls lived with Joseph a long time be- 
fore he got his celebrated revelation about celestial mar- 
riage, dated July 12, 1843. The Partridge girls were very 
good natured. After Joseph's death one was sealed to 
Brigham and the other to Apostle Amasa Lyman. 
Joseph's taste was of very large dimensions ; he loved 


them old and young, pretty and homely. He sometimes 
seduced mothers to keep them quiet about his connection 
with their daughters. There was an old woman called 
Durfee. She knew a good deal about the prophet's amor- 
ous adventures and, to keep her quiet, he admitted her to 
the secret blessings of celestial bliss. I don't think that 
she was ever sealed to him, though it may have been the 
case after Joseph's death, when the temple was finished. 
At all events, she boasted here in Salt Lake of having been 
one of Joseph's wives. Heber C. Kimball and Brigham 
Young took the lion's share at the division of Joseph's 
wives after his death. Joseph had a number of lady 
friends, sealed or not sealed, who permitted him to use 
their houses as a kind of assignation houses for ren- 
dezvous with other women." 

Heber C. Kimball, Brigham Young's right-hand man, 
said : "I sat once with Joseph in his office in the Mansion 
House. He looked out of the window and saw weeding 
in a garden a young married woman whom we both knew. 
He told me to go to her and request her to come to him, 
and he would have her sealed to himself this very moment. 
I went and told the woman to come to Brother Joseph. 
She ran to the house to comb her hair and 'fix up' gen- 
erally, and then followed me to the prophet. I performed 
the sealing ceremony and retired." 



Here are some other testimonies gathered by Dr. Wyl, 
showing the condition of affairs in Nauvoo at this time : 

Mr. W. : 

"There were many small rooms, with beds, in the tem- 
ple in Nauvoo. They turned the house of the Lord into a 
house of prostitution. The wife of Amasa Lyman, apostle 
and apostate, used to say that they had many little bed- 
rooms in the temple, and that the newly-sealed couples 
used to retire to these rooms with provisions for two or 
three days." 

"Amasa Lyman, the apostle, who later became a Vile 
apostate,' told me that Joseph, Brigham Young, and other 
apostles used to dance in the Endowment House with the 
Lord's 'handmaids,' their spiritual wives. Those dances 
were performed in Adamic costume, and a fiddler was 
'ordained and set apart' for the purpose. I knew this to 
be an absolute fact ; it has been confirmed to me by other 
well-informed persons." 

Mrs. P. : 

"You hear often that Joseph had no polygamous off- 
spring. The reason of this is very simple. Abortion was 
practiced on a large scale in Nauvoo. Dr. John C. Ben- 
nett, the evil genius of Joseph, brought this abomination 
into a scientific system. He showed to my husband and 



me the instruments with which he used to 'operate for 
Joseph/ There was a house in Nauvoo, 'right across the 
flat,' about a mile and a half from the town, a kind of 
hospital. They sent the women there when they showed 
signs of celestial consequences. Abortion was practiced 
regularly in this house." 

Mrs. H. : 

''Many little bodies of new-born children floated down 
the Mississippi." 

Mrs. Pratt : "You should bear in mind that Joseph did 
not think of a marriage or sealing ceremony for many 
years. He used to say to his intended victims, as he did 

'God does not care if zve have a good time, if only 
other people do not know it.' He only introduced a mar- 
riage ceremony when he had found out that he could not 
get certain women without it. I think Louisa Beeman 
was the first case of this kind. If any woman, like me, 
opposed his wishes, he used to say : 'Be silent, or I shall 
ruin your character. My character must be sustained in 
the interest of the church.' ' 

The following stories are told by Dr. Wyl : 

"Joseph Smith was shrewd enough to have a few honest 
men around him whom he placed in responsible positions, 
who filled them with fidelity and self-sacrifice, being at 
the same time in a great measure ignorant of the duplicity 
and wickedness of the imposter. None were more faith- 
ful or truthful than Elder Richard Rushton, the trusty 
steward employed by Joseph in the Mansion House in 
Nauvoo. Rushton was a good, honest man of fine 
instincts, and had served faithfully for some years, hold- 
ing that position when the bodies of Joseph and Hyrum 
were brought to Nauvoo, and he received them. It was 


his duty to lock up, every night, most of the rooms, espe- 
cially the pantry, storeroom, larder, etc., and then to give 
the keys to 'Sister Emma.' She would, on retiring, place 
the bunch of keys in a large pocket that was nailed on the 
wall at the head of her bed. About 4 o'clock every morn- 
ing Brother Rushton would tap at the bedroom door in 
order to receive the keys and open the hotel. Emma on 
hearing the raps would say, 'Come in, Brother Rushton,' 
and would hand him the keys from the pocket, and give 
such orders as were needed. 

"It so 'came to pass' once upon a time, that the gro- 
ceries and other provisions necessary for the use of the 
hotel were nearly exhausted, and a famine seemed pend- 
ing in the larder. Fortunately, however, Joseph sold a 
fine black horse, which had been presented to him, for 
three hundred and fifty dollars or so, and also a city lot 
or two, for about four hundred dollars. With the sales 
of the horse and land, and a little cash on hand, he mus- 
tered up about nine hundred dollars, which he cheerfully 
placed in Emma's hands, saying: 'We are out of provis- 
ions; take this and go down to St. Louis and buy what 
is needed. Captain Dan Jones will fire up the "Maid of 
Iowa" (a little steamboat always ready for church use) 
and take you down.' Emma started for St. Louis. The 
going, purchasing and return occupied about a week. At 
night, after the departure of the 'elect lady,' the steward 
gave his keys to the prophet, and in the morning he as 
usual stepped lightly and rapped at the door of the bed- 
room. A voice, strange to his ear, yet of feminine soft- 
ness, rather startled him in response with the words 
'Come in/ He entered timidly, when lo and behold ! there 
lay in Emma's bed and stead the beautiful and attractive 
young wife of Elder Edward Blossom, a high counsellor 


of Zion (afterwards exalted to the apostleship by Brigham 
Young). With a pair of laughing, glistening eyes and 
with a smile of happy sweetness, she spoke in soft and 
pleading accents: 7 suppose, Brother Rushton, I shall 
have to be Sister Emma to you this morning,' as she 
gracefully handed the keys to him. Astonished and blush- 
ing, the faithful steward left the room to resume his 
duties, leaving the adulterous prophet and his charmer to 
themselves. The same thing was repeated each morning 
during the week Emma was away purchasing supplies for 
the prophet's hotel. 

"In relating this occurrence to another of my most pre- 
cise and valuable witnesses, Brother Rushton, though no 
seeker after effect, added the following picturesque de- 
tails : 'Emma used to keep the keys of the hotel in a richly 
ornamented wallet given to her by some well-to-do En- 
glish friends. When Joseph saw how dumbfounded I was 
he sat up in his red flannel nightrobe and said in a hasty, 
commanding tone : "That's all right, Brother Rushton," 
making a movement with his outstretched right hand 
towards me. The prophet's gesture and tone gave me to 
understand that I was to go and keep my mouth shut/ 

" 'One afternoon,' said Mr. Rushton, the steward, 'after 
the hurry of the dinner work was over, I was sitting in my 
little office, when, looking through my window, I saw the 
prophet Joseph, followed by the two Partridge girls, com- 
ing from the back part of the lot and enter, all three, the 
little log cabin, which had been the first home in Nau- 
voo of the prophet before the "Mansion" was built. A 
minute or so afterwards Sister Emma came to my office 
door and asked me : "Did you see Brother Joseph and the 
two Partridge girls go into the cabin?" Mr. Rushton 
didn't like to split on the prophet, and yet didn't like to tell 


a lie ; and at last he replied, hesitatingly : 'Well— I think- 
perhaps— well— I may have seen them.' Til just put on 
my sunbonnet and go and see what they are about/ 
replied she, and stepped over. A very short time after 
her entry she appeared at the door of the cabin, being 
pushed out rudely, and came to the office door crying bit- 
terly. "Oh, Brother Rushton," she said in broken sobs, 
"I went into the cabin, I found those two girls with my 
husband, and Joseph jumped up in a rage when he saw 
that I had surprised them and struck me a horrid blow." 
At the same time she showed me the mark of the blow on 
her cheek. She then dropped fainting on a chair, weep- 
ing and uttering words of despair. A few minutes after- 
ward Joseph entered and, going up to Emma, said in a 
meek, repentant manner, 'Oh, my dear Emma, I am so 
sorry I struck you. I did it in a passion ; you must forgive 
me. I did it without a thought, or I wouldn't have done it. 
Forgive me. But you shouldn't be running after me, 
watching me and prying at my actions/ He apologized 
and kissed Emma and apologized again, and then finally 
she arose and they went into the parlor together, appar- 
ently reconciled/ " 

"Another characteristic anecdote connected yet with the 
Kirtland times of the 'church' was related to me by an ex- 
elder of perfect reliability. I insert it here, because it 
shows what kind of a woman-eater this prophet had been 
in early days already. A large, influential 'branch of the 
church' existed in Philadelphia, over which Ben Win- 
chester successfully presided. Joe visited that church 
occasionally and enjoyed the associations much. On one 
occasion, it having been announced that the prophet was 
to preach, he sat on the platform by the side of his faithful 
presiding elder while awaiting the time to open services. 


Now and then as some handsome young woman came up 
the aisle and took a seat, Joe would turn to Elder Win- 
chester and ask, 'Who is that beautiful lady ?' or 'Who is 
that fine, lovely creature?' On being told That is Miss 
So-and-So,' or 'Mrs. So-and-So,' or 'Sister So-and-So,' 
he did not at all disguise his wishes ; he made no 'bones' of 
it ; but would say in reply, Td just like to talk to her alone 
for awhile?' or T would like her for a companion for a 
night/ and other expressions too plain and vulgar for me 
to write. [I can give names, if needed.] 

"After the polygamy doctrine was secretly whispered 
about among the chosen few in Nauvoo, there were great 
surmisings on the part of those who desired to know the 
'mysteries of the kingdom.' Many impertinent theories 
were ventilated and false conclusions arrived at. Joe had 
formulated no plan, and did not, as yet, have any rules 
whereby to direct his intimate friends, much less the com- 
mon saints who were not in the ring. Hence, having no 
'law,' every man and woman was a law to himself, or her- 
self, and they went on their own course. In a small 
house in Nauvoo, consisting only of two rooms, dwelt two 
men and their wives. Each man and wife occupied one 
room. These couples having got some inkling of the new 
order of things, came to the conclusion that they might as 
well live up to their privileges. They accordingly ex- 
changed partners, and lived in this condition for several 
weeks, when former relations were resumed. Such inci- 
dents, with variations, were by no means uncommon. 
(My friend Webb says there was a great deal of swapping 
and exchanging done in Nauvoo as to wives. Old Cooks 
sold his wife for a load of catfish, and from that time on 
he was always called 'Catfish Cooks.)" 

"There were in Nauvoo, when Joseph was in his glory 


as 'the greatest prophet that ever lived,' a young mer- 
chant and wife whom he dearly loved. She bore to 
him several children, but became fascinated with Joe and 
with his claims to 'exalt' any woman who would yield 
to his wishes and become his 'wife.' The husband was 
sent on a mission, and during his absence Joseph 'gath- 
ered' the wife to his embraces and she was 'sealed' one of 
his harem. After Joe's 'martyrdom' she became the wife 
of Brigham, as a proxy wife for Joe, that any posterity 
which might ensue should be Joe's in heaven. One child, 
a daughter, was the result of this relation, but the young 
lady was always known by the name of Young, never by 
name of Smith, robbing Brother Joseph of his earthly 
glory at least. This same wife of three men is often sent 
as a representative of the women of Utah to the women's 
conventions abroad in America, and to the lobbies of Con- 

Here is Dr. John C. Bennett's story of Smith's attempt 
upon Miss Nancy Rigdon : 

"It was in the summer of 1841. Joe and Bennett were 
out riding over the lawn. Says the prophet to his bosom 
friend : Tf you will assist me in procuring Nancy as one 
of my spiritual wives, I will give you five hundred dollars, 
or the best lot on Main street'. Bennett, who was on 
very intimate terms with Rigdon and his family, refused. 
'But,' said Joe, 'the Lord has given her to me to wife. 
I have the blessings of Jacob, and there is no wickedness 
in it. It would be wickedness to approach her unless I 
had permission of the Lord ; but as it is, it is as correct 
as to have a legal wife in a moral point of view.' Joseph 
persisted in his plans, aided in their execution by two 
reliable friends, a Mrs. Hyde and Apostle Willard Rich- 
ards. Dr. Bennett tried in vain to make Joseph consider 


his obligations as a Master Mason: Joseph, you are a 
Master Mason and Nancy is a Master Mason's daughter 
(like Mrs. Pratt) ; so stay your hand, or you will get into 


"Still Joe persisted, but Bennett warned the daughter 
of his friend. So Nancy was prepared when Joseph took 
her to the little celestial business office. The prophet 
locked the door, swore her to secrecy, and told her that 
she had long been the idol of his affections and that he 
had asked the Lord for her, but that if she had any scru- 
ples on the subject he would marry her immediately; that 
this would not prevent her from marrying any other per- 
son and that all was lawful and right before God. ("After 
the' death of Joseph, Brigham Young told me that Jo- 
seph's time on earth was short, and that the Lord allowed 
him privileges that we could not have."-Lee, Confession, 
page 147.) He then attempted to kiss her and desired her 
to kiss him. Nancy flew in a rage. She told the prophet 
she would alarm the neighborhood if he did not open the 
door and let her out immediately. In a day or two after- 
wards Apostle Richards handed Nancy a letter from the 
prophet, written by Richards from Joe's dictation, and 
requested her to burn it after reading. This letter is a 
perfect gem in the line of oily rascal sophistry: 

- 'Happiness is the object and design of our existence 
and will be the end thereof, if we pursue the path that 
leads to it; and this path is virtue, uprightness, faithful- 
ness holiness, and keeping all the commandments of God; 
but we cannot keep all the commandments without first 
knowing them, and we cannot expect to know all unless we 
comply with or keep those we have already received That 
which is wrong under one circumstance may be and often 
is right under another. God said, "Thou shalt not kill ; 


at another time He said, "Thou shalt utterly destroy." 
This is the principle on which the Government of Heaven 
is conducted, by revelation adapted to the circumstances 
in which the children of the Kingdom are placed. What- 
ever God requires is right, no matter what it is, although 
we may not see the reason thereof till long after the 
events transpire. If we seek first the Kingdom of God, 
all good things will be added. So with Solomon : first he 
asked wisdom, and God gave it him, and with it every 
desire of his heart, even things which might be considered 
abominable to all who understand the order of Heaven 
only in part, but which in reality were right, because 
God gave and sanctioned them by special revelation. 
A parent may whip a child, and justly, too, because he 
stole an apple, whereas, if the child had asked for the 
apple and the parent had given it, the child would have 
eaten it with a better appetite ; there would have been no 
stripes; all the pleasures of the apple would have been 
secured, all the misery of stealing lost. This principle 
will justly apply to all of God's dealings with His children. 
Everything that God gives us is lawful and right, 
and it is proper that we shall enjoy His gifts and bless- 
ings, whenever and wherever He is disposed to bestow, 
but if we should seize upon those same blessings and 
enjoyments without lav/, without revelation, without com- 
mandment, those blessings and enjoyments would prove 
cursings and vexations in the end and we should have to 
lie down in sorrow and waitings of everlasting regret. 
But in obedience there is joy and peace unspotted, unal- 
loyed ; and as God has designed our happiness, He never 
has, He never will institute an ordinance or give a com- 
mandment to His people that is not calculated in its nature 
to promote the happiness which He has designed and 


which will not end in the greatest amount of good and 
glory to those who become the recipients of His laws and 
ordinances. Blessings offered, but rejected, are no longer 
blessings, but become like the talent hid in the earth by 
the wicked and slothful servant. Our Heavenly Father is 
more liberal in His views and boundless in His mercies 
and blessings, than we are ready to believe or receive ; He 
will be inquired of by His children ; He says, "Ask ye and 
ye shall receive, seek ye and ye shall find ; but if you will 
take that which is not your own, or which I have not 
given you, you shall be regarded according to your deeds ; 
but no good thing will I withhold from them who walk 
uprightly before Me and do My will in all things, who 
will listen to My voice and to the voice of My servant, 
whom I have sent; for I delight in those who seek dili- 
gently to know My precepts and abide in the law of my 
kingdom ; for all things shall be made known unto them 
in Mine own due time and in the end they shall have joy." ' 

"The sequel of the story is well told in a letter from 
Ceorge W. Robinson, who was a very decent man accord- 
ing to Mrs. Pratt. Says he : 

" 'Nancy repulsed him and left him with disgust. She 
came home and told her father [Sidney Rigdon] of the 
transaction, upon which Smith was sent for. He came. 
She told her tale in the presence of all her family and to 
Smith's face. / was present. Smith attempted to deny 
it at first and face her down with the lie ; but she told the 
facts with so much earnestness, and the fact of a letter 
being present, which he had caused to be written to her 
and which he had fondly hoped was destroyed — all came 
with such force that he could not withstand the testimony ; 
and he then and there acknowledged that every word of 
Miss Rigdon's testimony was true. Now for his excuse 


which he made for such a base attempt, and for using the 
name of the Lord in vain on that occasion : He wished to 
ascertain whether she was virtuous or not, and took that 
course to learn the facts !' " 

Here, also, is the testimony of Martha Brotherton, an 
English girl: 

" 'St. Louis, Mo., July 13, 1842. 

" 'I had been in Nauvoo near three weeks, during 
which time my father's family received frequent visits 
from Apostles Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball, 
when, early one morning, they both came to my brother- 
in-law's, where I was on a visit, and particularly requested 
me to go and spend a few days with them. I told them I 
could not at that time ; however, they urged me to go the 
next day and spend one day with them. The day being 
fine, I accordingly went. When I arrived at the foot of 
the hill, Young and Kimball were standing conversing 
together. They both came to me and, after several flatter- 
ing compliments, Kimball wished me to go to his house 
first. I went. * Brigham went away on some errand and 
Kimball now turned to me and said: 'Martha, I want 
you to say to my wife, when you go to my house, that you 
want to buy some things at Joseph's store, and I will say 
I am going with you, to show you the way. You know 
you want to see the prophet and you will then have an 
opportunity/ I made no reply. I remained at Kimball's 
near an hour, when Kimball, seeing that I would not tell 
the lies he wished me to, told them to his wife himself. 
So Kimball and I went to the store together. As we were 
going along he said : 'Sister Martha, are you willing to 
do all that the prophet requires you to do?' I said I 
believed I was, thinking, of course, he would require noth- 
ing wrong. "Then," said he, "are you ready to take 


counsel?" I answered yes, thinking of the great and 
glorious blessings that had been pronounced upon my 
head, if I adhered to the counsel of those placed over me 
in the Lord. "Well/' said he, "there are many things 
revealed in these last days that the world would laugh and 
scoff at, but unto us is given to know the mysteries of 
the kingdom." He further observed: "Martha, you 
must learn to hold your tongue and it will be well with 
you." When we reached the building he led me up some 
stairs to a small room, the door of which was locked and 
on it the inscription, "Positively no admittance." He 
observed : "Ah, Brother Joseph must be sick, for, strange 
to say, he is not here. Come down into the tithing office, 
Martha." He then left me in the tithing office. Brig- 
ham Young came in and seated himself before me and 
asked where Kimball was. Soon after Joseph came in and 
then went upstairs, followed by Young. Now Kimball 
came in. "Martha," said he, "the prophet has come; 
come upstairs." I went and we found Brigham and the 
prophet alone. I was introduced to the prophet by Brig- 
ham. Joseph offered me his seat and, to my astonish- 
ment, the moment I was seated Joseph and Kimball 
walked out of the room and left me with Brigham, who 
arose, locked the door, closed the window, and drew the 
curtains. He then sat before me and said : "This is our 
private room, Martha." "Indeed, sir," said I, "I must 
be highly honored to be permitted to enter it." He smiled 
and then proceeded : : "Sister Martha, I want to ask you 
a few questions-— will you answer them?" "Yes, sir," 
said I. "And will you promise not to mention them to^ 
anyone?" "If it is your desire, sir," said I, "I will not." 
"And you will not think any the worse of me for it, will 
you, Martha?" said he. "No," I replied. "Well," said 


he, "what are your feelings towards me?" "I replied: 
"My feelings are just the same towards you that they ever 
were, sir." "But to come to the point more closely," said 
he, "have you not an affection for me that, were it lawful 
and right, you could accept of me for your husband and 
companion?" My feelings at that moment were inde- 
scribable. What, thought I, are these men that I thought 
almost perfection itself — deceivers? I considered it best 
to ask for time to think and pray about it. I therefore 
said : "If it was lawful and right, perhaps I might ; but 
you know, sir, it is not." "Well, but," said he, "Brother 
Joseph has had a revelation from God that it is lawful 
and right for a man to have two wives; for as it was in 
the days of Abraham, so it shall be in these last days, 
and whoever is the first that is willing to take up the 
cross will receive the greatest blessings ; and if you will 
accept of me, / will take you straight to the celestial king- 
dom, and if you will have me in this world, I will have 
you in that which is to come, and Brother Joseph will 
marry us here today, or you can go home this evening and 
your parents will not know anything about it." "Sir," 
said I, "I should not like to do anything of the kind with- 
out the permission of my parents." "Well, but," said he, 
"you are of age, are you not?" "No, sir," said I, "I shall 
not be until the 24th of May." "Well," said he, "that does 
not make any difference. You will be of age before they 
know and you need not fear. If you will take my counsel 
it will be well with you, and if there is any sin in it, / will 
answer for it. But Brother Joseph will explain things — 
will you hear him?" "I do not mind," said I. "Well, but 
I want you to say something," said he. "I want time to 
think about it," said I. "Well," said he, "I will have a 
kiss, anyhow." He arose and said he would bring Joseph. 


He then unlocked the door and took the key and locked 
me up alone. He was absent about ten minutes and then 
returned with Joseph. "Well," said Brigham, "Sister 
Martha would be willing if she knew that it was lawful 
and right before God." "Well, Martha," said Joseph, "it 
is lawful and right before God — I know it is. Look here, 
Sis; don't you believe me?" I did not answer. "Well, 
Martha," said Joseph, "just go ahead and do as Brigham 
wants you to — he is the best man in the world, except me." 
"Well," said Brigham, "we believe Joseph to be a prophet. 
I have known him for eight years, and always found him 
the same." "Yes," said Joseph, "I know that this is law- 
ful and right before God, and if there is any sin in it, I 
will answer for it before god ; and I have the keys of 
the kingdom and whatever I bind on earth is bound in 
Heaven, and whatever I loose on earth is loosed in 
Heaven; and if you will accept of Brigham, you shall be 
blessed; God shall bless you and my blessing shall rest 
upon you ; and if you will be led by him, you will do well ; 
for I know Brigham will take care of you, and if he don't 
do his duty to you, come to me and I will make him ; and 
if you do not like it in a month or two> come to me and 
/ will make you free again, and if he turns you off, I will 
take you on." "Sir," said I, rather warmly, "it will be 
too late to think in a month or two after. I want time to 
think first." "Well, but," said he, "'the old proverb is : 
'Nothing ventured, nothing gained' — and it would be the 
greatest blessing ever bestowed on you. What are you 
afraid of, Sis ? Come, let me do the business for you." 
"Well," said I, "the best way I know of, is to go home and 
think and pray about it." Brigham said : "I shall leave it 
with Brother Joseph, whether it would be best for you to 
have time or not." Joseph : "I see no harm in her hav- 


ing time to think, if she will not fall into temptation." 
"Oh, sir," said I, "there is no fear of my falling into temp- 
tation." "Well, but," said Brigham, "you must promise 
me you will never mention it to anyone." I promised. 
Joseph said: "You must promise me the same." I did. 
"Upon your honor," said he, "you will not tell ?" "No, 
sir," said I, "I will lose my life first." "Well, that will 
do," said he ; "that is the principle we go upon. I think I 
can trust you, Martha." I then rose to go, when Joseph 
commenced to beg of me again. He said it was the best 
opportunity they might have for months, for the room 
was often engaged. I, however," had determined what 
to do. The next day I sat down and wrote the conversa- 
tion. We went to meeting. Brigham administered the 
sacrament. After it was over, Young followed me out 
and whispered : "Have you made up your mind, Mar- 
tha?" "Not exactly, sir," said I, and we parted.' " 

William Law, one of the most talented of Smith's dis- 
ciples and his chief counselor, admits that he "went astray 
in affairs of love," and says : 

"I think Joseph's sons knew that their father taught and 
practiced the 'spiritual wife' doctrine. Their mother knew 
all about it, and, I believe, opposed it at first. But her 
antagonism or the opposition of others availed nothing. 
I begged of Joseph and pleaded with him as a man might 
plead for the life of his best friend, to stop all these evils, 
and save the church from ruin ; but he seemed determined 
to rush on to utter destruction, and carry all with him that 
he could ; and thus he met his doom." 

Carrying out his spiritual wife doctrine, he attempted 
to take the wife of William Law himself. He had' taken 
the wives of a good many other men, but they had not 
objected. But, strange to say, William Law did object. 


He was also guilty of the most despotic practices. 

"By means of his common council, without the author- 
ity of law, he established a recorder's office in Nauvoo, in 
which alone the titles of property could be recorded. In 
the same manner, and with the same want of legal author- 
ity, he established an office for issuing marriage licenses 
to the Mormons, so as to give him absolute control of the 
marrying propensities of his people. He proclaimed that 
none in the city should purchase real estate to sell again, 
but himself. He also permitted no one but himself to have 
a license in the city for the sale of spirituous liquors ; and 
in many other ways he undertook to regulate and control 
the business of the Mormons. This despotism, adminis- 
tered by a corrupt and unprincipled man, soon became 

William Law and several other Mormon leaders re- 
belled. They started a paper called the Nauvoo Expositor 
for the purpose of exposing Smith and his methods. But 
only one issue of the paper was published. Before another 
could appear the press was demolished by order of the 
Common Council, and Mr. Law and his fellow rebels were 
expelled from the Mormon Church. They hastened to 
Carthage, near by, and had writs issued for the arrest of 
the Mayor of Nauvoo, Joseph Smith, and others engaged 
in the destruction of the Expositor. The Municipal Court 
of Nauvoo set aside the writs and discharged the pris- 

The Governor was appealed to. He responded in per- 
son, examined the situation, was convinced, he says, that 
the "Mormon leaders had committed a crime in the 
destruction of the press and had resisted the execution of 
process." He "determined to exert the whole force of 
the State, if necessary, to bring them to justice." 


Smith had declared martial law in Nauvoo, and had 
called on all Mormons for help. Governor Ford appealed 
to him to quietly surrender, promising protection. Instead 
he resolved to flee, and crossed the river to Montrose. 
But in response to the protests of his wife against such a 
course, he, together with his brother Hyrum and all the 
members of the council, went to Carthage and surren- 
dered. All were released except Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith, who were charged with treason, and were put in 
jail. During the night an armed mob broke into the jail 
and fired a volley through the door, which resulted in the 
death of Hyrum Smith. Joseph had a revolver and de- 
fended himself, but, overpowered by numbers, attempted 
to escape through the window. The mob on the outside 
fired upon him and he fell to the ground. Another volley 
was fired at him and he was left in the jail yard dead. 

Thus ended the career of Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder 
of Mormonism and its chief prophet. Review that career 
briefly. As a boy he was ignorant, superstitious, a 
dreamer of dreams. Pretending to have discovered s 
new Bible by direction of an angel — which Bible we now 
know was written as a romance by Solomon Spaulding 
and emended by Sidney Rigdon — he founded a new re- 
ligion. He was compelled to flee from Kirtland, Ohio, 
"between two days" for his connection as cashier with a 
fraudulent bank. He was driven from Missouri because 
of his arrogant and tyrannical ways. He was finally killed 
in Illinois for taking another man's wife and suppressing 
freedom of speech. He was simply an illiterate, preten- 
tious, ambitious, licentious fellow, clever and jolly, with 
a certain animal magnetism, but coarse, self-willed, ruling 
his followers, most of them quite ignorant, through his 
pretended revelations from the Lord, overbearing, des- 


potic in the extreme, with whom no one could get along 
except by absolute submission to him. He had trouble 
everywhere he went and with almost everyone with whom 
he came in contact. And this is the man the Mormons 
now worship as their prophet — putting him on an equality 
with Mohammed among the Mohammedans or Christ 
among Christians ! God save the mark ! 

I may remark in passing that a singular fatality at- 
tended nearly all of the principal actors in the earliest 
scenes of the drama of Mormonism. The six who were in 
the organization of the church and who claimed to have 
been witnesses of the golden plates were Joseph Smith, 
Oliver Cowdery, Hyrum Smith, Peter Whitmer, Jr., 
Samuel H. Smith and David Whitmer. Of these Oliver 
Cowdery, the scribe who wrote most of the Book of Mor- 
mon at the dictation of Smith, was charged with being 
"connected with a gang of counterfeiters, thieves, liars 
and blacklegs of the deepest dye," and with "cheating and 
defrauding the saints," and he was ex-communicated and 
"turned over to the bufferings of the devil." He after- 
ward died a miserable drunkard. David Whitmer was 
also ex-communicated as a rebel. Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith were killed by a mob on account of their immoral- 
ity, their despotism and their "treason" against the State. 
Martin Harris, the first scribe of the Book of Mormons, 
and a witness to the plates, but not one of the constituent 
members of the church, was afterward catalogued by the 
Mormons with "negroes who wear white skins, and he 
and his associates are so far beneath contempt that a 
notice of them would be far too great a sacrifice for a 
gentleman to make." He also was consigned to the infer- 
nal regions. A document drafted by Sidney Rigdon, 
and subscribed by eighty-four Mormons, addressed to 


Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, John Whitmer, W. W. 
Phelps and Lyman E. Johnson, exhibits these witnesses 
and apostles and their associates to have been unmitigated 

Mr. Stenhouse says : 

"The Lord could not well have chosen a more despica- 
ble set of thieves and liars than they were — taking the 
testimony of their brethren as evidence. Mormonism did 
little for them in the way of reformation and grace. They 
must have been 'a hard lot' before they accepted the new 

Sidney Rigdon was, after the death of Joseph Smith, 
charged with the determination to "rule or ruin the 
church." And in the language of the reporter, "Elder 
Young arose and delivered Sidney Rigdon over to the 
bufferings of Satan in the name of the Lord ; and all the 
people said, Amen." Parley P. Pratt, another very prom- 
inent Mormon and the author of some of their principal 
works, was killed by an enraged husband for running off 
with his wife. 

And these are the men who were the founders of Mor- 
monism ! 



In the last chapter I gave an account of the killing of 
Joseph Smith. I do not approve of that killing. There 
was very great provocation leading up to it. And yet it 
was a crime. But it was more than a crime. It was a 
blunder. At that time Mormonism was practically dead. 
The Mormons themselves were fast becoming disgusted 
with the tyrannical rule and licentious practices of Joseph 
Smith. They were beginning to see the hollowness in 
the Mormon system, and were falling away from it. But 
the saying that "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of 
the church" was again exemplified. The killing of Smith 
put him in the list of martyrs, according to Mormon 
notions, and had the effect of galvanizing Mormonism 
again into life. 

I have dwelt somewhat at length upon the early history 
of Mormonism, partly because the beginnings of any 
movement are of the greatest interest, and largely to show 
the character of Joseph Smith, its founder and prophet. 
The rest of the history can be more briefly told. 

After the death of Smith, on June 27, 1844, the church 
split up into many factions. It is said that twenty-one 
sects sprang into existence. Among these were the 
"Adamsites," "Brewsterites," "Brighamites," "Cutler- 



ites," "Doveites," "Emmettites," "Forsgreenites," "Glad- 
denites," "Godbeites," "Hedrickites," "Hendrickites," 
"Josephites," "Morrisites," "Rigdonites," "Bill Smith- 
ites," "Strangites," "Whitmerites," "Wightites," "Wil- 
liamites," etc. 

Some of these are now extinct, but others are still in 
existence. The Josephites have as their head Joseph 
Smith, the eldest son of the "prophet." This faction was 
organized in i860 under the name of the "Reorganized 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." It now 
numbers about 45,000, with headquarters at Lamoni, 
Iowa. The Josephites violently dissent from the Brig- 
hamites on some important points, especially as regards 
temple building, the character of God and polygamy. But 
it is with the latter sect that we have especially to do. 
These are by far the most numerous and most influential 
of any of the Mormon sects, and are known to all the 
world pre-eminently as Mormons. 

Upon the death of Smith, Sidney Rigdon naturally 
felt that the right of succession belonged to him. He had 
taken offense at Smith for seeking the hand of his daugh- 
ter Nancy as a polygamous wife and was living in Pitts- 
burg, Ohio. He hastened to Nauvoo, assumed the leader- 
ship, pretended to have visions and revelations, as Smith 
had done. 

But Brigham Young was by the accident of seniority 
at the head of the quorum of twelve apostles, and he had 
ambitions of his own. So he had Rigdon arrested on the 
charge of determining to "rule or ruin the church." He 
was tried, condemned, "cut off from the church and deliv- 
ered over to the buffetings of Satan." 

Having thus disposed of his rival, Brigham Young then 
proceeded to "rule" the church— and he ruled it with a 


rod of iron. Implicit, unquestioning obedience was 
thenceforth the distinctive feature of Mormonism. Joseph 
Smith once said that if Brother Brigham ever got control 
of the church he would lead it to hell. This was about 
the only prediction of Smith that ever came true. 

The friction between the Mormons and the people of 
Illinois still continuing and constantly increasing in bitter- 
ness, it was determined by the High Council at Nauvoo 
on January 20, 1846, that the Mormons should leave a 
country where they had suffered so much "persecution" 
and go away out West, beyond the confines of the United 
States, where they would not be bothered by the trouble- 
some laws, and the still more troublesome military power, 
of this government, but where they might be free to wor- 
ship Joseph Smith according to the dictates of Brigham 
Young, and to make everybody else do the same. 

Before they left indictments were found in the United 
States Circuit Court against a number of leading Mor- 
mons for counterfeiting the coin of the republic. The 
marshal was eager for their arrest, but the Governor 
thought it best to let them go, as that would be the easiest 
way to get rid of them. So on February 5, 1846, they 
began to move westward. By the middle of May about 
16,000 had gone. There were no railroads out West in 
those days. The journey was long and tedious. The 
weather was bad, and some of the "saints" suffered con- 

On July 24, 1847, they reached Great Salt Lake Basin, 
and as they beheld it they exclaimed, 'The Land of 
Promise." It has really a considerable resemblance to 
the Promised Land. Utah Lake corresponds to the Sea 
of Galilee. Salt Lake corresponds to the Dead Sea. The 
River Jordan connects the two. And Salt Lake City is 


the modern Sodom. They at once settled where Salt 
Lake City is now located, and proceeded to build a temple 
to the Lord and houses for themselves. 

When they arrived at Salt Lake Valley the Territory 
of Utah belonged to Mexico. It is thought that it was 
Brigham Young's intention either to set up an independ- 
ent government in Utah or yield only a nominal obedience 
to Mexico. But as a result of the Mexican war, Utah, 
with New Mexico and Upper California, was made a part 
of the United States. 

And thus the Mormons found themselves again sub- 
jects of this government, much to their chagrin. Not- 
withstanding this fact, at a convention of citizens held in 
Great Salt Lake City, March 5, 1849, it was decided to 
establish "a free and independent government by the name 
of the State of Deseret." Congress, however, completely 
ignored the "State of Deseret," and on September 9, 1850, 
organized Utah into a territory and, strange to say, ap- 
pointed Brigham Young Governor ! 

But almost immediately there was a clash between the 
Governor and the Gentile Federal officers and judges sent 
out to help govern the territory. This was due to what 
has been aptly termed "the irrepressible conflict between 
theocracy and republicanism." 

The conflict grew in intensity. Brigham Young gener- 
ally got the best of it one way or another, outwitting 
some, intimidating others. In addition to their theocratic 
government, which made them unwilling to submit to the 
laws of the United States, the open avowal of polygamy 
at this time added greatly to the hatred and disgust with 
which the Mormons were regarded. 

The doctrine of polygamy had first been promulgated 
by Joseph Smith, but at first it was taught secretly. Its 


open avowal now by Brigham Young, at a time when he 
felt strong enough to resist opposition, sent a thrill of 
horror throughout the country. 

Polyandry— the marriage, at least temporary, of a 
woman to more than one man— was taught. The doctrine 
of the blood atonement— the murder of the body to save 
the soul — was proclaimed. 

Congress spoke of the "moral and political pestilence 
which makes Utah the scandal of the American people." 
The plague spot did not heal. It got bigger and bigger. 
Brigham Young was removed as Governor of the Terri- 
tory of Utah. But others— governors, judges of the 
United States court— found successively that they had a 
new and dangerous foe with whom to contend, crafty, 
determined, hesitating at nothing, lying, cheating, steal- 
ing, murdering to carry their point. Murder after murder 
was committed. If any one made himself obnoxious to 
the Mormons in any way he was apt to be found dead, 
and no amount of investigation (?) would reveal the 
perpetrators of the deed. 

Meanwhile the colony was growing. Missionaries were 
sent to Europe. They were successful in making a num- 
ber of converts. These, for the most part, were persuaded 
to emigrate to the promised land. 

As this was before the days of railroads, Brigham 
Young organized what were called hand-cart expeditions 
for these emigrants. Placing their household effects, 
together with the children and feeble persons, in hand- 
carts, they would pull the carts over the plains and across 
the mountains. But the journey proved too long and the 
labor too great. Food gave out, the weather was bad 
and large numbers of them perished on the way. Brigham 
Young at first took a good deal of pride in his hand-cart 


plan. But finding how it turned out, he put the blame on 
the Apostle Richards, and publicly in the tabernacle held 
him up to ridicule and scorn. 

The discovery of gold in California in 1849 caused a 
rush from the East to the West, which continued for some 
years. Parties of emigrants would be formed. One of 
these parties was from Arkansas, around Fort Smith. 
It was composed of a fine class of people, cultivated and 
refined, with some wealth among them. They numbered 
137. They were friends and neighbors who had decided 
to move to California to better their fortunes. 

This was in 1857. A short while before, the "Apostle" 
Parley P. Pratt had been killed near Fort Smith by Mr. 
McLean, because Pratt had run off with McLean's wife — 
a strange thing certainly for McLean to do, to kill a man 
for running off with his wife. Why should he want to 
kill a man for a little thing like that? The Mormons 
seemed to think that, as this party of Arkansas people was 
about to pass through their territory, now was their oppor- 
tunity for vengeance. When the Arkansas people reached 
Utah they were not allowed to buy food at any Mormon 
settlement. But they kept on. Arriving at Parowan, 
the Mormon military post, they were not permitted to 
pass through, but were compelled to go around it. 

When they arrived at Mountain Meadows they were 
suddenly attacked by Indians, as they supposed. Some 
Indians were in the attacking party, but the Indians them- 
selves afterward stated that the Mormon soldiers were 
also dressed as Indians. The emigrants had not expected 
an attack, but they prepared for defense. Corraling their 
wagons, they formed a temporary fort, and with their 
long-range guns they kept the Indians (?) at bay. And 
thus they fought for three days. But their water supply 


gave out. There was a spring near by, but covered by 
the rifles of the enemy. Dying with thirst, they dressed 
two little girls in white and started them with a bucket to 
the spring. They were shot down. 

The next day Major John D. Lee, in command of the 
Mormon troops, sent a flag of truce to the emigrants, 
with the statement that the Indians were very mad, but 
that if they would lay down their arms he would protect 
them. They gladly accepted the offer, rejoiced to have 
found white friends ( ?), laid down their arms and surren- 
dered. The women and children were separated from the 
men and inarched off, the men just behind them, all 
guarded by the entire command, with Major Lee at their 
head. When they had gone about half a mile the com- 
mand was given to fire. There was a volley, another and 
another, until all the men lay dead or dying on the ground, 
except three, who fled, but were pursued and killed. The 
women also were all dead. One young woman sprang to 
Major Lee for protection. He put a pistol to her forehead 
and shot her dead. Another ran to him and suffered a 
worse fate at his hands. The whole company, men and 
women, were stripped of their clothing and left Tying 
naked on the ground. This was done with many a ribald 
jest. The little children were spared, seventeen in all. 
These were taken to Salt Lake City and distributed among 
the Mormon families. 

Two of the children were heard to make some remark 
about their families and they were taken out — and buried. 
The others were afterward taken by the government and 
placed in an orphan asylum in St. Louis. 

Much of the property of the murdered emigrants was 
sold at public auction, under the designation of "Property 
taken at the siege of Sebastopol," and there is said to be 


legal proof that the clothing stripped from the corpses- 
spotted with blood and flesh and shredded by bullets — 
was placed in the cellar of the tithing office and privately 
sold. "Wives and daughters of some of those murderers 
wore the apparel of some of the massacred women and 
maidens, while their polygamous husbands and fathers 
wore the masculine garments of their victims, plowed the 
fields with their cattle, and drove to their religious assem- 
blies with the horses that they had stolen from the Arkan- 
sas train, and no one called them to account" 

And this was the famous, or rather infamous, Mountain 
Meadows massacre, the most horrible, the most diabolical 
in the history of so-called Christian nations' — only equaled, 
but not surpassed in cruelty and bloodthirstiness, by the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. 

And this was Mormonism in all its hideous nakedness ! 
What Mormons did then, Mormons would do again if 
they only had the power and the opportunity. Their prin- 
ciples are the same. And these are the people who com- 
plain of persecution, if they are not allowd to enter our 
pulpits and our homes ! No wonder the massacre sent a 
thrill of horror throughout America. It was a revelation, 
an unmasking of the Mormon character for which the 
people of this country were hardly prepared. Efforts 
were made to bring the offenders to justice. But, with the 
usual craftiness and deception of the Mormons, they suc- 
ceeded in thwarting these efforts for quite a while, and 
it was not until twenty years afterward that Major Lee 
was executed for his part in the terrible affair. But the 
real criminal — the one who was morally if not directly 
responsible for the massacre, whose influence encouraged 
it, if his brain did not plan and his tongue order it — was 
not touched. His name was Brigham Young. 


I closed the last chapter by saying that the name of the 
instigator of the Mountain Meadows massacre was Brig- 
ham Young. This, I know, is a very severe charge to 
bring against the former head of the Mormon Church ( ?) 
and the one who, more than anyone else — more even than 
Joseph Smith himself— gave shape to its policy and char- 
acter. But the charge is, I think, fully sustained by the 
following facts, among many others : 

i. Anyone who has studied Mormonism and who knows, 
its complete organization, its absolute despotism, knows 
that it would have been impossible for such a massacre 
to take place in Mormon territory and committed by Mor- 
mons, as proven beyond question, without the consent — 
nay, without the command, written or verbal — of Brigham 
Young. His word was law in church and state. 

2. Had such a massacre been committed without his 
consent, presuming it to have been possible, he could and 
would easily have discovered the perpetrators of it. On 
the contrary, he made no effort to do so, but rather threw 
all obstacles in the way of those who were trying to dis- 
cover them, and finally only surrendered Major Lee to 
save himself. 

3. Two years after the massacre a United States officer 
passed through the Mountain Meadows, gathered the 
bones of the murdered emigrants together and erected 

6 9 


over them a large pile of stones, upon one of which he 
had engraved : "Here lie the bones of 120 men, women 
and children from Arkansas, murdered on the 10th day 
of September, 1857." Upon a cross tree he caused to be 
painted : "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will 
repay it." This monument is said to have been destroyed 
the first time that Brigham Young visited the place. It 
is reported by one who stood by his side as he read the 
inscription that he remarked with a firm voice to those 
around him that the inscription should read : "Vengeance 
is mine, saith the Lord, and I have repaid." 

Daniel Page reports Brigham Young as saying : "Ven- 
geance is mine. I will repay, saith the Lord — and here I 
am and I ham repaid a little." At this time Brigham 
Young was claiming that he was God. 

4. As I stated, Major John D. Lee, the officer in charge 
of the Mormon forces at the time of the massacre, was 
executed in 1877, twenty years afterward. He was a son 
by adoption of Brigham Young. Lee pleaded innocence 
in court, but while in prison awaiting his execution made 
a full confession of the whole affair.* He gave the names 
of forty odd Mormons who took part in the massacre, and 
said that Brigham Young was instigator of the whole 
proceeding. Lee was shot by five United States soldiers, 
and while seated on his coffin, just a moment before his 
execution, he still said that in killing the emigrants he was 
only acting under the orders of Brigham Young. Five 
true bills were secured against Young, but as his death 
occurred soon after, he was never brought to trial, a most 
fortunate thing for the Mormons. 

5. This massacre was thoroughly in accord with the 
whole course of Mormonism under Brigham Young. 
Crime was common. Murder after murder was commit- 
tee Appendix B. 


ted, the perpetrators of which were never discovered, or 
at least never brought to justice. There were continual 
conflicts with the United States authorities. These con- 
flicts finally, in the fall of 1857, broke out into open rebel- 

Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, who afterward won im- 
perishable renown upon the battlefield of Shiloh in the 
war between the States, was sent at the head of a small 
army to suppress the rebellion. This he succeeded in 
doing without bloodshed, but only by the exercise of the 
greatest courage and determination and after much suf- 
fering on the part of his men. General Johnston's impres,- 
sions of the Mormons, as recorded in his life by Colonel 
William Preston Johnston, were not very complimentary. 
In a letter to the Adjutant General on November 5, 1857, 
he said of them : 

"Their conduct, as I have before stated as my opinion, 
results from a settled determination on their part not to 
submit to the authority of the United States, or any other 
outside of their church." 

Again, in a letter dated February 5, 1858, he said : 

'The Mormons have declared, as fully as words and 
actions can manifest intentions, that they will no longer 
submit to the government, or to any government but their 

In another letter he speaks of their "disloyalty to the 
Union" and of "the treasonable temper and feeling now 
pervading the leaders and a great portion of the Mor- 
mons." He insists that "they should be made to submit 
to the constitutional and legal demands of the government 
unconditionally. An adjustment of existing differences 
on any other basis would be nugatory." 

Writing to General Winfield Scott, March 31, 1859, he 
remarked : 


"I have refrained from speaking of the horrible crimes 
that have been perpetrated in this territory— crimes of a 
magnitude and of an apparently studied refinement in 
atrocity hardly to be conceived of, and which have gone 
unwhipped of justice. These, if the judges are sustained, 
they will endeavor to bring to light." 

Finding that he could not control General Johnston 
either by force or by bribery, Brigham Young determined 
to abandon Utah entirely to the hated United States 
soldiers and to seek a more congenial government, but 
suddenly changed his mind after about 30,000 of the 
people had begun moving southward, and promised sub- 
mission to the government. This promise was accepted 
in good faith and the army was for the most part with- 
drawn from the territory. "But as soon as the pressure 
of the troops was removed the voice of the prophet 
resumed its earlier tone of truculent defiance, blackguard- 
ism and blasphemy." 

The following from an officer at Camp Floyd, August 
11, i860, gives the changed aspect of affairs : "The sa'me 
game has commenced on the part of the Mormons that 
was played before the army came here as regards the 
Gentiles. Brigham preached a very inflammatory sermon 
last Sunday. He cursed the government, the President 
and the Gentiles. He said 'he would wipe them all — 
every one — out, d — n them! that he would let the gov- 
ernment know that he was still here ; that he would send 
every Gentile to hell with wooden legs, and that they had 
better be supplying themselves now while lumber was 
cheap/ " 

Finding it impossible to convict anyone for the frequent 
murders being committed about this time, Judge Cradle- 
baugh concluded an address from the bench as follows : 


"Men are murdered here — coolly, deliberately, premedi- 
tatedly murdered. Their murder is deliberated and deter- 
minded upon by church council meetings, and that, too, 
for no other reason than that they had apostatized from 
your church and were striving to leave the territory. You 
are the tools, the dupes, the instruments of a tyrannic 
cal church despotism. The heads of your church order 
and direct you. You are taught to obey their orders and 
commit these horrid murders. Deprived of your liberty, 
you have lost your manhood, and become the willing 
instrument of bad men. I say to you it will be my earnest 
effort, while with you, to knock off your ecclesiastical 
shackles and set you free. ,, 

It is greatly to be regretted that the earnest efforts of 
the judge were unavailing. The ecclesiastical shackles 
were not knocked off. They are still there. At another 
time Judge Cradlebaugh, chagrined and annoyed at his 
inability to reach the guilty, entered upon the docket of 
his court : "The whole community presents a united and 
organized opposition to the administration of justice." 

During the war between the States the sympathies of 
the Mormons were strongly against the North and in 
favor of the South, as was shown by the preaching in 
the tabernacle. It was not that the Mormons cared for 
the South any more than for the North. Like the Irish- 
man, they were simply against the government and wel- 
comed anything which would tend to overthrow it. On 
the Sunday afternoon preceding the surrender of General 
Lee, Brigham Young predicted in the tabernacle that 
there would be four more years of war. 

Brigham Young is very differently regarded in Salt 
Lake City. By the Mormons he is regarded as a Moses 
who led them out of Egypt, through the wilderness to 
the Promised Land. They consider him a kind of demi- 


god. But by the Gentiles he is considered more of a 
demagogue than a demigod, ambitious, scheming, cun- 
ning, selfish, grasping, coarse and lustful, loving power, 
money and women in the order named. His statue is 
placed in a conspicuous part of the city. But it was done 
by the Mormons over the indignant protests of the Gen- 
tiles, who now take their revenge by calling attention to 
the fact that he stands with his back to the temple and 
his hand stretched out toward the bank— which attitude, 
they say, is quite characteristic. At the time of his death 
he was estimated to be worth $7,000,000. 

Brigham Young's love of money led to a widespread 
apostasy from the Mormon church. The belief was gen- 
eral that the mountains of Utah were rich in minerals. 
But Brigham Young forbade the Mormons to search for 
or work mines, saying : "When the Lord wants the mines 
opened he will make the fact known through his priest- 
hood." In 1869, however, two Mormons, W. S. Godbe 
and E. L. T. Harrison, started a little magazine in which 
they advocated the opening of the mines. They were 
ordered to appear before the High Council for trial. 
George Q. Cannon, the present First Counselor to the 
Presidency, was the prosecutor. 

In his speech he said: "These two men sitting here 
have blacker hearts than any two men since the foundation 
of the world. They want to open up the mines and bring 
all hell and the devil in here." 

Judge C. C. Goodwin, editor of the Sale Lake Tribune, 
says in Munsey's Magazine for June, 1900, that "such a 
feeling was aroused in the council that only a word would 
have been reeded to cause these men to be torn to pieces." 
They were ex-communicated, together with Henry W. 
Lawrence, T. B. H. Stenhouse, the Walker brothers and 


others. That meant not only to be cut off from eternal 
life, according to Mormon teachings, but social ostracism 
and a business boycott. These men were nearly ruined in 
business. Mr. Godbe spent a fortune in maintaining a 
paper which should advocate free speech. This grew 
finally, as Gentiles moved into the territory, into 
the daily Salt Lake Tribune, of which Judge 
C. C. Goodwin is now the able editor. I had the pleasure 
of a visit to the home of Mr. Godbe. He is still working 
mines and seems to have been somewhat successful. He 
is a very pleasant and kindly gentleman, mild of manner 
and soft in speech. The Walker brothers were leading 
merchants. Brigham Young determined to break them 
down. He instituted a strict boycott against them, giving 
orders that no Mormon should trade with them. He sta- 
tioned Mormon policemen at the store to see that his 
orders were obeyed. He organized the Zion's Co-opera- 
tive Mercantile Institution, to compete with them. They 
sent him word that they had $150,000 to spend in the fight. 
They now have a large and flourishing store in Salt Lake 
City and are worth $1,000,000. 

Brigham Young died in 1877 and is buried in a private 
cemetery near the Temple, surrounded by eight of his 
twenty-six wives, and with space left for the others. 

The apostles conducted the affairs of the "church" 
until 1880, when John Taylor was elected president. He 
was an Englishman by birth, went to Canada, became a 
Methodist preacher, joined the Mormons, was with Joseph 
Smith in Nauvoo, and was wounded when Smith was 
killed. While on a mission to France he was asked if the 
Mormons did not believe in and practice polygamy. He 
denied it very emphatically. At that time he himself had 
at least six living wives. He was a thorough fanatic, who 


did not hesitate to declare that the Lord intends to rule 
this earth through the Mormon priesthood and that all 
other governments are usurpations. He made polygamy 
obligatory upon all Mormon officials. 

John Taylor died in 1887 and was succeeded by Wil- 
ford Woodruff, at the age of 80. He was well preserved, 
erect and clear-eyed. In 1897, though past 90, he made 
many speeches in the jubilee celebration. He is said to 
have been "gentle, and winsome in his ways and was loved 
exceedingly by the Mormon people." He it was who 
issued the famous manifesto advising the Mormons to 
discontinue the practice of polygamy. 

The present head of the church is Lorenzo Snow, who 
succeeded Wilford Woodruff in 1898. I had the pleas- 
ure of meeting him. He is a kindly looking old gentle- 
man, 85 years of age. He is said to be the best educated 
and most broad-minded man who ever occupied the re- 
sponsible position of President of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints, which, perhaps, is not say- 
ing very much. 

There are at present about 250,000 Mormons in the 
world. About 170,000 of these live in Utah and 30,000 
of them in Salt Lake City. The city has about 60,000 
inhabitants, divided nearly equally between the Mormons 
and Gentiles. The city election in November, 1899, was 
carried by the Gentiles. 



The doctrine of polygamy was revealed to Joseph Smith 
in 1843, so he claimed. But Mr. B. H. Roberts says that 
"it was in 183 1 that plural marriage was first made known 
to Joseph Smith." The "Book of Mormon," which, as we 
have seen, was written by Solomon Spaulding and Sidney 
Rigdon, had expressly forbidden polygamy. But this 
stood in the way of Smith's lecherous designs and prac- 
tices, so he had a "revelation" on the subject. It is con- 
tained in section 132 of the "Doctrine and Covenants," 
a book which is accepted by the Mormons as of 
equal authority with the "Book of Mormon," and which 
even supersedes the "Book of Mormon" where the two 
come in conflict, as in the case of the doctrine of poly- 

The heading of the section reads : 
"Revelation on the Eternity of the Marriage Covenant, 

including Plurality of Wives. Given through Joseph, 

the Seer, in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, July 

12th, 1843." 

The section is quite long, embracing sixty-six para- 
graphs. I should be glad to give it entire if I had space. 
I can, however, quote only a few salient paragraphs 
from it: 

"1. Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant 
Joseph, that inasmuch as you have inquired of my hand, 



to know and understand wherein I, the Lord, justified my 
servants Abraham, Isaac and Jacob ; as also Moses, David 
and Solomon, my servants, as touching the principle and 
doctrine of their having many wives and concubines : 

"2.. Behold ! and lo, I am the Lord thy God, and will 
answer thee as touching this matter : 

"3. Therefore, prepare thy heart to receive and obey 
the instructions which I am about to give unto you ; for 
all those who have this law revealed unto them must obey 
the same; 

"4. For behold ! I reveal unto you a new and an ever- 
lasting covenant ; and if ye abide not that covenant, then 
are ye damned; for no one can reject this covenant and 
be permitted to enter into my glory : 

"5. For all who will have a blessing at my hands shall 
abide the law which was appointed for that blessing, and 
the conditions thereof, as were instituted from before the 
foundation of the world : 

"6. And as pertaining to the new and everlasting cove- 
nant, it was instituted for the fullness of my glory ; and he 
that receiveth a fullness thereof, must and shall abide the 

law, or he shall be damned, saith the Lord God. 


"19. And again, verily I say unto you, if a man marry 
a wife by my word, which is my law, and by the new and 
everlasting covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the 
Holy Spirit of promise, by him who is anointed, unto 
whom I have appointed this power, and the keys of this 
Priesthood ; and it shall be said unto them, ye shall come 
forth in the first resurrection, and if it be after the first 
resurrection, in the next resurrection; and shall inherit 
thrones, kingdoms, principalities and powers, dominions, 
all heights and depths — then shall it be written in the 
Lamb's Book cf Life that he shall commit no murder 


whereby to shed innocent blood, and if ye abide in my 
covenant, and commit no murder whereby to shed inno- 
cent blood, it shall be done unto them in all things what- 
soever my servant hath put upon them, in time and 
through all eternity, and shall be of full force when they 
are out of the world ; and they shall pass by the angels 
and the Gods, which are set there, to their exaltation and 
glory in all things, as hath been sealed upon their heads, 
which glory shall be a fullness and a continuation of the 
seeds forever and ever. 

"20. Then shall they be Gods, because they have no 
end; therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlast- 
ing, because they continue ; then shall they be above all, 
because all things are subject unto them. Then shall they 
be Gods, because they have all power, and the angels are 
subject to them. 

"21. Verily, verily I say unto you, that except ye abide 

my law, ye cannot attain to this glory. 


"31. This promise is yours also, because ye are of 
Abraham, and the promise was made unto Abraham ; and 
by this law are the continuation of the works of my 
Father, wherein he glorifieth himself. 

"32. Go ye, therefore, and: do the works of Abraham ; 
enter ye into my law and ye shall be saved. 

"33. But if ye enter not into my law, ye cannot receive 
the promise of my Father, which he made unto Abraham. 

"34. God commanded Abraham, and Sarah gave Hagar 
to Abraham to wife. And why did she do it? Because 
this was the law, and from Hagar sprang many people. 
This, therefore, was fulfilling, among other things, the 

"35. Was Abraham, therefore, under condemnation? 


Verily, I say unto you, Nay, for I, the Lord, com- 
manded it. 

"35. Abraham was commanded to offer his son Isaac; 
nevertheless, it was written, thou shalt not kill. Abra- 
ham, however, did not refuse, and it was accounted unto 
him for righteousness. 

"37. Abraham received concubines, and they bear him 
children, and it was accounted unto him for righteous- 
ness, because they were given unto him, and he abode in 
my law, as Isaac, also, and Jacob did none other things 
than that which they were commanded ; and because they 
did none other things than that which they were com- 
manded, they have entered into their exaltation, accord- 
ing to the promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not 
angels, but are Gods. 

"38. David also received many wives and concubines, 
as also Solomon and Moses, my servants; as also many 
other servants, from the beginning of creation until this 
time; and in nothing did they sin, save in those things 
which they received not of me. 

"39. David's wives and concubines were given unto 
him, of me, by the hand of Nathan, my servant, and 
others of the prophets who had the keys of this power ; 
and in none of these things did he sin against me, save in 
the case of Uriah and his wife; and therefore he hath 
fallen from his exaltation, and received his portion; and 
he shall not inherit them out of the world ; for I gave them 
unto another, saith the Lord." 

As Smith had begun the practice of polygamy before 
he had this "revelation/' and as his wife, Emma, threat- 
ened to make trouble in the family, "the Lord" gave 
Smith a special "revelation" for her benefit, to quiet her 
compunctions of conscience, in which he said : 

"54. And I command mine handmaid, Emma Smith, to 


abide and cleave unto my servant, Joseph, and to none 
else. But if she will not abide this commandment, she 
shall be destroyed, saith the Lord ; for I am the Lord, thy 
God, and will destroy her, if she abide not in my law ; 

"55. But if she will not abide this commandment, then 
shall my servant, Joseph, do all things for her, even as he 
hath said ; and I will bless him and multiply him and give 
unto him an hundred-fold in this world, of fathers and 
mothers, brothers and sisters, houses and lands, wives 
and children, and crowns of eternal lives in the eternal 

"56. And again, verily I say, let mine handmaid forgive 
my servant Joseph, his trespasses ; and then shall she be 
forgiven her trespasses, wherein she hath trespassed 
against me ; and I, the Lord thy God, will bless her and 
multiply her, and make her heart to rejoice." 

The "revelation" continues: 

"61. And again, as pertaining to the law of the Priest- 
hood : If any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse 
another, and the first give her consent ; and if he espouse 
the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no 
other man, then he is justified ; he cannot commit adultery, 
for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit 
adultery with that that belongeth unto him, and to no one 

"62. And if he have ten virgins given unto him by this 
law he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him, 
and they are given unto him, therefore he is justified. 

"63. But if one or either of the ten virgins, after she 
is espoused, be with another man, she hath committed 
adultery, and she shall be destroyed ; for they are given 
unto him to multiply and replenish the earth, according 
to my commandment, and to fulfill the promise which 
was given by my Father before the foundation of the 


world ; and for their exaltation in the eternal worlds, that 

they may bear the souls of men; for herein is the work 

of my Father continued, that he may be glorified." 
The concluding paragraph of the section reads : 
"66. And now, as pertaining to this law, verily, verily, 

I say unto you, I will reveal more unto you, hereafter; 

therefore, let this suffice for the present. Behold, I am 

Alpha and Omega. Amen." 

I cannot discuss the doctrine of polygamy at any 

length now. I only want to call attention to a few points 

in the above "revelation." 

1. According to it every Mormon is required to believe 
in polygamy under penalty of damnation if he does not. 

2. Those who believe in and practice polygamy "shall 
be Gods." They shall "sit upon thrones, and are not 
angels, but are Gods." 

3. It contains an appeal to Smith's wife, Emma, to 
forgive him his "trespasses," showing that he acknowl- 
edged his trespasses against her. And thus the shame 
of the founder of Mormonism is recorded in one of its 
sacred books to stand forever against him as a brand of 

But, as we have seen, the attempt of Smith to put his 
doctrine into practice led to his death at the hands of an 
infuriated mob. The doctrine itself was not published 
until nine years later. It was openly proclaimed in 1852 
by Brigham Young, after he was securely settled in 
Utah, where he thought himself beyond the power of 
the United States laws. It was intended as a justification 
of his own course. In order to give effect to it, he com- 
manded other Mormon leaders to take to themselves 
polygamous wives. This they did very reluctantly at 
first. But the practice grew both in extent and in bold- 



When the people of the United States realized that 
there was in their land a body of people guilty of the 
grossest immorality under the name of religion, they felt 
a thrill of horror and they determined to check it. The 
first anti-polygamy law was passed by Congress, July I, 
1862. It is known as the Cullom law. It reads as fol- 

"Every person having a husband or wife living who 
marries another, whether married or single, in a territory, 
or other place over which the United States have exclu- 
sive jurisdiction, is guilty of bigamy, and shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars, and 
by imprisonment for a term not more than five years ; but 
this section shall not extend to any person by reason of 
any former marriage whose husband or wife by such 
marriage is absent for five successive years, and is not 
known to such person to be living; nor to any person "by 
reason of any former marriage which has been dissolved 
by decree of a competent court; nor to any person by 
reason of any former marriage which has been pronounced 
void by decree of a competent court on the ground of nul- 
lity of the marriage contract." (Revised Statutes of the 
U. S., Second Edition, 1878.) 

In 1880 Governor Eli H. Murray, of Kentucky, then 
Governor of Utah, refused a certificate of election to Con- 



gress to George Q. Cannon, on the ground that he had 
violated this law. The women of the country interested 
themselves in the matter. Congress declined to seat Mr. 
Cannon, and he was compelled to return home and look 
after his growing family. But as the Mormons used 
every artifice to evade this law, Congress, on March 
22, 1882, passed a much more stringent one, known as 
the Edmunds law, which reads as follows : 

"Be it enacted, etc., That section fifty-three hundred 
and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes of the United States 
be and the same is hereby amended as follows, namely : 

"Section 1. Every person who has a husband or wife 
living, who, in a territory or other place over which the 
United States have exclusive jurisdiction, hereafter mar- 
ries another, whether married or single, and any man who 
hereafter, simultaneously, or on the same day, marries 
more than one woman, in a territory or other place over 
which the United States have exclusive jurisdiction, is 
guilty of polygamy, and shall be punished by a fine of not 
more than five hundred dollars and by imprisonment for 
a term of not more than five years. 

"Sec. 2. That the foregoing provisions shall not affect 
the prosecution or punishment of any offense committed 
against the section amended by the first section of this act. 

"Sec. 3. That if any male person, in a territory or other 
place over which the United States have exclusive juris- 
diction, hereafter cohabits with more than one woman, he 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction 
thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than three 
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not more than 
six months, or by both said punishments in the discretion 
of the court." 

Then follow a number of other sections, nine in all 


which are too long and hardly of sufficient importance to 
quote in full. I give the substance of them: 

Section 4 provides that the counts in sections 1 and 3 
may be joined. 

Section 5 provides that a person guilty of bigamy 
or unlawful cohabitation, as denned in sections 1 and 3, 
or who "believes it right for a man to have more than one 
living and undivorced wife at the same time, or to live 
in the practice of cohabiting with more than one woman," 
may be challenged and questioned and disqualified for 
service on jury. 

Section 6 provides that the President may grant am- 
nesty to persons guilty of bigamy, etc., before the passage 
of this act. 

Section 7 provides that the children of Mormon mar- 
riages before January, 1883, shall be made legitimate. 

Section 8 provides that bigamists, etc., shall be disquali- 
fied as voters and ineligible to appointments. 

Section 9 provides for a board to take the place of the 
registration and election officers who are declared out of 
office, and fixes the salary of members of the board. 

The essential difference between this law and the one 
passed in 1862 is the clause condemning unlawful cohabi- 
tation. (Supplement to Revised Statutes of U. S., Vol. I., 
Second Edition, 74-91.) 

But even the Edmunds law, stringent as it was, did not 
seem to accomplish its purpose. There were loop holes 
in it through which the Mormons could escape. So on 
March 3, 1887, the Edmunds-Tucker Act was passed as 
an amendment to the Edmunds Act of 1882. 

This is quite long, embracing twenty-seven sections. 
I can give only the substance of some of them bearing 
especially on the subject of polygamy, etc. 


Paragraph I provides that in prosecutions for bigamy, 
etc., the husband or wife may testify, but not to confiden- 
tial communications between them. 

Paragraph 2 provides for the issuance of an attachment 
when it is believed that a witness will fail to appear. 

Paragraph 9 requires that certificates of marriage shall 
be filed by anyone performing the marriage ceremony 
in the territories of the United States, such certificates 
to be prima facie evidence of marriage. This section also 
provides that those who violate its provisions shall be 
"punished by a fine of not more than $1,000, or by im- 
prisonment not longer than two years, or by both said 
punishments, in the discretion of the court." 

Paragraph 10 provides that any legal evidence of mar- 
riage may be admissible. 

Paragraph 1 1 provides that the laws of Utah allowing 
illegitimate children to inherit the property of their 
father shall be annulled, which provision, however, was 
not to be retroactive. 

Then follow several sections with reference to the prop- 
erty rights of persons in Utah. 

Paragraph 17 provides for the abolition of the "acts 
of the legislative assembly of the Territory of Utah, in- 
corporating, continuing or providing for the corporation 
known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints and the ordinance of the so-called general assem- 
bly of the State of Deseret incorporating the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints," and provides for 
winding up its affairs. 

Paragraph 22 provides that the election districts shall 
be abolished, the Territory redistricted, and that only 
citizens of the United States shall be entitled to vote. 

Paragraph 23 requires that an oath shall be taken before 


voting, in which every person shall swear to support the 
Constitution of the United States, and to faithfully obey 
the laws thereof, and especially the Edmunds Act of 1882, 
and provides that jurors shall be required to do the same. 
It goes on to say : 

"No person shall be entitled to vote in any election in 
said territory, or be capable of jury service, or hold any 
office of trust or emolument in said territory, who shall 
not have taken the oath or affirmation aforesaid. No 
person who shall have been convicted of any crime under 
this act, or under the act of Congress aforesaid, approved 
March 22, 1882, or who shall be a polygamist, or who 
shall associate with or cohabit polygamously with persons 
of the other sex, shall be entitled to vote in any election 
in said territory, or be capable of jury service, or hold 
any office of trust or emolument in said territory." 

This law was so minute in its provisions as to cover 
every conceivable case of polygamy or unlawful cohabita- 
tion, and also so stringent that it could not be evaded. It 
produced the greatest consternation in the Mormon ranks. 
Many arrests were made for polygamy, unlawful cohabi- 
tation, etc. The courts and juries being taken out of 
Mormon hands, conviction followed arrest. 

To Judge John W. Judd, now of Nashville, but who 
was at that time Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Utah, is due especial credit for enforcing the law 
and thus shattering the almost impregnable organization 
of the Mormons. 

John Taylor had succeeded Brigham Young in 1877 
as head of the church. After the passage of the Edmunds 
Act he fled to Mexico to escape its provisions and died 
there in 1886, a fugitive from justice. He was succeeded 
by Wilford Woodruff. He followed the example set by 


his predecessor, and after the passage of the Edmunds- 
Tucker Act he went in hiding to evade the punishment 
it provided for all who violated it, as he was constantly 

George Q. Cannon, who stood second to Wilford 
Woodruff in authority, and the delegate from the Terri- 
tory of Utah to Congress, fled from Utah, but he was 
arrested at Denver and sent back. On the way to Salt 
Lake City he complained of being sick, went to the rear 
platform of the train and fell (?) off. But the officer 
fell ( ?) too. Mr. Cannon was brought back, put under 
a $40,000 bond, which he jumped, but afterward he re- 
turned, was sentenced and sent to the United States 

Mr. Brigham H. Roberts, the polygamous Congress- 
man-elect to the Fifty-sixth Congress, took every one of 
his plural wives in violation of the Edmunds and Ed- 
munds-Tucker laws. He served a term in the peniten- 
tiary for polygamy, and when he came out he showed his 
defiance of the law by taking another wife. This is the 
man who went to Washington asking a seat in Congress 
to make laws for the people of this country ! 

Dr. T. C. Iliff, Superintendent of Methodist Missions 
in Utah and Presiding Elder of the Salt Lake City dis- 
trict, and who has spent twenty-eight years in Utah, 
recently delivered a very interesting lecture in the Tulip 
Street Methodist Church, Nashville, in the course of 
which he said that about this time he was chaplain of the 
United States penitentiary, and that he had a very distin- 
guished audience, which included one apostle, about forty 
or fifty bishops and innumerable elders — all in prison 
garb. These men, who were convicted of breaking the 
law, all had the opportunity to escape by promising to 



obey the law in the future, but they steadfastly refused 
to do so, preferring to go to the penitentiary rather than 
give up their habits of polygamy, so strongly did they 
hold to the doctrine. 

Finding, however, that they could not evade the law, 
and that it did not pay to defy it, the Mormons decided 
to try another tack. So in 1890 President Wilford Wood- 
ruff issued a manifesto to his followers, in which he 
declared that he proposed to obey the laws and advised 
every one else to do so. He was asked on the witness 
stand if his proclamation was intended to cover future 
plural marriages. He said it did. Again, he was asked 
if it was intended to cover unlawful cohabitation as 
denned by the Edmunds-Tucker law. He said it did. 

Lorenzo Snow, the present head of the church, who 
succeeded Wilford Woodruff in 1898, also testified to the 
same effect. 

In 1891 an amnesty was granted by President Harrison 
to those Mormons who were in exile and in the peniten- 
tiary. This was done on the most solemn promise of the 
Mormon leaders, pledging their "faith and honor" that 
old polygamous relations should cease and that no new 
polygamous marriages would be consummated— in other 
words, that they would obey the laws. 

Two great conferences of the Mormon people held in 
the tabernacle in October, 1890, and October, 1891, sol- 
emnly and unanimously ratified this action of their lead- 
ers. In order to get back the church property which had 
been confiscated by the United States Government in the 
Edmunds-Tucker Act, the Mormon Church pledged itself 
that "the rightfulness of the doctrine of polygamy shall 
not be inculcated"— that is, that it should not even be 



Having quieted the public conscience by such profuse 
promises, the Mormons then began to apply for statehood 
for Utah. The evident purpose of this action was to get 
out from under the jurisdiction of the United States 
Courts and have the privilege of making their own laws 
and choosing their own judges and jurors. 

On December 12, 1893, Mr. J. L. Rawlins, now United 
States Senator from Utah, then delegate to Congress from 
the Territory of Utah, pledged on the floor of the House 
of Representatives, on behalf of the leaders of the Mor- 
mon Church, that if Utah should be admitted to the Union 
as a State, polygamy would be forever abolished by the 
people of that State. 

In view of all these solemn pledges, and as both political 
parties wished to conciliate the Mormons and secure their 
votes — because they are accustomed to vote solidly, one 
way or the other — Congress, on July 16, 1894, passed the 
Enabling Act, granting statehood to Utah. But to be on 
the safe side, it accompanied the grant with the following 
provision, as a condition precedent to admission: 

"And said [constitutional] convention shall provide, by 
ordinance irrevocable without the consent of the United 
States and the people of said State — First, That perfect 
toleration of religious sentiment be secured, and that no 
inhabitant of said State shall ever be molested in person 
or property on account of his or her mode of religious 



worship ; provided, that polygamous or plural marriages 
are forever prohibited." 

The constitutional convention of Utah, in accordance 
with this condition, incorporated into the Constitution a 
clause forever prohibiting the practice of polygamy with- 
in the bounds of that State. The following is the clause : 

"The following ordinance shall be irrevocable without 
the consent of the United States and the people of this 
State : First— Perfect toleration of religious sentiment is 
guaranteed. No inhabitant of this State shall ever be 
molested in person or property on account of his or her 
mode of religious worship, but polygamous or plural mar- 
riages are forever prohibited." 

This, as is seen, is almost an exact copy of the clause 
on the subject of polygamy in the Enabling Act, showing 
how thoroughly the people of Utah, of whom about five- 
sixths are Mormons, agreed to accept its provisions. 

Mr. B. H. Roberts, afterwards the Congressman-elect 
from Utah, was a prominent member of the constitutional 
convention which adopted this clause. 

The same constitutional convention provided that all 
laws of the territory in force at the time the Constitution 
was adopted should remain in force until they expired by 
their own limitations or were altered or repealed by the 
Legislature. Among these laws is the one against "un- 
lawful co-habitation," found in section 3 of the Edmunds 
law already quoted. The Legislature of Utah incorpo- 
rated this law into the penal code of the State. 

It reads as follows : 

"If any male person cohabits with more than one 
woman he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on con- 
viction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more 
than $300, or by imprisonment in the county jail for not 


more than six months, or by both said punishments, in the 
discretion of the Court." (Revised Statutes of Utah, 1898, 
p. 900, section 4209.) 

The Mormons accepted these conditions. Of course 
they did. They would have accepted any conditions to 
get statehood. What did they care for conditions when 
such a big prize was at stake ? Conditions, pledges, prom- 
ises, are made only to be broken anyhow — by Mormons. 

Brigham Young had said in a sermon delivered in the 
Salt Lake Tabernacle, July 12, 1875 : 

"Do not be discouraged by your repeated failures to 
get into the Union as a State. We shall succeed, we shall 
pull the wool over the eyes of the American people and 
make them swallow Mormonism, polygamy and all. 

"We shall drop the old issue between the Mormons and 
the Liberals in Utah, ally ourselves with the two great 
national parties, dividing ourselves about equally — so as 
to fall in with the one in power. We don't know and we 
don't care about the issues. We must be at peace with 
them in order to get into the Union. After that we can 
snap our fingers in their faces, restore the good old 
times when we dwelt undisturbed in these valleys of the 
mountains, and cast out devils as we used to do." 

But statehood was granted. The Mormons at last 
received their coveted prize. They were removed from 
under the jurisdiction of the United States Government 
and were given the privilege to make their own laws, with 
all the powers of a sovereign State. What followed? 
They at once proceeded to teach polygamy all over the 
State and to resume their polygamous practices, "snapped 
their fingers" defiantly in the face of Congress and said : 
"Now, what are you going to do about it?" Brigham 
Young's prophesy became history — for one time. The 


"good old times" were restored. Missionaries from all 
over Utah testified that old conditions were being revived 
and that the Mormon leaders were violating their solemn 

When attention was called to this condition of things 
the Deseret News, of Salt Lake City, the official organ of 
the Mormon Church, gave lengthy editorial space to a de- 
fense of such lawless course, claiming that there was at 
the time of admission "a tacit understanding, not to say 
contract, that the dead strife [prosecution for polygamy] 
should be buried ; that family obligations [meaning poly- 
gamous marriages] already entered into and maintained 
for years should not be disrupted." Upon the same sub- 
ject Mr. B. H. Roberts said : "Technically a law [against 
cohabitation with plural wives] crept into our statute 
books. * * * That law has not been executed, and, like 
some of the blue laws of Connecticut, which exist on the 
statute books under similar circumstances, it has not been 
enforced." (See Salt Lake Herald, Nov. 6, 1898.) All 
this is, of course, in effect admitting that both the pre- 
tended constitutional and the legal prohibition of 
polygamy were a mere farce to deceive the nation and 
secure statehood for Utah — or, to use Brigham Young's 
elegant phrases, the purpose of their adoption was simply 
to "pull the wool over the eyes of the American people 
and make them swallow Mormonism, polygamy and all." 



In addition to all the violations of their solemn pledges 
upon the subject of polygamy mentioned in the last chap- 
ter, and as if to throw down the gauntlet to the American 
people, the Mormons in November, 1898, elected Mr. 
Brigham H. Roberts as their representative in the Fifty- 
sixth Congress. As this case attracted the attention of the 
whole country, I shall discuss it somewhat in detail. Mr. 
Roberts is a prominent Mormon elder and the author of 
one of their standard books, called "New Witness for 
God," which lies before me. In this he uses all the arts 
of sophistry and of ingenuity to prove that Joseph Smith 
is that "New Witness." I shall have occasion to quote 
from the book later on other points. We are concerned 
now only with his belief and practice as to polygamy. 
He was an avowed polygamist, having at least three 
wives. All of his polygamous wives, if they may be 
called such, he married since the Edmunds anti-polygamy 
law of 1882, or since the congressional anti-polygamy law 
of 1862, and hence his marriages were all consummated 
in the open and willful defiance of law, as well as in the 
willful defiance of the sense of morality of the American 
people. He was convicted of living with a plural wife 
prior to the amnesty proclamation of President Benjamin 
Harrison, January 4, 1893, and of President Grover 
Cleveland, September 25, 1894, for which offense he 



served a term of imprisonment, to which he was sentenced 
on May 1, 1889. He confessedly lived with plural wives 
and begat polygamous children since November 1, 1890, 
and had not therefore complied with the conditions of 
either of the said amnesty proclamations. 

His election aroused the intensest indignation all over 
the country. It seemed a deliberate attempt to carry out 
Brigham Young's threat to "pull the wool over the eyes 
of the American people and make them swallow Mormon- 
ism, polygamy and all." 

The Ministers' Association of Salt Lake City sent out 
tract after tract giving information upon the subject. 
Dr. T. C. Iliff and Rev. Wm. R. Campbell, of the Associa- 
tion, came east and by their speeches and their persuasion 
fanned the interest into a flame. The League for Social 
Service of. New York City, Dr. Josiah Strong, Secretary, 
took up the fight and flooded the country with pamphlets 
bearing on it. The women of the country became 
aroused and exerted all of their mighty influence against 
Mr. Roberts. Miss Helen Gould supplied the funds nec- 
essary to employ attorneys and for other expenses in 
carrying on the fight. Conventions, associations, con- 
ferences, synods, presbyteries and churches of all denomi- 
nations passed resolutions against the seating of Mr. 
Roberts. Petition after petition was sent to the members 
of Congress requesting them to vote against his being 
seated. Public sentiment was never so aroused and cer- 
tainly never so thoroughly unanimous upon any subject in 
this country. 

To try to stem the tide Mr. Roberts gave out an inter- 
view about the first of the year 1899, in which he said : 

"Joseph Smith received a commandment from the Lord 
to introduce our order of marriage into the church, and 


on this strength of revelation, and not by reason of any- 
thing that is written in the Jewish Scriptures, the Latter 
Day Saints practice plural marriages. Polygamy is not 
adultery, for if it were so considered, then Abraham, 
Jacob and the prophets who practiced it would not be 
allowed a heritance in the kingdom of heaven, and if 
polygamy is not adultery, then it cannot be classed as a 
sin at all. It appears to me that modern Christians must 
either learn to tolerate polygamy or give up forever the 
glorious hope of resting in Abraham's bosom. 

'That which God approves, and so strikingly approves, 
must be not only not bad, but positively good, pure and 
holy. Notwithstanding this, however, the hand of the 
Gentiles was laid so heavy upon the people of the Lord 
that in his mercy God permitted them to cease therefrom 
from expediency, and true to the pledges given by the 
church no polygamous marriages have since been cele- 
brated by the church. But not even the church can take 
away from a man the wives it has already given him. 
They are his for time and eternity, and I think that the 
great, broad-minded and just people will not require a 
man to cast off the wives he has, with whom he has lived, 
nor to abandon his children." 

At the most, Mr. Roberts said, his offense was unlawful 
co-habitation, and he remarked: "I am here and the 
courts are open. If anyone wants to test the point, the 
way is clear." 

This interview only added fuel to the flames. It will be 
seen that Mr. Roberts not only admitted that he was a 
polygamist, but he defended polygamy as "positively good, 
pure and holy," on the grounds that Joseph Smith re- 
ceived it "as a commandment from the Lord." He even 
went so far as to condemn Christians who do not believe 


in polygamy, saying that they "must either learn to toler- 
ate polygamy or give up the glorious hope of resting in 
Abraham's bosom." Mr. Roberts thus defied not only 
the Christian and moral sentiment of this country, but 
also the legal sentiment as expressed in the Edmunds- 
Tucker act, forbidding polygamous marriages, and also as 
embodied in the Constitution of his own State, which 
declared against such marriages as a condition of the 
admission of the State into the Union. 

I was in Salt Lake City during the height of the excite- 
ment in regard to the Roberts case, just a few weeks be- 
fore the meeting of Congress. 

While there I made a special study of the case. In fact, 
that was largely my purpose in going to Salt Lake City 
at that time. It may be of interest to give the result of 
my observations as to how the case was viewed out there. 
It was the one universal theme of conversation. It was 
discussed on the streets, in the hotels and in the stores. 
Wherever two or three were gathered together in Salt 
Lake City there was the Roberts case discussed. The 
papers every day contained column after column upon the 
subject in their news department and usually had an edi- 
torial or two about it also. The almost universal opinion 
and wish among non-Mormons, irrespective of party, 
was that Roberts would be unseated, and there were a good 
many Mormons who felt the same way. But the genuine 
Mormon stood by him very earnestly and hoped to see 
him seated. 

I shall condense the arguments on both sides and shall 
try to consider them as fairly and fully as practicable. 

First, then, the case for Roberts. 

1. Mr. Roberts was legally elected, receiving a majority 
of about 6,000 in the State of Utah. (The population of 


the State entitles it to only one representative in Con- 
gress.) His credentials were perfectly regular — as regu- 
lar as those of any other member-elect of the Fifty-sixth 
Congress. His opponent did not even contest the seat. 
He, however, was himself a Mormon. 

2. Mr. Roberts contended that all the agreement which 
was entered into between Utah and the Government of 
the United States when the former was admitted to state- 
hood was that there should be no more polygamous mar- 
riages in the future, and that this agreement had been 
faithfully carried out by the people of Utah. 

3. He claimed that he was elected as a Democrat by 
Democratic votes and that nether the Mormon church 
nor polygamy had anything to do with his election. 

4. He claimed also that he was not guilty of polygamy, 
by which term Mr. Roberts and other Mormons under- 
stand, not living with more than one wife, as other people 
understand it to mean, but marrying more than one 
wife. He admitted, or at least he had previously admitted, 
that he was living with three wives. But he claimed that 
he married them all before the manifesto in 1890, and 
also, of course, before statehood. 

5. He said that he promised to be a husband to them 
and he did not think that it would be just to them for him 
to cast them off. 

6. At the most his offense, he claimed, was only a mis- 
demeanor, under the laws of Utah, and he could be pun- 
ished for it before the courts, if desired. 

7. Besides, he was no worse than other men. If Miss 
Helen Gould and others who were fighting him wanted to 
punish immorality, they could find plenty of it at their 
own doors. It was also intimated, and by some it was 
openly said, that Mr. Roberts was no worse than other 


congressmen. The only difference was that he took his 
wives openly and they took theirs secretly. 

As far as I can recall, these are all the arguments made 
by Mr. Roberts and his friends in his behalf. Really, his 
case seemed a strong one. Now, what were the answers 
to these arguments? Let us consider the case against 

i. It was admitted that he was legally elected and that 
on their face his credentials were all right. 

2. It was not admitted, however, that all the agreement 
entered into between Utah and the United States when 
Utah was admitted to statehood was simply that there 
should be no more polygamous marriages in the State. 
On the contrary, it was pointed out that the Mormon 
leaders on the witness stand distinctly interpreted the 
manifesto of President Woodruff as referring not only to 
future polygamous marriages, but also to continued po- 
lygamous cohabitation. The language of both President 
Woodruff himself and also President Snow was taken 
down and lies before me as I write. It was shown also 
that President Harrison in his proclamation of January 4, 
1893, expressly conditioned the grant of amnesty to the 
citizens of Utah upon "the faithful observance of the laws 
of the United States against unlawful cohabitation," not 
against new polygamous marriages, and that President 
Cleveland repeated the same condition in his proclama- 
tion of September 24, 1894, thus indicating the under- 
standing which the United States Government had of the 
matter. It was also shown that the Legislature of Utah, 
as an expression of its good faith, passed a law against 
unlawful cohabitation as well as against future polyga- 
mous marriages. The Mormons claimed that this law was 
intended to be a dead letter. In other words, it was in- 


tended only for foreign consumption. Its purpose was to 
deceive the people of the United States by making them 
believe that there was no polygamous cohabitation being 
practiced in the State, while they would go on practicing 
it all the time, and no one at home would say anything 
about it. They were exceedingly indignant at Mr. Charles 
Mostyn Owen, representative of the New York Journal, 
for exposing their deception. The very fact, however, 
that the Legislature of Utah passed the law against un- 
lawful cohabitation shows the understanding which the 
people of Utah had of the compact made by them with 
the United States Government. 

3. It was admitted that Mr. Roberts was nominated as 
a Democrat, but it was not admitted that the Mormon 
Church did not have anything to do with his election. 
On the contrary, the following facts were given: (a) 
Some of the most prominent Democrats in the State were 
among his strongest opponents. In fact, about every 
Gentile in Utah, Democrat as well as Republican, was 
against him.. Some of these voted for him, but they 
said they did so for the purpose of testing the question 
of whether a polygamist could hold a federal office, 
(b) The one paper in the United States which did more 
against Mr. Roberts than any other was a Democratic 
paper, the New York Journal, (c) The curious spec- 
tacle was presented of the Democratic organ, the Salt 
Lake Herald, having very little to say about the matter, 
and almost nothing in the defense of Mr. Roberts, while 
the organ of the Mormon Church, the Deseret Evening 
News took the deepest interest in the case and was the 
recognized champion of Mr. Roberts, (d) When sev- 
eral years ago Mr. Roberts fell out with the church lead- 
ers and ran for office without first having obtained their 


consent, he was overwhelmingly defeated, while this time 
he was overwhelmingly elected. From this fact many be- 
lieved and charged that the church was back of Mr. Rob- 
erts, and that its purpose was to test public sentiment 
upon the subject of polygamy, and if it was found that 
the time was ripe for it, to have the Legislature of the 
State repeal the law against unlawful cohabitation, and 
.perhaps also to resume their new polygamous marriages. 
I am not sure about this, but there could be no question 
that the Mormons still believe in polygamy; that it is a 
part of their religion, as they say; that many are still 
practicing polygamous cohabitation; that the manifesto 
of President Woodruff did not abolish the principle of 
polygamy, but only suspended its practice for the sake of 
expediency ; that there had been at least two polygamous 
marriages among the Mormons in the last three years, 
and that the church had honored, rather than punished, 
those who engaged in them. Putting all these things 
together, it certainly looks as if there were some ground, 
to say the least, for the charge that the Mormon Church 
was back of the election of Mr. Roberts. 

4. Mr. Roberts may not be a polygamist, as he under- 
stands the word. But the following facts would seem to 
indicate it to an ordinary mind : (a) He has three living 
wives. Their names are Louisa Roberts, whom he claims 
as his legal wife, according to an oath taken by him in 
1895, and a fac simile of which is in my possession ; Celia 
Dibble Roberts r and Dr. Margaret C. Shipp Roberts. 
All of these he married after the Edmunds act of 1882, 
or certainly since the Congressional law of 1862. (b) On 
May 1, 1889, he was sentenced to a term of imprisonment 
for living in unlawful cohabitation with more than one 
wife, and served out his term, (c) When he came out 


of prison he showed his contempt for the law by taking 
a new wife, Dr. Maggie C. Shipp. Just when he married 
her is not known. He claimed that he did so before the 
manifesto of President Woodruff in 1890. But while he 
was in prison Mr. Shipp was tried, as the records show, 
for living in unlawful cohabitation with Dr. Maggie C. 
Shipp and others. And it was not until 1897 that Mrs. 
Shipp took the name of Mrs. Roberts, (d) That he was 
living in unlawful- cohabitation with them is proven by 
the fact that in 1895 Celia Dibble gave birth to a child, 
and on August 11, 1897, she gave birth to what were 
known as the "famous twins." 

5. No one demanded that Air. Roberts cast off his plu- 
ral wives. Every one said that he should support them. 
But it was demanded by public sentiment, as well as by 
decency, that he should not continue living in unlawful 
cohabitation with them. 

6. Mr. Roberts said that his offense was only a mis- 
demeanor. That is true, according to the laws of Utah. 
But in saying that he admitted that he was a law breaker, 
and the people of this country do not want a constant 
and flagrant and defiant law breaker to be a law maker for 
them. He was very free to suggest that he cpuld be tried 
in the courts of Utah for the offense. But at the same 
time he was very careful to keep out of the way of those 
courts. He knew that there was an indictment pending 
against him for unlawful cohabitation, and it was to 
avoid that indictment that he left Utah several months 
before the meeting of Congress and remained away until 
his case was disposed of in Washington, 

7. His claim that he was no worse than other men did 
not palliate his offense. And the claim of his friends 
that he was no worse than other Congressmen was a reflec- 




tion upon our Congressmen which I do not believe. That 
may be true of some Congressmen, but it is certainly not 
true of all. Besides, their offense, if such it be, is not 
open and flagrant. If it should become so it would create 
as great a wave of public indignation as existed against 
Mr. Roberts, if not greater. Witness the case of Col. 
W. C. P. Breckinridge. 

8. Deny it, disguise it as he might, the issue which the 
election of Mr. Roberts forced upon the American people 
was, Shall polygamy continue to be tolerated in this 
country ? 

In an address is'sued by the Salt Lake Ministerial 
Association to the people of this country these ministers 

"If Mr. Roberts is permitted to remain in Congress, 
and we fail to get a constitutional amendment prohibit- 
ing the practice of polygamy, this anti-American institu- 
tion will fasten itself upon this inter-mountain region, 
whence it will ultimately spread throughout the country, 
until some day the American people will have to rise in 
their might and crush it in order to prevent this nation 
from crumbling into dust. In the meantime thousands 
of hearts will be broken and multitudes of souls will be 
sacrificed to the demon of deified lust, while the very name 
of this fair land will come very near becoming a reproach 
in the eyes of the civilized world." 

From 20,000,000 homes and 70,000,000 throats all over 
the land the cry came in thunder tones that such a man, 
representing such an issue, must not be allowed to sit in 
our Congressional halls and help to make our national 

When Congress met on December 4, 1899, the most 
prominent question before it was as to whether Mr. 


Roberts should be seated or not. When he presented 
himself to take the oath of office his right to do so was 
challenged by Hon. Robert W. Taylor, of Ohio. By a 
vote of 302 to 30 he was refused the privilege of taking 
the oath, and the case was referred to a special committee 
of nine members, with Mr. Taylor as chairman. This 
committee was unanimous against allowing him to retain 
his seat. The only question was as to whether he should 
be excluded or sworn in and then expelled. Seven mem- 
bers of the committee favored exclusion and two expul- 
sion. There were strong arguments on both sides, but 
by a vote of 268 to 50 the house voted to exclude him. 
And the fifty who voted for the minority report were 
not in favor of allowing him to keep his seat. They only 
thought that it would be better to permit him to be sworn 
in on the face of his credentials, and then to expel him. 
So that really he was excluded by a unanimous vote. This 
shows the strength of public sentiment when it is aroused. 

The following extracts from an eloquent speech de- 
livered on the floor of the House by Mr. Landis, of In- 
diana, during the discussion of the Roberts case, will be 
of interest here : "Pages might be written of the vio- 
lation of the compact by which Utah was given a star. 
Mr. Speaker, that star is a fallen star: it does not shine 
with the brilliancy and luster of her sister stars. It 
shines by cunning and by deceit, by treachery, by fraud. 
It speaks of crime and violation of the most solemn 
covenant ever made between territory and the union. 
[Applause.] And I charge here that Utah came in as 
the result of a deliberate conspiracy to free that peo- 
ple from the heavy hand of the federal authority and thus 
enable them to live their religion unhindered. 

"The gentleman from Utah, Mr. Roberts, has been 


particularly severe on the missionaries. I do not won- 
der at it. The missionary has given attention to the 
polygamist, has stood in his path, has scattered thorns 
along his way, and for this he is branded as a spotter, 
an informer and a spy. History will bear out this state- 
ment, that although these fanatical priests and their de- 
luded followers put a thousand miles of trackless wild- 
erness, a thousand miles of desert waste, infested with 
savages, between civilization, between their camp of 
bigotry and crime, yet the distance was not too great 
nor were the hardships too severe to daunt the spirit of 
the missionary of the Christian Church. He tracked 
polygamy and faced it in its lair. The Danites, as cruel 
and pitiless a band of cut-throats as ever handled the 
glittering steel, carried on the murderous work of the 
church. Still the missionary toiled on. The blood aton- 
ers silenced forever in death the voice of apostacy. The 
government practically abandoned the field, considering 
that it was powerless to hinder that monster, fortified 
in those mountain fastnesses ; but the American Christian 
missionary with a courage that now seems sublime, with 
a fidelity to purpose that is now an inspiration, battled 
on in the fear of God and for the love of humanity. 

"I will say that the people of this country expect us 
to turn him back," said Mr. Landis, in conclusion. "I 
protest against his coming in. I protest on behalf of 
a constituency that has read the Ten Commandments 
and the Sermon on the Mount. I protest on behalf 
of the American homes, made beautiful by love and de- 
votion and holy by the virtue of our womanhood. I 
protest on behalf of the American mother and her child 
and the American father who will never consent to 


the enthronement and deification of human passion, and 
of those doomed to illegitimacy. The country is wait- 
ing for us to act; from New England, whose homes 
have been made a pattern for this continent, to way 
down South in Dixie, where honor is religion, where 
gallantry is law, and virtue is the high ideal of beautiful 
womanhood, States are waiting to-day, waiting for the 
American chivalry to speak." [Loud applause.] 

After his exclusion Mr. Roberts issued a statement 
in which he admitted that there were at that time "i,543 
polygamous families in the church throughout the 
world" — nearly all, of course, in Utah. He declared 
that he was "overwhelmed by the force of numbers, but 
not dismayed," and returned to Utah — and to his com- 
plicated domestic relations. Mr. King, a Mormon, but 
not a polygamist, was elected to succeed him. Soon after 
his return to Salt Lake City, Mr. Roberts was indicted for 
living in polygamous cohabitation, pleaded not guilty and 
was convicted and fined, but appealed his case to a 
higher court on two grounds: (i.) That he was 
indicted for living in unlawful cohabitation with 
more than one woman. But he claimed that one 
of them was his legal wife, and so living with her 
was not unlawful cohabitation. (2.) That he was indicted 
in Salt Lake County for living in unlawful cohabitation 
with more than one woman. But one of these women 
lived in another County, and so he could not be found 
guilty in Salt Lake County of living in unlawful cohabita- 
tion with more than one woman. Such are the subter- 
fuges of Mormonism. 

This closes the history of Mormonism to the present. 
And what a history it has been — a story from beginning 
to end of imposture, of fraud, of quarrelings, of rebel- 


lion, of bloodshed, of deception, of theft, of murder — 
in fact of what the Apostle called the "works of the 
flesh" : "And the works of the flesh are manifest, which 
are these: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, Iascivious- 
ness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, 
wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, 
drunkenness, revellings and such like; of the which I 
tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, 
'that they which do such things shall not inherit the 
kingdom of God." (Gal. v. 19-21.) 

It is the most shameful, the most dreadful, the most 
infamous history of any people on the face of the globe 
who profess to march under the sacred banner of Prince 
Immanuel, and is perhaps not even excelled in infamy 
by the history of any heathen nation. 

And these are the people who are sending out mis- 
sionaries all over our land to convert us to their religion ! 



We have been studying for some time the history of 
Mormonism, and we have seen what an awful history 
it is. But, after all, the history of any people is only the 
expression of their principles, and it is apt to be no better 
and no worse than those principles. Bad as is the history 
of Mormonism, it is simply the logical working out of 
the principles of Mormonism. Let us see what those 
principles are. I shall take their articles of faith, which 
the Mormon missionaries carry with them and give to all 
who will take a copy, and let their own leaders and writers 
expound them. 

The first article says : 'We believe in God the Eternal 
Father, and in His Son Jesus Christ, and in the Holy 
Ghost." That certainly sounds all right. But let us see 
what they mean by it. 

"We believe in God the Eternal Father." What kind 
of a God? What kind of a Father? This question is 
fundamental. A person's conception of God underlies all 
of his theology and gives shape to his own character and 
conduct. I shall dwell awhile on this point. 

The Bible conception of God is a most exalted one. He 
is spoken of as infinite, eternal, omnipotent, omniscient, 
pure, holy, the great I Am, the Most High, etc., etc. 
Christ said, "God is Spirit." The definition given of him 
by Dr. A. H. Strong in his Systematic Theology is, "God 



is the infinite and perfect Spirit, in whom all things have 
their source, support and end." The Westminster Cate- 
chism defines him as "A Spirit, eternal and unchangeable 
in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness 
and truth." Dr. J. P. Boyce says that "God's nature is 
exclusively spiritual." This is the conception of God uni- 
versally held among Christians. What is the Mormon 
conception of God? 

1. They say that God is a man like we are, a man "about 
six feet high," a man with flesh and bones, though without 
blood ; a man "with body, parts and passions," to use their 
favorite expression. 

The Mormon missionaries, as they go around, carry 
with them a little tract which they offer to leave at every 
house. It is written, or compiled, by Mr. Ben E. Rich, 
President of the Mormon Propaganda at Chattanooga. It 
is called "A Friendly Discussion Upon Religious Sub- 
jects." It is written in the form of a story. The scene 
is laid in a "town in the southwestern part of Tennessee, 
which we will call Westminster." The reference evidently 
is to Winchester. Several persons take part in the discus- 
sion. The hero is a "Mr. Durant of Salt Lake City." Mr. 
Durant is simply a Mormon elder. He represents Mor- 
monism, and of course tries to uphold its principles. The 
first point which he attempts to prove is that God has a 
body, and that he has "parts and passions." His argu- 
ment is based upon some passages of Scripture which 
speak of God as speaking face to face with Moses, and 
as having mouth, eyes, lips and tongue, etc. Many other 
such passages might have been quoted besides those given 
by Mr. Durant. They are all evidently used in what the 
theologians call an anthropomorphic sense — that is, they 
speak of God as being in the form of a man, as "an accom- 


modation to human thoughts, and to the incapacity of 
human language to express exclusively divine things." 
(Boyce). All Christians so understand them. But the 
Mormons take them in a literal, material sense, and base 
their whole conceptions of God and their whole system of 
theology, and indeed their whole conduct, upon them. 

Mr. Durant closes his argument on this point by saying : 

''And as for passions we are told in the Bible that he 
(God) exercises love and is a jealous God. Are these 
not parts and passions? It would appear that all who 
believe in the Scriptures must conclude that they are parts 
and passions, and that the Creator is a God after whose 
likeness we are made." 

These views of "Mr. Durant of Salt Lake City," revolt- 
ing as they are to all our ideas about God, are the viewa 
of every Mormon, as indicated over and over again. "Mr, 
Durant" is only a nom de plume for Mr. Ben E. Rich, 
President of the Mormon Propaganda in the South, with 
headquarters in Chattanooga, and so his utterances are 

But there is plenty of other evidence on this point, 
The Mormon Catechism says : 

"What kind of a being is God ?" 

"He is in the form of a man." 

"How do you learn this ?" 

"The Scriptures declare that man was made in the im- 
age of God." 

"Have you any further proof of God's being in the 
form of a man ?" 

"Yes. Jesus Christ was in the form of a man, and he 
was at the same time in the image of God's person." 

"Is it not said that God is a Spirit?" 

"Yes. The Scriptures say so." 


"How then can God be like man?" 
"Man has a spirit, though clothed with a body, and 
God is similarly constituted." 
"Has God a body then?" 
"Yes ; like unto man's body in figure." 
"Is God everywhere present?" 
"Yes. He is in all parts of the universe." 
"If God is a person how can He be everywhere pres- 

"His person cannot be in more than one place at^ a 
time ; but he is everywhere present by His Holy Spirit." 

This is the doctrine of God the Father taught to Mor- 
mon children, and believed by every true Mormon. 

Orson Spencer, a prominent Mormon elder, and per- 
haps the most learned man they have ever had, whose 
writings are especially commended by Geo. Q. Cannon, 
said in a series of letters to Rev. William Crowell, then 
editor of the Watchman, of Boston, which letters have 
since been published in book form : 

"We believe that God is a being that has both body and 
parts and also passions. ... A very general con- 
viction concerning the character of God now is that he is 
a being without body or parts or passions. A greater ab- 
surdity cannot be furnished in all the annals of heathen- 
ism. Even images of wood and brass and stone are 
scarcely more remote from the picture of the true God 
than the theory of a passionless, matterless God. . . . 
The New Testament tells us what his body is like. It is so 
nearly and exactly like the body of Christ that there is no 
difference. Paul says that Christ was the express image 
of his person. It is then beyond all dispute that the body 
and person of Jesus Christ and the Father are alike. 
One is the express image of the other. If one 


has a fleshy, material body, the other has. If one resem- 
bles in stature the seed of the woman, the other wears the 
same resemblance. ... If one, wearing a body of 
flesh and bones, in all points like unto his brethren, is 
capable of holding all power in heaven and earth, and also 
of displaying the brightness of celestial glory, the other 
can do the same in a similar body of flesh and bones. He 
declares that he has given us an image and likeness of 
himself in the person of man." 

One of the standard Mormon works is called '"Key 
to the Science of Theology," written by Parley P. Pratt, 
who was one of the Twelve Apostles, but who, as we have 
seen, was killed by Mr. McLean because of his having run 
off with McLean's wife. In it Mr. Pratt speaks of God 
as "not only possessing body and parts, but flesh and 
bones and sinews and all the attributes, organs, senses and 
affections of a perfect man." (Key to Theology, p. 40.) 

He says again : 

"Each of these Gods, including Jesus Christ and his 
Father, being in possession of not merely an organized 
spirit, but a glorious immortal body of flesh and bones, is 
subject to the laws which govern, of necessity, even the 
most refined order of physical existence." (Key to The- 
ology, p. 44.) 

Again : 

"It is, therefore, an absolute impossibility for God the 
Father of Jesus Christ to be everywhere personally pres- 
ent." (Key to Theology, p. 45.) 

The book of Mormon says : 

"And the veil was taken from off the eyes of the brother 
of Jared, and he saw the finger of the Lord ; and it was 
as the finger of a man, like unto flesh and blood. I saw the 
finger of the Lord, and I feared that He would smite me ; 


for I knew not that the Lord had flesh and blood." (Book 
of Mormon, Ether, 1 :8.) 

The Doctrine and Covenants, another "inspired" book 
of the Mormons, says : 

"The Father has a body of flesh and blood as tangible 
as man's; the Son also." (Sec. 130; 22.) 
Joseph Smith said in a sermon : 

"God himself was once as we are now, and is an exalted 
man, and sits enthroned in yonder heavens. That is the 
great secret.'' (Journal of Discourses, Vol. VI., p. 3.) 
And again, in the same sermon : 

"It is the first principle of the gospel to know that he 
was once a man like us ; yea that God himself, the Father 
of us all, dwelt on an earth the same as Jesus Christ him- 
self did." 
And again : 

"In the beginning the head God called a council of the 
Gods ; and they came together and concocted a plan to 
create the world and people it. When we begin to learn in 
this way we begin to learn the only true God, and what 
kind of a being we have got to worship." 
Again he said : 

"There is no other God in heaven but that God who has 
flesh and bones." (Compendium, p. 287.) 

One of the principal arguments used by the Mormons 
to prove that God is a man, "with body, parts and pas- 
sions," is as follows : After his resurrection Christ had a 
body, with flesh and bones. He could eat, could be 
handled. He ascended to the Father and the angels said 
to the disciples that "this same Jesus which is taken up 
from you into heaven shall so come in like manner as ye 
have seen him go into heaven." (Acts I :u.) "In like 
manner" they understand to mean with the same body. 


But (1) God the Bather was never incarnated. (2) He is 
called a Spirit. (John, iv. 24.) Christ said that a "Spirit 
has not flesh and bones." (Luke, xxiv. 39.) (3) "No man 
hath seen God at any time. ,, (John 1 :i8.) (4) "The 
Word"— Christ, the expression of God— became flesh." 
(John 1 :i4.) He was not flesh until he became incarnate. 

(5) "Being in the form of God ... he was made 
in the likeness of men." (Phil. ii. 6,7.) Evidently "the 
form of God" is not the same as "the likeness of men." 

(6) The image of God, to which Christ restores us, is a 
spiritual not a physical image. The new man is "created 
after God in righteousness and holiness of truth" (Eph. 
iv. 24), not in body. (7) To say that God has a spiritual 
body is to say that he is partly spiritual and partly physical, 
and so is to make him more or less material, when he is 
declared by Christ to be simply "a Spirit." (8) The 
expression "in like manner" in Acts 1 :n does not refer 
to his coming with a body, but to the manner of his com- 
ing — suddenly, mysteriously, in the clouds. 

2. Believing that God is a man with "body, parts and 
passions" they think that he is a married man. They 
understand the "parts and passions" as referring to the 
organs of generation, as well as to different emotions. 

3. They believe that he is a polygamist, with a harem 
full of wives. 



4. But not only do the Mormons believe that God is 
a man. They believe that he was Adam, and in this sense 
is the Father of the human race. Or, to put it another 
way, they believe that Adam was God, and that God is 
thus the father of all men in the sense of physical pro- 
creation, and that in this sense also he is the Father of 
Jesus Christ. 

Joseph Smith spoke of "Michael, or Adam, the father 
of all, the prince of all, the ancient of days." (Doctrine 
and Covenants, Sec. 27:11.) 

In a sermon delivered in the tabernacle at Salt Lake 
City, April 9, 1852, Brigham Young emphasized this doc- 
trine. He said : 

"Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gen- 
tile, saint and sinner ! When our father Adam came into 
the Garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, 
and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped 
to make and organize this world. He is Michael the Arch- 
angel, the ancient of Days! about whom holy men have 
written and spoken. He is our Father and our God, and 
the only God with whom we have to do. Every man upon 
the earth, professing Christians or non-professing, must 
hear it and will know sooner or later." (Journal of Dis- 
courses, Vol. 1, p. 50.) 

And again : 

"When the virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the 
Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not 



begotten by the Holy Ghost. And who is the Father ? He 
is the first of the human family." (Journal of Discourses, 
Vol. I., p. 50, Sermon by Brigham Young.) Many Mor- 
mons still believe this doctrine of Brigham Young that 
Adam was God, and that he came down to earth and 
"brought Eve, one of his wives, with him," and so peopled 
the world. 

With such a view of God, physical and limited, it is 
but natural that the Mormons should repudiate the Bible 
narrative of creation. In another sermon delivered in 
the Tabernacle, Oct. 3, 1853, Brigham Young said : 

"You believe Adam was made of the dust of the earth. 
This I do not believe. You can write that information 
to the States, if you please— that I have publicly declared 
that I do not believe that portion of the Bible as the Chris- 
tian world do. I never did, and I never want to. Because 
I have come to understanding and banished from my mind 
all the baby stories my mother taught me when I was a 

Brigham Young was at this time the prophet of the 
church, the mouthpiece of God, and so was believed to 
speak by inspiration. Later on the Apostle Heber C. Kim- 
ball announced that Brigham Young himself was God ! 

The Mormon Catechism has this question and answer: 

"Was the earth originally formed out of nothing? 

"Answer. No. The elements of which it was organ- 
ized always existed." (Catechism, p. 22.) 

One of the revelations of Joseph Smith says: "The 
elements are eternal." By creation they mean transforma- 
tion or modification only. 

5. But the Mormons not only believe that God is a 
man with "parts and passions," thus degrading him into 
a low, material, sensual being; they not only believe that 


he is a married man and a polygamist ; they not only be- 
lieve that he was Adam, and Adam was God, thus making 
him man in a very tangible sense, and at the same time 
limiting and degrading his powers, but they believe that 
there are many Gods. They are not monotheists, but 
polytheists, believing in a plurality of Gods, and that Gods 
were once men who afterwards became Gods. If this be 
doubted the proof is at hand. The Mormon Cathechism 
asks: "Are there more Gods than one?" Answer, "Yes, 
many." The next question is, "Must we worship more 
than one God ?" Answer, "No. To us there is but one 
God, the Father of mankind, and the creator of the earth." 
But the emphasis in the question is on the word worship. 
Their idea is there is only one God whom we must wor- 
ship, but there are many Gods. Other questions in the 
Catechism which are asked with reference to the creation 
are, "What did the Gods do on the second day?" "What 
did the Gods do on the third day?" etc. The creation of 
the world, they say, was not the work of one God, but of 
many Gods unitedly. 

"The Pearl of Great Price," a Mormon text book, says : 

"And they went down at the beginning, and they or- 
ganized and formed (that is, the Gods) the heavens and 
earth. . . . And they (the Gods) said, Let there 
be light, and there was light." 

Key to Theology, by Parley P. Pratt, another text book, 

"A General Assembly, Quorum or Grand Council of 
the Gods, with their President at their head, constitute 
the designing and creating power." 

Again : 

"Gods, angels and men are all of one species, one race, 
one great family, widely diffused among the planetary 
system, as colonies, kingdoms, nations, etc." 


And again : 

"All these are Gods, or sons of God ; they are the Kings, 
Princes, Priests and Nobles of Eternity. But over them 
all there is a Presidency or Grand Head, who is the Father 
of all. And next unto him is Jesus Christ, the eldest born, 
and first heir of all the realms of light. ... By con- 
sent and authority of the Head any one of these Gods may 
create, organize, people, govern, control, exalt, glorify, 
and enjoy worlds on worlds, and the inhabitants thereof." 

Joseph Smith said in a sermon : 

'The Head God called together the Gods and sat in 
Grand Council to bring forth the world." (Vol. VI., 

P. 50 
Again he said : 

"To us there is but one God — that is, pertaining to us ; 
and he is in all and through all. ... I say there 
are Gods many, and Lords many, but to us only one, and 
we are to be in subjection to that one." 

Mr. Roberts, in his "New Witness for God," expressed 
the opinion that — 

"If the phrase 'Grand Presidency' be substituted for 
Godhead, and 'President' for God, we shall have a nomen- 
clature that will better convey correct ideas to the mind 
respecting the Gods than that now in common use." 




6. Not only do the Mormons teach that there are 
many Gods who were once men and afterwards became 
Gods, but they teach also that men now may become 
Gods. Joseph Smith, in the sermon quoted from in the 
last chapter, said : 

"And you have got to learn how to be Gods yourselves, 
the same as all Gods have done before you." 

To secure this multiplication of Gods by procreation 
every Mormon becomes a God. Said Parley P. Pratt: 

"But every man who is eventually made perfect, raised 
from the dead, and filled or quickened with a fullness 
of celestial glory, will become like them in every respect, 
physically and in intellect, attributes or powers. 

"The very germs of these godlike attributes, being 
engendered in man, the offspring of Deity, only need 
cultivating, improving, developing and advancing by 
means of a series of progressive changes, in order to 
arrive at the fountain head, the standard, the climax of 
Divine humanity." (Key to Theology, pp. 40, 41.) 

The difference between Gods and angels and men is 
thus described by Mr. Pratt: 

"An immortal man, possessing a perfect organization 
of spirit, flesh and bones, and perfected in his attributes, 
in all the fullness of celestial glory, is called a God. 

"An immortal man, in progress of perfection, or quick- 
ened with a lesser degree of glory, is called an Angel. 



"An immortal spirit of man, not united with a fleshy 
tabernacle, is called a Spirit. 

An immortal man, clothed witn a mortal tabernacle, 
is called a Man." 

Again he said: 

"The great family of man, comprising the inhabitants 
of unnumbered millions of worlds in every variety and 
degree of progress, consists of five principal spheres 
or grand divisions in the scale of progressive beings, viz. : 

"First. The Gods, composed of embodied spirits, who 
inhabit tabernacles of immortal flesh and bones in their 
most refined stage, and who are perfected in all the at- 
tributes of intelligence and power. 

"Second. The Angels, who are also composed of spir- 
its and immortal flesh and bones, less refined, and en- 
dowed with vast intelligence and power, but not a full- 

"Third. Embodied Spirits without a tabernacle of flesh 
and bones. These are they who have passed the veil of 
death, and are awaiting a resurrection. 

"Fourth. Embodied Spirits, with mortal tabernacles, 
as in the present world. 

"Fifth. Embodied Spirits, who have not yet descended 
to be clothed upon with mortality, but who are candi- 
dates for the same." 

By faithful attention to duty in each state, these per- 
sons may rise from one scale of being to another, so 
that ultimately a man may become a God. It is simply 
the old Buddhist theory of the transmigration of souls 
engrafted on to the Mormon system. 

It is the highest aspiration of every Mormon to become 
a god. They say that Abraham, and Moses, and Joseph 
Smith, and Brigham Young, and all who like them have 


been faithful and obedient, are now actually gods; and 
after the resurrection, when they shall have resumed 
their bodies, and their families shall also have arisen, 
they shall be entirely and in all respects like the god 
they worship, in power, dominion, honor, and glory, 
save only that their kingdoms shall be less extensive — each 
one's kingdom in eternity being limited by the number 
of his wives and descendants in this life. 

Joseph Smith, in his revelation on the "Eternity of 
the Marriage Covenant," says of those that live up to 
the Mormon law of polygamy: 

"Then shall they become gods, because they have no 
end; therefore shall they be from everlasting to ever- 
lasting, because they continue; then shall they be above 
all, because all things are subject unto them, then shall 
they be gods, because they have all power, and the angels 
are subject unto them. 

"They shall pass by the angels, and the gods which 
are set there. 

"Abraham received concubines, and they bear him chil- 
dren, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness, 
because they were given unto him, and he abode in my 
law ; as Isaac also, and Jacob did none other things than 
that which they were commanded ; and because they did 
none other things than that which they were commanded, 
they have entered into their exaltation according to the 
promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not angels, but 
are gods." (Doctrine and Covenants. 132:19, 20, 37; 

But this exaltation depends upon the creation of a 
kingdom of souls by procreation. The book of Doctrine 
and Covenants says : 

"In the celestial glory there are three heavens or de- 


grees, and in order to obtain the highest a man must en- 
ter into this order of the priesthood (meaning the new 
and everlasting covenant of marriage) ; and if he does 
not he can not obtain it." (Sec. 131; 1-3.) 

And the Key to Theology says: 

"Again it follows, . . . that by consent and au- 
thority of the Head any one of these gods may create, 
organize, people, control, exalt, glorify and enjoy worlds 
on worlds and the inhabitants thereof ; or in other words, 
each of them can find room in the infinitude of space, 
and unoccupied chaotic elements in the boundless store- 
house of eternal riches with which to erect for himself 
thrones, principalities and powers, in which to reign in 
still increasing might, majesty and dominion forever 
and ever." 

Mr. B. H. Roberts, the polygamous Congressman-elect 
from Utah, has discussed this whole question some- 
what at length in his "New Witness for God"; and as 
he expresses the latest Mormon views on the subject, 
and on account of the interest which attaches at pres- 
ent to anything he says, I will quote rather freely from 

"The prophet [Joseph Smith] also taught that the re- 
lationships formed in this life were intended to be eter- 
nal, not excluding that of husband and wife with all 
its enduring affections. He taught that the marriage 
covenant which binds man and woman as husband and 
wife should be made for eternity, and not until 'death 
doth them part.' To be made for eternity, however, the 
marriage covenant must be entered into with that ob- 
ject in view, and sealed and ratified by God's authority 
on earth — even by the holy priesthood, that authority 
which binds on earth and in heaven, in time and in eter- 


nity, which also looses on earth and in heaven — in time 
and in eternity. Otherwise such covenants are of no 
efficacy, virtue or force in and after the resurrection 
from the dead. The house of God is a house of order, 
and it is useless to hope that covenants made until death 
shall overtake the contracting parties will endure in 
eternity; or that covenants entered into for eternity, 
unless sealed by the authority of God, will be of bind- 
ing force in and after the resurrection from the dead. 

"I wish to be perfectly understood here. Let it be 
remembered that the Prophet Joseph Smith taught that 
man, that is, his spirit, is the offspring of Deity; not 
in any mystical sense, but actually; that man has not 
only a Father in Heaven, but a Mother also. And when 
I say that the prophet taught that the resurrection is a 
reality, that the relationship of husband and wife is 
intended to be eternal, together with all its endearing 
affections, I mean all that in its most literal sense. I 
mean that in the life to come man will build and in- 
habit, eat, drink, associate and be happy with his friends ; 
and that the power of endless increase will contribute 
to the power and dominion of those who attain by their 
righteousness unto these privileges. 

"What a revelation is here ! As I have remarked else- 
where, instead of the God given power of procreation 
being one of the chief things that is to pass away, it 
is one of the chief means of man's exaltation and glory 
in that great eternity, which like an endless vista stretches 
out before him! Through it man attains to the glory 
of endless increase of eternal lives, and the right of pre- 
siding as priest and patriarch, king and lord over his 
ever increasing posterity. Instead of the commandment, 
'Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth/ be- 


ing an unrighteous law, it is one by means of which the 
race of the Gods is perpetuated, and is as holy and 
pure as the commandment, 'Repent and be baptized/ 
Through that law, in connection with an observance of 
all the other laws of the gospel, man will yet attain unto 
the power of the Godhead, and like his father — God — 
his chief glory will be to bring to pass the eternal life 
and happiness of his posterity. 

"If any one shall say that such views of the life to 
come are too materialistic; that they smack too much 
of earth and its enjoyments, my answer is, that if it 
be inquired what thing has contributed most to man's 
civilization and refinement, to his happiness and dignity, 
his true importance, elevation and honor in life, it will 
be found that the domestic relations in marriage, the 
ties of family, of parentage, with its joys, responsibilities 
and affections will be selected as the one thing before 
all others. And those relations and associations which 
have contributed so much to man's true progress and 
refinement in this world may be trusted not to degrade 
him in the life that is to come. On the contrary, with 
all the affections chastened, with all the qualities of 
the mind improved and the attributes of the soul strength- 
ened, we may reasonably hope that what has done so 
much for man in this life will contribute still more abun- 
dantly to his happiness, his exaltation and glory in the 
life which is to come. 

"One other point I must not omit to mention. I know 
how like sacrilege it sounds in modern ears to speak of 
man becoming a God. Yet why should it be so consid- 
ered? Man is the offspring of Deity, he is of the same 
race, and has within him — undeveloped, it is true — -the 
faculties and attributes of his Father. He has also be- 


fore him an eternity of time in which to develop both 
the faculties of mind and the attributes of the soul — 
why should it be accounted a strange thing that at last 
the child shall arrive at the same exaltation and partake 
of the same intelligence and glory with his Father? 

"If Jesus Christ, 'Being in the form of God, thought 
it not robbery to be equal with God/ why should it be 
considered blasphemous to teach that man by faith and 
righteousness in following the counsels of God, shall at 
last become like him and share his power and glory, be- 
ing a God, even a son of God?" (New Witness for 
God, pp. 460-463.) 

Again Mr. Roberts wrote : 

"All these sayings give us reason to believe that man 
may become as Christ and God are; that he may walk 
in their footsteps, become like them and inherit the same 
glory with them. The Prophet Joseph Smith corrected 
the idea that God that now is was always God." (p. 465.) 

"But if God the Father was not always God, but 
came to his present exalted position by degrees of prog- 
ress as indicated by the teachings of the prophet, how 
has there been a God from all eternity? The answer 
is that there has been and there now exists an endless 
line of Gods, stretching back into the eternities, that had 
no beginning and will have no end. 

"Their existence runs parallel with endless duration, 
and their dominions are as limitless as boundless space" 
(p. 466). 

"These conceptions of man's origin and future devel- 
opment and glory involve the idea of a plurality of Gods 
— a doctrine somewhat startling, perhaps, to modern ears, 
since men in our times have been taught to look upon 
it as a sacrilege to speak or think of more than one 


God. But since Christianity finds itself so far separated 
from other truths of the gospel may it not find itself 
wrong in this? What means that expression in Genesis 
where, speaking of the creation of man, God is repre- 
sented as saying: 'Let us make man in our image after 
our likeness?' Is it not a fair inference that he ad- 
dressed himself to other Gods who were present? In 
the account of the creation given in the book of Abra- 
ham the plural is used throughout — 'And the Gods pre- 
pared the earth to bring forth the living creatures/ 

"And the Gods took council among themselves and 
said, 'Let us go down and form man in our image, after 
our likeness,' etc." (p. 467.) 

Again I quote from Mr. Roberts: 

"Joseph Smith has revealed the great truth that in 
the beginningless duration there has existed always an 
endless succession of exalted men, called Gods." (New 
Witness for God, p. 474.) 

And again: 

"As the glory of earthly parents is increased by hav- 
ing beautiful, intelligent children, capable of attaining 
to the same intelligence, development and standing as 
the parents, so the glory of the heavenly parent — God 
— is added unto by having sons who shall attain unto 
the same honor and exaltation as himself, who shall be 
worthy of sharing his power and glory and everlasting 
dominion." (New Witness for God, p. 475.) 

In these quotations from Mr. Roberts it is distinctly 
taught: (1) That the marriage relation will exist in 
heaven; (2) Provided the marriage is performed by a 
Mormon priest; (3) That man may become God; (4) 
That God himself was once a man, and became a God 
by degrees of progress, as indicated in the teachings 


of the prophet [Joseph Smith] — that is, by marriage 
and by begetting numerous children; (5) That there 
is a plurality of Gods. Could blasphemy go further? 
And this is the kind of God the Mormons believe in! 
How low, how degrading their conception of God ! 

Dr. Osborn well says : 

"Such is the doctrine of God, as held among the Mor- 
mons. The moral character of a people cannot rise above 
that of the deity they worship. Is it strange that a 
people believing in such a God — a being with a body 
and passions like man, living in marital relations and 
carnal connections with innumerably more wives than 
could enter the vastest seraglio ever pictured in the wild- 
est dreams of the most voluptuous Mohammedan; the 
father of the human race, not by creation, but by natural 
physical generation; identical with the first of the hu- 
man family, who gave to all men, by natural descent 
from him, a sinful nature; in no respect — in attributes, 
dignity, or glory — above a vast multitude of gods, or 
above what any man may become, except that he has 
the largest family; giving commands and a moral law 
which he himself is the first to violate, doing evil that 
good may come — -is it strange that a people that has 
such as their highest conception of the deity, should 
have sunk into the most beastly sensualism the world 
has ever known, and been guilty of the most diabolical 
crimes, without the least compunctions of conscience, 
verily believing they were doing God's will, provided 
they were thereby furthering the interests of their Zion? • 
To a people serving such a God, lust is godlike; and J 
all law, civil and moral, must yield to considerations of 
temporary advantage." 



The first article of the Mormon Creed goes on to say : 

"We believe in God the eternal Father, and in His son 
Son Jesus Christ." 

The "eternal Father." But he is our Father, not in 
a spiritual sense but in the sense of natural generation. 
They speak also of our "Mother God," and sing about 
her in one of their hymns. But they believe in "His 
Son Jesus Christ." 

What kind of Son ? What kind of Christ ? 

The Key to Theology says : 

"Each of these Gods, including Jesus Christ and His 
Father, being in possession of not merely an organized 
spirit, but a glorious immortal body of flesh and bones, 
is subject to the laws which govern, of necessity, even 
the most refined order of physical existence." (p. 44.) 

"All these are Gods, or sons of God; they are the 
Kings, Princes, Priests, Nobles of Eternity. But over 
them all there is a Presidency or Grand Head, who is 
the Father of all. And next unto Him is Jesus Christ, 
the eldest born, and first heir of all the realms of light." 

(P- 430 

"It is therefore an impossibility for God the Father, 
or Jesus Christ, to be everywhere personally present." 

(P- 45) 



"The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tang- 
ible as man's; the Son also." (Doctrine and Covenants, 
Sec. 130; 22.) 

And so they regard him as a son only by physical 

The Mormons also believe that Christ was a polyga- 
mist while on earth. 

Apostle Orson Hyde taught: 

"If at the marriage at Cana of Galilee, Jesus was the 
bridegroom, and took unto him Mary, Martha, and the 
other Mary whom Jesus loved, it shocks not our nerves. 
If there were not an attachment and familiarity between 
our Savior and these women highly improper, only in 
the relation of husband and wife, then we have no sense 
of propriety, or of the characteristics of good and refined 
society. Wisely then was it concealed; but, when the 
Savior poured out his soul unto death, when nailed to 
the cross, he saw his seed of children, but who shall de- 
clare his generation." (The Rocky Mountain Saints; 
p. 485.) 

The Mormons use two other passages of Scripture to 
substantiate their theory that Christ was a polygamist: 
(1) The passage in Revelation, "And I will also show 
you the bride, the Lamb's wife." Of course the angel 
is speaking of the church. But the Mormons take it 
as referring to a woman. (2) When Mary in the gar- 
den recognized her Lord, she addressed him as "Rab- 
boni." This means "my Teacher," "my Lord," but they 
say it means "my husband." A Mormon elder said in 
a Methodist Sunday-school at Goodlettsville, near Nash- 
ville, several months ago, that Christ was a polygamist, 
and when called on for his proof gave this latter pas- 
sage. From this they also argue that he lived in poly- 


gamous relations with Mary and Martha, the sisters of 
Lazarus, Mary Magdalene, and the other women who 
were in his company, and that he is now living in poly- 
gamous cohabitation with them in Heaven. 

And this is the kind of "Christ" they believe in, a 
man with flesh and bones, a son of God by natural gen- 
eration, that God is "as directly the Father of Jesus Christ 
as Brigham Young, Sr., claims to be the father of Brig- 
ham Young, Jr.," and worse than all, that Christ was Him- 
self a polygamist ! 

But they add, "We believe in God the Eternal Father, 
and in His son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost/' 
What kind of a Holy' Ghost ? The Apostle Parley P. Pratt 
in his Key to Theology tells us: 

"There are several of these subtle, invisible substances 
but little understood as yet by man, and their existence 
is only demonstrated by their effects. Some of them 
are recognized under several terms, electricity, galvan- 
ism, magnetism, animal magnetism, spiritual magnetism, 
essence, spirit, etc. 

"The purest, most refined and subtle of all these sub- 
stances, and the one the least understood, or even rec- 
ognized, by the less informed among mankind, is that 
substance called the Holy Spirit. 

"This substance, like all others, is one of the elements 
of material or physical existences, and therefore sub- 
ject to the necessary laws which govern all matter as 
before enumerated. 

"Like the other elements, its whole is composed of in- 
dividual particles. Like them, each particle occupies 
space, possesses the power of motion, requires time to 
move from one part of space to another, and can in no 
wise occupy two spaces at once. In all these respects 
it differs nothing from all other matter. 


"This substance is widely diffused among the elements 
of space. This Holy Spirit, under the control of the 
great Eloheim, is the grand moving cause of all intelli- 
gence and by which they act. 

"This is the great, positive, controlling element of all 
other elements. It is omnipresent by reason of the infin- 
itude of its particles, and it comprehends all things/' 
(pp. 46, 47.) 

Again : 

"All the elements of the material universe are eternal. 

"There is a divine substance, fluid, or essence called 
spirit, widely diffused among these eternal elements. 

(p. 60.) 

"As the electric fluid obeys its own laws upon the wire 
so also does the spiritual or holy fluid convey itself, 
through certain channels, from one body to another, in 
accordance with certain legitimate laws." (p. 102.) 

And Joseph Smith in the Book of Doctrine and Cove- 
nants says : 

"There is no such thing as immaterial matter. All 
spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can 
only be discerned by purer eyes. 

"We can not see it ; but when our bodies are purified, 
we shall see that it is all matter." (Doctrine and Cove- 
nants, Sec. 131, 7:8.) 

Consistent with this view the Mormons constantly 
speak of the Holy Ghost as "it" — as a thing, not a per- 
son. In Mormon Doctrine, Plain and Simple, or Leaves 
from the Tree of Life, by Charles W. Penrose, the 
pronoun "it" is used with reference to the Holy Spirit 
fourteen times in one paragraph. 

If the unpardonable sin consists in blasphemy against 
the Holy Ghost, as many scholars think, surely the Mor- 
mons have committed it. 


I have dwelt at some length upon the Mormon doc- 
trine as to God because that is the keynote to their the- 
ology. If a person is wrong in his belief as to God, 
he is very apt to be wrong everywhere. That is the 
test, the Shibboleth, the turning point of all his faith 
and all his actions. The Mormon doctrine as to God 
begins in literalism, runs into rationalism, then degen- 
erates into materialism and then descends to the depths 
of sensualism. To Christian minds it is most horrible, 
abominable. Heaven they consider a kind of great big, 
magnificent seraglio, where God the Father, and Christ 
the Son, and Joseph Smith the Prophet, and Brigham 
Young and other good Mormons are living, and will 
live when they die, in polygamous cohabitation with 
their wives. ''There will be no marrying there." True. 
And so you must be sealed to the wives spiritually for 
eternity, so that you can live with them when you get 
there. The more wives you have the higher will be 
your exaltation in glory. Consequently you need to 
marry as many as possible here. Such is their teaching. 
How disgusting! 



I need not dwell so much at length upon other articles 
of the Mormon faith as I have upon their belief in God 
because, as I said, that is more fundamental. The second 
article in their creed says : 

"We believe that men will be punished for their own 
sins and not for Adam's transgression." 

There are two meanings given to this clause : 

(i) That it is meant to teach that Adam did not fall, 
or rather that he "fell upward." 

Repudiating the ' fact of creation, the Mormons also of 
course repudiate the story of the fall of Adam. It is 
regarded as "beneficent; planned, accomplished and ef- 
fected by God Himself for the greater knowledge of His 
earthly descendants."— "Adam fell, that men might be." 
He "fell upward." The Book of Mormon says : 

"And now, behold, if Adam had not transgressed, he 
would not have fallen ; but he would have remained in 
the garden of Eden. And all things which were created 
must have remained in the same state which they were 
after they were created ; and they must have remained 
forever, and had no end. And they would have had no 
children; wherefore, they would have remained in a 
state of innocence, having no joy, for they knew no mis- 
ery ; doing no good, for they knew no sin. But behold, all 
things have been done in the wisdom of Him who knoweth 



all things. Adam fell that men might be; and men are 
that they might have joy." (2 Nephi. ii. 22-25.) 

"The Pearl of Great Price/' a book considered as of 
divine authority, along with the Bible, the Book of Mor- 
mon and the Doctrine and Covenants, represents Adam 
and Eve as rejoicing and praising God because of their 
having fallen. It says : 

"And in that day Adam blessed God and was filled, and 
began to prophesy concerning all the families of the earth, 
saying, Blessed be the name of God, for because of my 
transgression my eyes are opened, and in this life I shall 
have joy, and again in the flesh I shall see God. And Eve, 
his wife, heard all these things and was glad, saying, Were 
it not for our transgression we never should have had 
seed, and never should have known good and evil, and 
the joy of our redemption, and the eternal life which God 
giveth unto all the obedient. And Adam and Eve blessed 
the name of God ; and they made all things known unto 
their sons and their daughters." (Pearl of Great Price, 
p. 19.) 

With reference to this passage Dr. Osborn says : 

"Adam and God are here two persons. Above in equally 
inspired writings they are one and the same person. Mor- 
monism is consistent only in its inconsistencies." (The 
Mormon Doctrine of God and Heaven.) 

The Catechism has these questions and answers : 

"Was it necessary that Adam should partake of the 
forbidden fruit ? 

"Yes; unless he had done so he would never have 
known good and evil here, neither could he have had mor- 
tal posterity, and he could not have cleaved to Eve, as he 
had promised, after her fall. 

"Did Adam and Eve lament or rejoice because they 


had transgressed the commandment and become ac- 
quainted with the nature of evil and good ? 

"They rejoiced and praised God. 

"Is it proper for us to consider the transgression of 
Adam and Eve as a grievous calamity, and that all man- 
kind would have been infinitely more happy if the fall 
had not occurred ? 

"No.. But we ought to consider the fall of our first 
parents as one of the great steps to eternal exaltation and 
happiness, and one ordered by God in his infinite wisdom ; 
for we cannot know the excellence and beauty of that 
which is good unless we experience the wretchedness and 
deformity of that which is evil." 

Dr. J. E. Talmage, one of the highest Mormon authori- 
ties and probably at present their most scholarly man, says : 

"It was the purpose of God to place within the reach of 
the spirits begotten by Him in the heavens the means of 
individual effort, and the opportunity of winning, not 
merely salvation, or exemption from spiritual death, but 
exaltation, with the powers of eternal progression and 
increase. Hence, it was necessary that the spiritual off- 
spring of God should leave the mansions of their primeval 
childhood and enter the school of mortal experience, meet- 
ing, contending with and overcoming evil, according to 
their several degrees of faith and strength. Adam and 
Eve could never have been the parents of mortal posterity 
had they not themselves become mortal; mortality, as 
before stated, was an essential element in the Divine plan 
respecting the earth and its appointed inhabitants; and 
as a means of introducing mortality, the Lord placed be- 
fore the progenitors of the race a law, knowing full well 
that transgression would follow." (Articles of Faith, pp. 
7h 72.) 


Again Dr. Talmage says : 

"It has become a common practice with mankind to 
heap reproaches upon the progenitors of the family, and 
to picture the supposedly blessed state in which we would 
be living but for the fall ; whereas our first parents are 
entitled to our deepest gratitude for their legacy to pos- 
terity — the means of winning glory, exaltation and eternal 
lives on the battlefield of mortality. But for the oppor- 
tunity thus given, the spirits of God's offspring would 
have remained forever in a state of innocent childhood; 
sinless through no effort of their own ; negatively saved, 
not from sin, but from the power of sinning ; incapable of 
winning the honors of victory because prevented from 
taking part in the battle. As it is, they are heirs to the 
birthright of Adam's descendants— mortality, with its im- 
measurable opportunities, and its God-given freedom of 
action. From Father Adam we have inherited all the ills 
to which flesh is heir; but such are necessarily incident 
to the knowledge of good and evil, by the proper use of 
which knowledge man may become even as the Gods." (p. 


The Millennial Star says : 

"Adam fell, but his fall became a matter of necessity 
after the woman had transgressed. ... In the lan- 
guage of the Prophet Lehi, 'Adam fell that men might 
be/ ... No wonder Father Adam fell, and accom- 
panied the woman, sharing in all the miseries of the curse, 
that he might be the father of an innumerable race of 
beings who would be capable of becoming Gods." (Vol. 

From these quotations it is seen that the Mormons 
regard the fall of Adam as a blessing, and consequently 
that men are not to be punished for his transgression, be- 
cause there was no real sin in it. 


Dr. Osborn well remarks on this doctrine : "Thus the 
fall of Adam was no fall, but a lifting up. Sin was no sin, 
but an act of God and a blessing. And the first and great- 
est violator of God's law was God Himself." 

(2) The clause was evidently inspired by Sidney Rig- 
don. It is rank Socinianism. It teaches that there is no 
such thing as the headship of Adam in the sense that "in 
Adam all sinned" and "all died" ; no such thing as total 
depravity, as a result of Adam's sin ; man at birth is inno- 
cent and able to obey God ; sin consists only in a person's 
own acts and for these alone he is punished. This theory 
is very different from the Bible doctrine, which teaches 
that Adam was a man (not God, as Brigham Young 
taught, and many Mormons now believe) ; that he was 
the natural head of the human race ; that when he sinned 
the fountain of human nature became corrupt and the 
stream has ever since been affected by the corruption, so 
that "in Adam all sinned"; that we are all "by nature 
children of wrath" ; that man is "dead in trespasses and in 
sins," "not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can 
be" in his natural state ; that our personal sins are simply 
the outcome or expression of this sinful nature ; that "as 
a man thinketh in his heart so is he" ; that "out of the 
heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries," etc. 

The third article of the Mormon creed is closely con- 
nected with the second. It reads : 

"We believe that, through the atonement of Christ, all 
mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordi- 
nances of the gospel." 

"Through the atonement of Christ."' What kind of 
atonement? Here is the kind of atonement which the 
Mormons teach : They believe that God was under obli- 
gation to give Christ to die for mankind; that it was 


part of a prearranged plan agreed upon before Adam 
transgressed, and so, as Dr. J. E. Talmage expresses it, 
"the atonement wrought by Jesus Christ is a necessary 
sequence of the transgression of Adam"; that Christ's 
obedience to the law offset the disobedience of Adam, and 
thus redeemed all men "from the effects of Adam's trans- 
gression," and rendered it possible for each man to save 
himself, throwing each upon his own personal conduct 
as to whether he will be saved or not. Dr. Talmage speaks 
of the "two-fold effect of the atonement." He says : 

"The first effect is to secure to all mankind alike ex- 
emption from the otherwise terrible effects of the Fall, thus 
providing a plan of General Salvation. The second effect 
is to open a way for Individual Salvation whereby man- 
kind may secure forgiveness of personal sins. As these 
sins are the result of individual acts, it is just that for- 
giveness for them should be conditioned on individual 
compliance with prescribed requirements — 'obedience to 
the laws and ordinances of the gospel.' " (p. 90.) 

I have not time now to discuss the doctrine of the atone- 
ment at length. I may only say now that the above doc- 
trine of the atonement does not come within one thousand 
miles of the Bible doctrine. In fact, it tears the very heart 
out of that precious doctrine. According to it Christ's 
death saves no one. It merely made it possible for every 
one to save himself. How shall he save himself? The 
article goes on to say: "By obedience to the laws and 
ordinances of the gospel !" I hardly need to stop and argue 
this point at length. Just a few words will, perhaps, 
suffice. Paul summed up the whole argument when he 
said : "For by grace are ye saved through faith ; and that 
not of yourselves : it is the gift of God : Not of works, lest 
any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, 


created in Jesus Christ unto good works, which God hath 
before ordained that we should walk in them." (Eph. 
ii. 8-10.) 

To the jailer who asked, "What must I do to be saved ?" 
he replied, "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou 
shalt be saved" — and not "Obey the laws and ordinances 
of the gospel and thou shalt be saved." (Acts xvi. 31, 


Dr. Talmage says that "salvation comes to the indi- 
vidual only through obedience." That is true. But it is 
not through his own obedience, but the obedience of 

Paul said : "For as by one man's disobedience (Adam) 
many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one" — 
not of many but "of one;' of one, of ONE, and that one 
Christ Jesus— "shall many be made righteous." (Rom. v. 


And so I might quote passage after passage to substan- 
tiate this position, if there were need for it. Of course, I 
believe in obedience, but in an obedience which is the 
result, not the cause of salvation. We obey because we are 
saved, not in order to be saved. Our obedience is that of 
the child, not that of the slave. 

The question raised in this article is the old one of 
salvation by grace or salvation by works. I say with Paul 
that salvation is by grace through faith. The Mormons 
say, and they contend strenuously for it, that salvation 
is by works. They attack vigorously the grand old doc- 
trine of justification by faith. 

But they add : "By obedience to the laws and ordinances 
of the gospel." Here is baptismal salvation ! 

This the Mormons teach straight out, and make no 
bones of it. The Catechism says : 


"No person who has arrived at the years of accounta- 
bility, and has heard the gospel, can be saved without bap- 
tism." (Catechism, p. 46.) 

Here is what the Book of Mormon says : 

"And whoso believeth not in me, and is not baptized, 
shall be damned. . . . And again I say unto you, 
Ye must repent, and be baptized in my name, and become 
as a little child, or ye can in no wise inherit the kingdom 
of God. Verily, verily I say unto you, that this is my 
doctrine, and whoso buildeth upon this buildeth upon my 
rock, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against them." 
(3 Nephi xi. 34, 38, 39.) 

The Doctrine and Covenants says : 

"Verily, verily, I say unto you, they who believe not on 
your works, and are not baptized in water, in my name, for 
the remission of their sins, that they may receive the Holy 
Ghost, shall be damned, and shall not come into my Fath- 
er's kingdom, where my Father and I am." (Doctrine 
and Covenants, 84:74.) 

Joseph Smith taught that "Children shall be baptized 
for the remission of their sins when eight years old, and 
receive the laying on of the hands." (Doctrine and Cov- 
enants, 68:27.) 

Mr. Stenhouse thus sums up the Mormon plan of sal- 
vation : 

"All men and women must have faith in redemption 
wrought out by Jesus Christ, and must be baptized by 
immersion 'in the name of the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost,' in order that their own individual sins may be 
washed away. This being the happy condition of mind, 
and the ordinances complied with, the hands of the elders 
are laid upon the heads of the disciples that 'they may 
receive the Holy Ghost.' In due time every man is also 


to receive the priesthood of Aaron and Melchisedec, and 
thereby become entitled to commune with the heavens, 
and when they have accepted the 'Celestial Law' of Mar- 
riage— i. e., polygamy— and have passed through the ordi- 
nances of the 'Endowments/ they are presumed to be 
fairly started for 'honor, glory and eternal lives with the 
gods.' " 

Of course the "ordinances of the gospel" referred to in 
the article of faith are the ordinances of the Mormon 
Church ( ?). In other words, in order to be saved a per- 
son must be baptized by a Mormon priest. Here is sacra- 
mentalism of the deepest dye. This comes out more 
clearly in Article 5, which we shall consider later on. It 
reads : "We believe that a man must be called of God, 
by prophecy and by laying on of hands by those who are 
in authority, to preach the gospel and administer in the 
ordinances thereof.'' They teach openly and boldly that 
there is no salvation outside of the Mormon Church. 
Brigham Young in a sermon asked the question, "Will all 
the people be damned who are not Latter Day Saints?" 
To this he answered, "Yes, and a great many of them, 
except they repent speedily." 



The fourth article of faith in the Mormon creed says : 
"We believe that these first principles and ordinances 
are: First, faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; second, re- 
pentance ; third, baptism by immersion for the remission 
of sins; fourth, laying on of hands for the gift of the 
Holy Ghost." 

Remember that the third article had said : 
"We believe that, through the atonement of Christ, all 
mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordi- 
nances of the Gospel." 

There are several serious objections to this fourth 

1. The word faith is used here in a different sense from 
that in which it is usually understood by evangelical peo- 
ple. It is not a warm, spiritual, personal trust in a per- 
sonal Savior for salvation from sin. It is rather a cold, 
mechanical "full confidence and trust in the being, pur- 
poses and words of God." It is "a principle of power," 
not simply the means of receiving the power of God 
through Christ. It is a matter of obedience, not the me- 
dium of appropriating Christ's obedience. 

2. But faith is not a saving power. "Faith without 
further obedience is useless." (Cathechism p. 37.) "The 
Scriptures abound in assurances of salvation to those who 
exercise faith in God and obey the requirements which 



that faith makes plain." (J. E. Talmage, Articles of 
Faith, p. no.) The precious doctrine of justification by 
faith is scouted. Dr. Talmage says that "The sectarian 
dogma of justification by faith alone has exercised an 
influence for evil since the early days of Christianity." 
He calls it a "pernicious doctrine/' and Luther is held up 
to scorn for proclaiming it. Mr. C. W. Penrose also 
strongly denounces the doctrine in his "Leaves from the 
Tree of Life." 

3. Faith is put before repentance, which is an utter f 
absurdity and an absolute impossibility. Wherever the 
two are mentioned together in the Bible repentance in- 
variably comes first, as naturally it would. No one is 
ready to accept a Savior until he has repented of his sins, 
just as no one is ready to send for a physician until he 
realizes his sickness. 

4. Repentance here does not mean a godly sorrow for 
sin. The Catechism says : 

"Q. Does repentance consist in mourning and groan- 
ing and hanging down our heads sorrowfully ? 

"A. No. A man may do all those things and yet never 


"Q. Then what is repentance ? 

"A. Forsaking sin with full purpose of heart to work 

5. Baptism is "by immersion for the remission of sins." 
I need not discuss this doctrine here. I only wanted to call 
attention to the fact that it is held by the Mormons. 

6. But they go one step farther and lay down a 
fourth principle and ordinance in the plan of sal- 
vation— "Laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy 
Ghost." This laying on of hands is of course by the Mor- 
mon priest. But the gift of the Holy Ghost which accom- 


panies salvation does not come by the laying on of priestly 
hands. It is given by invisible hands. It is spiritual, not 
material. It comes directly from God. Like the mountain 
stream, it is not conveyed through any external, mechan- 
ical human conduit. God stands ready to give the Spirit 
to anyone for the asking. (Matt. vii. n.) 

But the Mormons say that the Holy Spirit is given only 
through the hands of Mormon priests. 

"The Latter-Day Saints claim to possess authority to 
administer in the name of God; and that this right has 
been conferred in this day under the hands of those who 
held the same power in former dispensations." 

"Every holder of the priesthood to-day can trace his 
authority to the hands of Joseph the Prophet, who, as 
already stated, received his ordination under the hands of 
heavenly messengers clothed with power divine." 

They even claim that "Men, who are called of God to 
the authority of the ministry on earth, may have been 
selected for such appointment even before they took mor- 
tal bodies." 

And they say that ''Unauthorised ministrations in 
priestly functions are not alone invalid, they are indeed 
grievously sinful. In His dealings with mankind, God has 
ever recognized and honored the priesthood established 
by His direction; and has never countenanced any un- 
authorized assumption of authority." They instance the 
cases of Korah, Miriam, Uzzah and others. They believe 
that the Lord now has a priesthood on the earth like the 
old Jewish priesthood, and then they assume that they are 
that priesthood. They are like the Hardshell Baptists, 
who passed the resolutions, "Resolved, i, That the Lord 
has a people on earth. Resolved, 2, That we are the peo- 
ple." The Mormons do not seem ever to have read the 


book of Hebrews, in which the fact is shown very clearly 
that the old Jewish priesthood and all similar priesthoods 
have been done away under the new dispensation of the 
gospel of Christ, and every man is now his own priest; 
that the veil of the temple has been rent in twain, and every 
one may now approach the mercy seat in the Holy of 
Holies for himself without any priestly intervention. 

But this doctrine of the priesthood comes out more 
clearly in the fifth article of faith, which reads : 

"We believe that a man must be called of God, by 
'prophecy, and by the laying on of hands,' by those who 
are in authority, to preach the Gospel and administer in 
the ordinances thereof." 

The emphasis in this article is on the expression, "by 
those who are in authority" — which means again the Mor- 
mon priesthood. No one else, they believe, is "in author- 
ity." The ministers of all other denominations are "sec- 
tarians," "heretics," "hirelings," etc. Only those who 
have been ordained by "the laying on of hands, by those 
who are in authority," have the right "to preach the Gos- 
pel and administer in the ordinances thereof." Here the 
power of the priesthood is distinctly asserted. This is 
one of the cardinal doctrines of Mormonism. There are 
four of these cardinal doctrines — their belief as to God, / 
polygamy, the priesthood and new revelations. All of 
the other three rest very largely upon the priesthood. 
This doctrine gives force and effectiveness to the others. 
Given the absolute authority of the priesthood which the 
Mormons claim, and the blind and unquestioning obedi- 
ence to it which they demand, and everything else is pos- 

The Mormon priesthood is divided into two general 
classes, the Melchisedec priesthood and the Aaronic priest- 


hood. All male Mormons belong to one or the other of 
these priesthoods. The Melchisedec priesthood has to do 
especially with spiritual affairs and the Aaronic priesthood 
with temporal affairs, though the Melchisedec priesthood, 
being superior to the Aaronic priesthood and exercising 
jurisdiction over it, also controls in temporal affairs. The 
Melchisedec priesthood is divided into Apostles, Seven- 
ties, Patriarchs, High Priests and Elders; the Aaronic 
priesthood into Bishops, Priests, Teachers and Deacons. 
Over each of these different orders there are presiding 
officers, as follows : 

Presidencies in the Melchisedec Priesthood — First 
Presidency. — A High Priest is chosen to preside over the 
Melchisedec or higher priesthood. He also presides over 
the church in all the world, and is a Prophet, Seer or Rev- 
elator. Two other High Priests are associated with the 
President as counselors. (Roberts Eccl. Hist., p. 367.) 

The Traveling Presiding High Council. — The Twelve 
Apostles, or special witnesses of the name of Christ in all 
the world; they labor under the direction of the First 
Presidency. (Roberts Eccl. Hist., p. 368.) 

Quorum of Seventy. — There are a number of quorums 
of seventy in each, and each quorum is presided over by 
seven Presidents, the senior by ordination presiding over 
the other six. The first seven Presidents preside over all 
the Seventy. (Roberts, 368.) 

Patriarchs.— There is one general and a number of 
local patriarchs in the church. These officers hold the 
keys of blessing in the church. The office is designed to 
descend from father to son. (Roberts, p. 370.) 

High Priests.— From among the High Priests are se- 
lected presidents of the different stakes in Zion. Bishops 
are also chosen from among them. (Roberts, p. 371.) 


Elders. — Elders have power to preach the gospel, bap- 
tize, lay on hands for the Holy Ghost. Ninety-six Elders 
constitute a quorum. (Roberts, p. 372.) 

The Aaronic Priesthood. — The general Bishop of the 
Church is the general President and local Bishops are 
local Presidents. (Sec. 3, part 4, Roberts Eccl. Hist.) 

Priests — Forty-eight Priests of the Aaronic order are a 
quorum. The Presidency of this quorum is to be a Bishop. 

Teachers. — Twenty-four Teachers constitute a quorum ; 
they are presided over by a President and two counselors. 
(Roberts, Sec. 2, part 4.) 

Deacons. — Twelve Deacons constitute a quorum ; they 
are presided over by a President and two counselors. 
(Roberts, Sec. 2, part 4.) 

Thus it is seen how thorough is the organization of the 
Mormon priesthood. But every lower order is subject to 
the higher, until all authority centers in the head of the 
church, the Prophet, Seer and Revelator, the President of 
the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." He 
is the apex of the pyramid of the Mormon system. 

The Mormon priesthood is as complete a despotism as 
was ever established on earth. Jesuitism itself was never 
more despotic. The first and chief duty of every Mormon 
is to be subject to the priesthood, to "obey counsel." No 
one dares to think for himself. He cannot even call his 
soul his own. The priests claim control over everything, 
not ony spiritual, but temporal and political. Their 
"Teachers" in the various wards are expected to find out 
everything about all the people in their district during 
each week, as to how they have been getting along both 
spiritually and temporally. They then report their in- 
formation to the Bishop of the ward and he to the higher 
authorities, the Twelve Apostles and the members of the 


First Presidency. And thus a complete system of espion- 
age is kept upon the actions of every one. Brigham 
Young claimed that he had the right to dictate and con- 
trol everything ''even to the ribbons that a woman should 
wear or to the setting up of a stocking." The old Jewish 
theocracy is revived by the Mormons, with the President 
of the church as the "mouthpiece of God." 

To them church and state are identical. They contin- 
ually talk about a "Church-kingdom," meaning a temporal 
kingdom ruled over by the head of the church. It is this 
doctrine and the consequent arrogance growing out of it 
which has been the cause of nearly all the friction between 
the Mormons and their Gentile neighbors in Missouri, 
Illinois and Utah. They claim supreme authority for their 
President and demand absolute subjection to him. They 
cannot, of course, enforce this demand upon Gentiles. 
But woe to the Mormon who dares to refuse obedience to 
the every wish and whim of the priesthood. He is called 
"weak in the faith," is denounced as a traitor, and if he 
persists in his disobedience he is "disfellowshipped," be- 
comes an "apostate" and is turned over to the "bufferings 
of Satan." The very severest denunciations in this life 
and the very direst penalties in the life to come are re- 
served for the "apostate." The object seems to be to 
make it so unpleasant for him that no one will dare to 
apostatize. There is no sin which a man can commit 
which is greater than disobedience to the priesthood. It 
is to the Mormons the one unpardonable sin. Lying, theft, 
adultery, murder are as nothing compared to it. The 
priesthood, as I said, is an absolute despotism. The peo- 
ple are taught that it is infallible. Blind, unreasoning, un- 
questioning obedience is required to this infallible priest- 


While I was in Salt Lake City an ex-Mormon, a gen- 
tleman of intelligence, who had come to see the sham and 
fraud in the Mormon system, told me that when he began 
to show independence of the priesthood his own daughter, 
who is a dyed-in-the-wool Mormon, said to him that if 
he had gone out and killed a whole street full of people 
she could not have felt any greater abhorrence for him 
than she did. This feeling, of course, was the result of 
Mormon teaching as to the authority and sacredness and 
infallibility of the priesthood. 

The cases of Sidney Rigdon, one of the founders of 
Mormonism, who was turned over to the "bufferings of 
Satan" by Brigham Young for aspiring to the presidency 
of the church at the death of Joseph Smith; of Orson 
Pratt, the strongest writer the Mormons ever had, who 
was publicly held up to ridicule and scorn for daring to 
differ from Brigham Young; of the Walker Brothers, 
merchants in Salt Lake City, who were cut off and almost 
ruined financially, because they did not contribute as lib- 
erally as Brigham Young thought they ought to ; of W. S. 
Godbe, E. L. T. Harrison, T. B. H. Stenhouse and others, 
who were disfellowshipped because they claimed the priv- 
ilege of doing their own thinking, and contended for the 
right of private judgment ; of B. H. Roberts and Moses 
Thatcher, who were threatened with excommunication and 
finally whipped back into line because they asserted their 
political independence of the priesthood — these and many 
other such cases too numerous to mention, all show the 
despotism of the Mormon priesthood. In the trial of 
Messrs. Godbe, Harrison and Stenhouse, Apostle George 
Q. Cannon maintained that "it is apostacy to differ hon- 
estly from the measures of the President (Young) — a 
man may be honest even in hell" ; and Counselor Daniel 


H. Wells volunteered the remarkable statement that the 
accused "might as well ask the question whether a man 
had the right to differ honestly from the Almighty!" 

The Italian Mormon missionary was right about it. 
lie had served in Brigham Young's household. In an 
address to the Saints at Liverpool he exhorted his hearers 
to "obey the authorities," as there was great happiness in 
obedience. He said that he had no trouble in getting 
along: "I puts my head in de bag, and I goes along, and 
I sees nothin'." This blind, unreasoning obedience to the 
priesthood is the mark of the highest virtue among the 



The sixth article of faith in the Mormon creed reads : 

"We believe in the same organization that existed in 
the primitive church, namely: apostles, prophets, pas- 
tors, teafchers, evangelists, etc." 

As to this I have to say: 

i. The apostle in the literal meaning of the word, one 
sent, is still continued in the missionary, which is the 
Latin word corresponding to the Greek word apostle. 
But in the technical and official sense of the term the 
office of apostle was special and temporary, and was 
discontinued at the close of what we call the apostolic 
age— that is, the first century. Smith's Bible Diction- 
ary says on this point: 

"As regards the apostolic office, it seems to have been 
pre-eminently that of founding the churches, and up- 
holding them by supernatural power specially bestowed 
for that purpose. It ceased, as a matter of course, with 
its first holders— all continuation of it, from the very 
conditions of its existence (cf. I Cor. ix. i), being im- 
possible. The episcopos of the ancient churches coex- 
isted with, and did not in any sense succeed, the Apostles ; 
and when it is claimed for bishops or any church officers 
that they are their successors, it can be understood only 
chronologically, and not officially." 

In discussing who should be chosen as a successor to 
Judas, Peter said: "Wherefore of these men which 
have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus 



went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism 
of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from 
us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his 
resurrection." (Acts i. 21, 22.) The Savior describes 
his apostles as "they that have continued with me in 
my temptations." (Luke xxii. 28.) Paul said that one 
special qualification of an apostle was that he had "seen 
Jesus Christ our Lord" (1 Cor. ix. 1), and claimed that 
he himself had seen him and so had a right to be an 
apostle. In the nature of the office, therefore, the apos- 
tles could have no successors. 

2. The word prophet means one who speaks for God 
and also one who is inspired of God to speak before of 
coming events. In the first sense there are still proph- 
ets. Every preacher is a prophet. But in the second 
sense, the prophet, like the apostle, left no successor. 
Joseph Smith, it is true, claimed to be a prophet in 
this sense. He made some shrewd guesses which his 
credulous followers try to twist into predictions. For 
instance, take the most noted of his "prophecies." He 
claimed to have had the following revelation given to 
him Dec. 25, 1832 : 

"Verily, thus saith the Lord, concerning the wars 
that will shortly come to pass, beginning at the rebel- 
lion of South Carolina, which will eventually termi- 
nate in the death and misery of many souls. The days 
will come that war will be poured out upon all nations, 
beginning at that place; for behold the Southern States 
shall be divided against the Northern States, and the 
Southern States will call on other nations, even the na- 
tion of Great Britain, as it is called, and they shall also 
call upon other nations in order to defend themselves 
against other nations; and thus war shall be poured 


out upon all nations. And it shall come to pass, after 
many days, slaves shall rise up against their masters, 
who shall be marshaled and disciplined for war. And 
it shall come to pass, also, that the remnants who are 
left of the land will marshal themselves, and shall be- 
come exceeding angry, and shall vex the Gentiles with 
a sore vexation ; and thus with the sword, and by blood- 
shed, the inhabitants of the earth shall mourn ; and with 
famine and plague and earthquakes, and the thunder of 
heaven and the fierce and vivid lightning also, shall 
the inhabitants of the earth be made to feel the wrath 
and indignation and chastening hand of an Almighty 
God, until the consummation decreed hath made a full 
end of all nations; that the cry of the Saints, and of 
the blood of the Saints, shall cease to come up into the 
ears of the Lord of Sabaoth, from the earth to be avenged 
of their enemies. Wherefore stand ye in holy places, 
and be not moved, until the day of the Lord come ; for 
behold it cometh quickly, saith the Lord. Amen." 

At a conference held in Nauvoo, April, 1843, the vear ~ 
preceding his death, Smith repeated the prediction : 

"I prophecy in the name of the Lord God, that the 
commencement of the difficulties which will cause much 
bloodshed, previous to the coming of the Son of Man, 
will be in South Carolina (it probably may arise through 
the slave question) ; this a voice declared to me, while 
I was praying earnestly on the subject, Dec. 25, 1832." 

At the outbreak of the war between the States, the 
Mormons claimed, and have since continued to claim, 
that that event was in fulfillment of this prophecy. But 
several facts should be borne in mind. (1) The reve- 
lation, claimed to have been given Dec. 25, 1832, was 
not published in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants 


compiled in 1835. It was first published sometime in 
the fifties, in England. It was not until after the war 
of 1861-65 that it was published in this country. (2) 
But admit that the revelation was given Dec. 25, 1832. 
During that year, as history shows, South Carolina had 
rebelled. Says a recent writer: 

"In November, the Anti-Tariff Convention issued the 
Nullification Ordinance. It was as a spark of powder 
all over the United States, influencing for and against. 
Five days later the Unionists even in South Carolina 
met and entered a red-hot protest against the ordinance. 

"Andrew Jackson was at the nation's helm. Old 
Hickory promptly issued his proclamation against the 
rebels. He backed up his words by garrisoning forts, 
and sent vessels of war into Charleston Harbor. On 
December 20, Governor Hayne, of South Carolina, de- 
fied the President, and his army and navy, in a counter 

An Indian war, known as the Black Hawk war, had 
raged. Cholera had scourged, breaking up General 
Scott's army on its way to meet Black Hawk. It was 
easy on Dec. 25, 1832, to predict these things. (3) 
But the prophecy said wars will shortly come, begin- 
ning with the rebellion of South Carolina. Only one 
war resulted and that was sometime off. 

Again "the prophecy" says : 

"The Southern States shall be divided against the 
Northern States, and the Southern States will call on 
other nations, even the nation of Great Britain, and 
they shall call upon other nations, etc., and thus war 
'shall be poured out upon all nations.' " 

The South did not call on other nations. War was 
not "poured out on all nations." Nor did the predic- 


tion come true that the "remnant" [Indians] "who are 
left of the land will marshal themselves and become 
exceeding angry, and shall vex the Gentiles with a sore 
vexation." Nor did the slaves "rise up against their 
masters, . . . marshaled and disciplined for war." 

And thus is it seen how in his most famous proph- 
ecy Joseph Smith, if he was a prophet at all, was a 
"false prophet" — such as was predicted by Christ. 
(Matt. xxiv. II, 24.) 

One prediction attributed to him, however, seems to 
have come true. He is reported to have said some time 
before his death: "If Brigham Young ever becomes 
President of the Church he will lead it to hell." 

As to Brigham himself, he never ventured to put 
dates to his predictions but twice, and both times he 
came to grief. The second time was when on the Sun- 
day preceding the surrender of Gen. Lee he predicted 
that there would be four more years of war! 

3. But the Mormons do not stop with apostles, proph- 
ets, pastors, teachers, evangelists. They add "etc," and 
that "etc." includes a good deal. It includes the Mel- 
chisedec and Aaronic priesthoods; the First Presidency, 
with the President of the church and his two Counsel- 
lors; the Quorums of Seventies; the Patriarchs; the 
Presidents of Stakes ; Priests, Bishops, etc., etc., making 
a curious and awkward conglomeration of the officials of 
the old and the new dispensations, with prophet and 
apostle, priest and bishop, patriarch and pastor side by 
side. They propose to take the Bible literally and claim 
to get these offices out of the Bible. But I should like 
to ask, Where does the Bible speak of a First Presidency ? 
Where does it speak of two Counsellors to the First 
President? Where of the President of a Stake? 



The seventh article of faith reads as follows : 

"We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecies, revela- 
tions, visions, healing, interpretation of tongues, etc." 

I can not undertake to discuss each one of these 
points at length. A few words as to each, perhaps, 
will suffice. 

i. The gift of tongues. By this the Mormons mean 
that the power of speaking in various languages is given 
to them as it was given to the disciples upon the day 
of Pentecost. But if that be true it is strange that 
they never exercise the gift. It is true that some of them 
have occasionally claimed to have it, and have tried to 
exercise it. Brigham Young was the first to make this 
claim. It was he who introduced the gift of speaking 
with tongues. At first missionaries in foreign lands at- 
tempted to make use of this gift without taking the 
trouble to learn the language of the people among whom 
they were laboring. Both Orson Pratt and Parley P. 
Pratt taught that they would be able to do so. But 
finding that for practical purposes the gift was not of 
much value, as they had some difficulty in making them- 
selves understood, they concluded that it would prob- 
ably be better to do like ordinary mortals and learn the 
language of the people to whom they wished to speak. 
The doctrine of speaking with tongues is, however, still 
believed by the Mormons, and occasionally they go 
through the farce of pretending to exercise the gift. 



While I was in Salt Lake City there was a Mormon 
woman who in a public meeting at Ogden purported to 
speak with tongues. 

But if all reports be true it is certainly a very "un- 
known tongue" in which they all speak. It sounds more 
like the jabbering of a year old child or the chattering 
of a monkey than it does like human speech. Mrs. Sten- 
house describes the performance of a Sister Ellis in 
speaking with tongues as follows: 

"I say 'speak/ as that term is generally applied to 
the utterances of the human voice ; but she did not speak 
in the sense in which we always employ that word; 
she simply emitted a series of sounds. They seemed 
to me chiefly the repetition of the same syllables — some- 
thing like a child repeating, la, la, la, le, lo; ma, ma, ma, 
mi, ma; dele, dele, dele, hela — followed, perhaps, by a 
number of sounds strung together, which could not be 
rendered in any shape by the pen. Sometimes in the 
Far West, in later years, I have heard old Indian women, 
crooning wierdly monotonous and outlandish ditties in 
their native tongue. These wild dirges, more nearly than 
anything else I ever heard, resemble the prophetic utter- 
ances of Sister Ellis; save only, that the appearance of 
the latter was far too solemn to admit of even a smile 
at what she said." 

2. The interpretation of tongues referred to in the 
article of faith is the power, as claimed by the Mormons, 
to interpret the speech of those who talk in an unknown 
tongue. Whenever any one speaks thus some one else 
is apt to interpret his speech. The result is often very 
ludicrous, making the first speaker say some wild and 
ridiculous things, which, as he claims to be inspired by 
the Holy Spirit, will be attributed to the Spirit, and 
which are little short of blasphemy. 


3. In discussing the 6th article I spoke about proph- 
ets, and so I need not dwell here upon the subject of 
prophecy. I shall discuss the subject of revelation later 
on in speaking of the ninth article. 

4. As to visions. Joseph Smith claimed to have them, 
and so have some other Mormons, but none of these 
claims has been well authenticated, and I do not think 
that the claim is put forth to any considerable extent 
now. It is true that the Lord did sometimes speak to 
his people in the former times in visions and dreams, 
but that was before he had given the written revelation 
of his will to them. Since that has been given he speaks 
both through that revelation and through His Spirit, 
and I am inclined to think that, as a rule, the visions 
and dreams which the Mormons and others claim to have 
now are the result either of an excited imagination or 
of a disordered stomach. 

5. The gift of healing. The Mormon elders claim to 
possess this gift now. They propose to carry out liter- 
ally the injunction of James to lay their hands upon 
the sick, and anoint him with oil and he shall be healed. 
This passage in James is of very difficult and doubtful 
interpretation. There are various views with reference 
to it. Some, like the Mormons, take it in its strict literal 
sense, and if the person is not healed, they claim that 
the person did not have faith enough. 

Dr. J. E. Talmage says: 

"Another gift, allied to this, is the power of exercis- 
ing faith to be healed; which is manifested in varying 
degrees. Not always are the administrations of the el- 
ders followed by immediate healing; the afflicted may 
be permitted to suffer in body, perhaps, for the accom- 
plishment of Divine purposes, and in the time appointed 


of the Lord, His children pass through bodily death. 
But let the counsels of God be observed in administering 
to the afflicted; then if they recover, they live unto the 
Lord ; and the assuring promise is added that those who 
die under such conditions die unto the Lord." 

Others think that the gift of healing passed away with 
the days of miracles at the close of the apostolic period. 
Miracles, they say, are given only to attest revelations. 
There have been three general periods of miracles. (1) 
In the time of Moses. (2) In the time of Elijah. (3) 
In the time of Christ. Their purpose was to attest the 
law and the prophets and the gospel. Still others think 
that the anointing of oil to which James refers was 
the use of medicine, and that when we call in a physician 
now and take the medicine which he gives, we are carry- 
ing out in spirit the injunction of James. At any rate, 
whatever be the interpretation of the passage, it is very 
certain that the Mormons do not possess the gift of heal- 
ing to any great extent. There have been instances of 
persons who were apparently healed by them, but these 
cures might be attributed largely to psychological, or as 
they are commonly called, mesmeric, influences — for the 
Mormon elders, nearly all of them, are possessed with 
this kind of gift. They have a great deal of animal mag- 
netism, or hypnotism, or by whatever name it may be 
called. But certain it is that the Mormons do not rely 
upon this gift of healing now to cure their sick. There 
is the usual number of practicing physicians in Salt 
Lake City. The third wife of Mr. B. H. Roberts is a 
practicing physician, Dr. Maggie C. Shipp Roberts. And 
thus they show that they do not have faith in their own 
principle. It is one thing to preach it and another to 
practice it. 



The eighth article in the Mormon creed savs : 
"We believe the Bible to be the Word of God as far 
as it is translated correctly. We also believe the Book 
of Mormon to be the Word of God. ,, 

"We believe the Bible to be the Word of God." So 
they claim. But do they? 
Let us take a passage from the Book of Mormon : 
"And my words shall hiss forth unto the ends of the 
earth, for a standard unto my people, which are of the 
house of Israel. And because my words shall hiss forth, 
many of the Gentiles shall say, a Bible, a Bible, we have 
got a Bible, and there cannot be any more Bible. But 
thus saith the Lord God: O fools, they shall have a 
Bible; and it shall proceed forth from the Jews, mine 
ancient covenant people. And what thank they the Jews 
for the Bible which they receive from them? . 
Thou fool, that shall say a Bible, we have got a Bible, 
and we need no more Bible. Have ye obtained a Bible, 
save it were by the Jews? Know ye not that there are 
more nations than one? Know ye not that I, the Lord, 
your God, have created all men, and that I remember 
those who are upon the isles of the sea; and that I rule 
in the heavens above, and in the earth beneath ; and that 
I bring forth my word unto the children of men, yea, 
even upon all the nations of the earth ? Wherefore mur- 



mur ye, because that ye shall receive more of my word? 
Know ye not that the testimony of two nations is a 
witness unto you that I am God, that I remember one 
nation like unto another? Wherefore I speak the same 
words unto one nation like unto another. And when 
the two nations shall run together the testimony of 
the two nations shall run together also. And I do this 
that I may prove unto many that I am the same yester- 
day, to-day, and forever ; and that I speak forth my words 
according to mine own pleasure. And because that I 
have spoken one word, ye need not suppose that I can- 
not speak another; for my work is not yet finished; 
neither shall it be until the end of man! neither from 
that time henceforth and forever. 

"Wherefore, because that ye have a Bible, ye need 
not suppose that it contains all my words; neither need 
ye suppose that I have not caused more to be written: 
for I command all men, both in the east and in the 
west, and in the north and in the south, and in the islands 
of the sea, that they shall write the words which I speak 
unto them; for out of the books which shall be written, 
I will judge the world, every man according to their 
works, according to that which is written. For behold, 
I shall speak unto the Jews, and they shall write it; 
and I shall also speak unto the Nephites, and they shall 
write it; and I shall also speak unto the other tribes 
of the house of Israel, which I have led away, and they 
shall write it; and I shall also speak unto all nations 
of the earth, and they shall write it."— 2 Nephi 29: 2-12. 

As pointed out by Mr. Lamb, a Baptist minister, for- 
merly of Salt Lake City, in his "Golden Bible"— from 
which I shall have occasion to quote frequently — this 
passage means that the Bible is not all the Word of 


God, and also that it is only the Bible of the Jews, and 
not the Bible of the other nations of the world. While 
in a certain sense it belongs to the whole world, just 
as each of these other ''Bibles," when written, will be- 
long to the whole world, yet primarily and of first import- 
ance to each separate nation will be the "Bible" especially 
prepared for that nation. So that to us, and to all the 
world aside from the Jews, the Bible is of secondary im- 

And so other passages might be quoted to show the 
same thing. Says Rev. M. L. Oswalt, an ex-Mormon : 

"The truth of the whole matter is simply this : Mor- 
monism discards the Bible as containing the plan of 
salvation for us. They accept it as true history, and 
the will of God to those to whom it was directly re- 
vealed, but that it is of no binding force to the people 
of this age of the world." 

But the Mormons add: "We believe the Bible to be 
the Word of God as far as it is translated correctly/' 

This may mean that the Bible w r as originally written 
in Hebrew and Greek, and was translated into English 
by fallible men, who made mistakes in the translation, 
but that in the original manuscripts it was the inspired 
Word of God. If this were what it was intended to 
mean and all it was intended to mean, there would be 
no objection to it. Every one would agree with the 
position thus taken. But this is not all that is meant 
by a good deal. Joseph Smith claimed that there were 
gross errors in the Bible translation, and he started out 
to make a Bible for himself. 

His work was in MS. awaitng publication at his death, 
but when the division of the church came at Nauvoo, 
the Josephites seized the MS. and left the unfortunate 


Brighamites to fall back upon the "faulty" King James 
translation. A few extracts from Smith's translation 
as they appear in some of their standard works, may be 

of interest. _ , 

Gen 1 26, in the common version reads, And God 
said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. 
Smith translates, "And I, God, said unto mine Only Be- 
gotten which was with me from the beginning, let us 
make man in our image, after our likeness, and it was 

so " 

In the next place he "translates" something that is 
altogether foreign to anything found in the Bible. Here 
it is • "After Adam had been driven out of the garden 
he began to till the earth, and to have dominion over all 
the beasts of the field, and to eat his bread by the sweat 
of his brow, as I, the Lord, had commanded him: And 
he called upon the name of the Lord, and so did Eve, 
his wife also. And they heard the voice of the Lord, 
from the way toward the Garden of Eden, speaking 
unto them, and they saw him not, for they were shut 
out from his presence ; and he gave unto them command- 
ments that they should worship the Lord their God, and 
should offer the firstlings of their flocks for an offering 
unto the Lord. And Adam was obedient unto the com- 
mandments of the Lord. And after many days an an- 
crel of the Lord appeared unto Adam, saying, Why dost 
fhou offer sacrifices unto the Lord? And Adam said 
unto him, I know not, save the Lord commanded me. 
And then the angel spake, saying, This thing is a simili- 
tude of the sacrifice of the Only Begotten of the ^ Father, 
who is full of grace and truth. And thou shalt do a 
that thou doest in the name of the Son, and thou shalt 
repent and call upon God in the name of the Son for 


evermore. And in that day the Holy Ghost fell upon 
Adam, which beareth record of the Father and the 
Son." This is a remarkable piece of Scripture building, 
which Smith attempted to foist upon the book of Gene- 

Again, Exod. 32 :20, which reads, "And he said, Thou 
canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, 
and live," Smith "translates": "The Lord said unto 
Moses, Thou canst not see my face at this time, lest 
my anger be kindled against thee also, and I destroy 
thee and thy people. There shall no man among them 
see me at this time and live, for they are exceeding sin- 
ful, and no sinful man hath at any time [seen], neither 
shall there be any sinful man at any time that shall see 
my face and live." 

And this was what Joseph Smith meant when he said 
that the Bible was the Word of God "as far as it is 
translated correctly." 

"We also believe the Book of Mormon to be the 
Word of God." The Book of Mormon! What is the 
Book of Mormon ? In Chapter 1 I gave some account of 
its origin. In brief, it was written by Solomon Spauld- 
ing, a Presbyterian minister, as a romance purporting to 
account for the origin of the Indian Mounds. It was 
called the "Manuscript Found," and claimed to have been 
discovered in one of the mounds. This was all very 
pretty as a romance. But Sidney Rigdon, a Campbellite 
preacher, got hold of the manuscript at the printing office 
of Patterson & Lamdin, took it home and emended it 
by giving it a doctrinal turn, putting in a good many 
Scriptural quotations. He then persuaded Joseph Smith, 
the well-digger and professed seer, to father it, which 
he did, but changed the manuscript to golden plates. 


Smith pretended to dictate from the plates to Martin 
Harris and Oliver Cowdery, his scribes, while he was 
hidden behind a bed blanket. So we should expect to 
find in the book the romance of Solomon Spaulding, 
the doctrinal views of Sidney Rigdon and the style of 
Joseph Smith. But before I proceed to examine the 
book, I give the following letter from Dr. Z. C. Graves 
as strong confirmatory testimony to the origin of the 
book, as stated above. Dr. Graves was for nearly forty 
years the able president of Mary Sharp College, at Win- 
chester, Tenn. He says: 

"Winchester, Jan. 19, 1900. 
Rev. Edgar E. Folk, Nashville, Tenn. 

Dear Brother: In compliance with your request 
of January 13th, I make the following statements in ref- 
erence to the 'Mormon Bible' : 

"Mrs. A. C. Graves, my wife, was the daughter of 
Daniel M. Spencer, a celebrated physician of Kingsville, 
Ashtabula County, Ohio. The doctor was devoted to 
literature. He had a patient by the name of Solomon 
Spaulding living in Coneaut, a village about eight miles 
from Kingsville, who died with a lingering consumption 
while under Dr. Spencer's treatment. Spaulding was 
a scholar of no meager attainments, having a family of 
several children and not blessed with much of this world's 
goods; hence he was greatly worried about his family. 
Spaulding and the doctor conceived the plan to have 
Spaulding write a romance, or a novel, about the lost 
tribes of Israel wandering to this country, of whose works 
our antiquities are the results. This was the fundamental 
idea of the romance. Mrs. Graves often accompanied 
her father on his visits to his patient, Spaulding, who 
read to the doctor what he had written between the 


intervals of his visits, for his criticism and suggestions, 
Mrs. Graves listening and becoming very much inter- 
ested in the narrative. When the narrative, or romance, 
was finished, the manuscript was sent to Pittsburg, Pa., 
for publication, if terms could be determined upon; but 
very soon after the manuscript was sent, Spaulding died. 
The manuscript was found in the printer's office by a 
man named Rigdon, who conceived the plan of making 
it a 'Mormon Bible/ changing the language from its 
common style to the sacred. 

"When the 'Mormon Bible' was published Mrs. Graves 
and her father recognized the fraud. I believe that 
the plot or plan of the 'Mormon Bible' was concocted 
or conceived by Spaulding and Dr. Spencer, designing 
it to be a romance, or novel, to be published for the 
benefit of Spaulding's family. The idea that it would 
ever be used as it has been, and is now, was never even 
dreamed of by them. Dr. Spencer has been dead fifty 
years and his daughter four years. None of the witnesses 
are now living, so far as I know. Z. C. Graves/' 

But here is the statement of John Spaulding, the 
brother of Solomon Spaulding: 

"Solomon Spaulding (my brother) was born in Ash- 
ford, Conn., in 1 761, and in early life contracted a 
taste for literary pursuits. He entered Dartmouth Col- 
lege, where he obtained the degree of A. M., and was 
afterwards regularly ordained. After preaching three 
or four years he commenced the mercantile business. 
In a few years he failed in business, and in 1809 removed 
to Conneaut, O. The year following I found him en- 
gaged in building a forge. I made him a visit in about 
three years after and found that he had failed and was 
considerably involved in debt. He then told me he 


had been writing a book, which he intended to have 
printed, the avails of which he thought would enable 
him to pay all his debts. The book was entitled the 
''Manuscript Found," of which he read to me many pages. 
It was an historical romance of the first settlers of Amer- 
ica, endeavoring to show that the American Indians are 
the descendants of the Jews or the lost tribes. It gave 
a detailed account of their journey from Jerusalem, by 
land and sea, till they arrived in America, under the 
command of Nephi and Lehi. They afterwards had 
quarrels and contentions and separated into two distinct 
nations, one of which he denominated Nephites and the 
other Lamanites. Cruel and bloody wars ensued, in 
which great multitudes were slain. They buried their 
dead in large heaps, which caused the mounds so com- 
mon in this country. Their arts, sciences and civiliza- 
tion were brought into view in order to account for all 
the antiquities found in various parts of North and South 
America. I have recently read the Book of Mormon, 
and, to my great surprise, I find nearly the same histori- 
cal matter, names, etc., as they were in my brother's 
writings. I well remember that he wrote in the old 
style, and commenced about every sentence with "And 
it came to pass/ or 'Now it came to pass,' the same as 
in the Book of Mormon, and according to the best of 
my recollection and belief it is the same as my brother 
wrote, with the exception of the religious matter.' , 

Here also is the testimony of Henry Lake. It is dated 
Conneaut, O., September, 1833: 

"I left the State of New York late in the year 1810, 
and arrived at this place about the first of January fol- 
lowing. Soon after my arrival I formed a copartner- 
ship with Solomon Spaulding for the purpose of rebuild- 


ing a forge. He- very frequently read to me from a 
manuscript which he was writing, which he entitled the 
'Manuscript Found,' and which he represented as being 
found in his town. I spent many hours in hearing him 
read said writings and became well acquainted with its 
contents. He wished me to assist him in getting his 
production printed, alleging that a book of that kind 
would meet with a rapid sale. This book represented 
the American Indians as the descendants of the lost 
tribes, gave an account of their leaving Jerusalem, their 
contentions and wars. One time, when he was reading 
to me the tragic account of Laban, I pointed out to 
him what I considered an inconsistency, which he prom- 
ised to correct; but by referring to the Book of Mor- 
mon, I find, to my surprise, that it stands there just as 
he read it to me then. Some months ago I borrowed 
the Golden Bible, put it into my pocket, carried it home 
and thought no more of it. About a week after, my 
wife found the book in my coat pocket and commenced 
reading it aloud as I lay upon the bed. She had not 
read twenty minutes till I was astonished to find the 
same passages in it that Spaulding had read to me more 
than twenty years before, from his 'Manuscript Found.' 
Since that I have more fully examined the said Golden 
Bible and have no hesitation in saying that the histor- 
ical part of it is principally, if not wholly, taken from 
the 'Manuscript Found.' I recollect telling Mr. Spauld- 
ing that the so frequent use of the words, 'And it came to 
pass,' 'Now it came to pass/ rendered it ridiculous." 

I could give other similar statements, if necessary. But" 
these are sufficient to establish beyond a doubt the fraud- 
ulent character of the Book of Mormon, 

I know the Mormons claim that there is now in Ober- 


lin College, Ohio, a manuscript discovered by Apostle 
Joseph F. Smith, in Honolulu, which is the original 
copy of the "Manuscript Found," and which bears just 
enough resemblance to the Book of Mormon to lead 
persons who heard it read to say that it was the same, 
but which at the same time is quite different from it. 
But their claim is false. There is a manuscript in Ober- 
lin College which was written by Solomon Spaulding, 
but it is quite a different one from the "Manuscript 
Found," and could hardly have suggested to these many 
witnesses the Book of Mormon. Sidney Rigdon and 
Joseph Smith were the only persons who could have 
told what became of the "Manuscript Found." 



And now to the Book of Mormon. It lies at the founda- 
tion of the Mormon Church. The Apostle Orson Pratt 

"The nature of the message in the Book of Mormon is 
such that, if true, no one can possibly be saved and reject 
it; if false, no one can possibly be saved and receive it. 
Therefore, every soul in all the world is equally interested 
in ascertaining its truth or falsity." 

It claims to be superior to the Bible in that — 

1. It was infallibly translated. 

2. It has many important predictions not found in the 

3. Many points of doctrine more clearly revealed. 

4. It restores the "many parts, plain and most pre- 
cious," which were eliminated from the Bible at the close 
of the first century after Christ. 

What, then, is the Book of Mormon ? The following 
is a general outline of it as given by Mr. Lamb, which I 
follow as perhaps the best outline that could be made of 
the book in a brief compass. Mr. Lamb has made the 
most thorough study of the book of any one, and at the 
same time has made the most thorough exposure of it. 

It is divided into fifteen books, after the method of the 
Bible. The next to the last book, called the Book of 
Ether, contains the earliest record. 



This book tells us of a party numbering between twenty 
and thirty, under the direction of the brother of Jared, 
leaving Asia at the command of God, about one hundred 
years after the flood, just after the confusion of tongues, 
as related in the Book of Genesis. They embark in eight 
strangely constructed arks or barges ; and after drifting 
344 days across the Atlantic Ocean they land upon this 
North American Continent, where they and their descend- 
ants remained for fifteen hundred years; became very 
numerous, spread over the greater portion of the continent 
and developed a somewhat advanced civilization. But 
dividing into two powerful parties or nations, able to 
muster and thoroughly equip an army of two million sol- 
diers each — they became involved in a fierce war of exter- 
mination, which resulted in the entire annihilation of both 
nations, leaving the country a desolate waste — one man 
alone surviving the terrible destruction — whose name was 

About the time this terrible war was desolating North 
America, a second party, made up of two families, Lehi 
and Ishmael, leave the city of Jerusalem, at the beginning 
of the reign of Zedekiah, King of Judah, six hundred 
years before Christ, and after wandering eight years in 
the desert of Arabia, embark in a ship of peculiar construc- 
tion, drift across the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and land 
upon the western shore of South America. These two 
families having intermarried, begin rapidly to multiply. 
Within twenty years, however, they also divide into two 
rival nations, known for a thousand years afterwards as 
the Nephites and the Lamanites, named from the two 
brothers Nephi and Laman, who led in the quarrel and 
divided the two families. 

About nine years after Lehi and his company leave 


Jerusalem, a third party, headed by one of King Zede- 
kiah's sons, also leave Jerusalem, cross the ocean and set- 
tle in the land of Zarahemla, somewhere in the region of 
Central America, or the northern coasts of South 

After four hundred years they are accidentally discov- 
ered by a party of Nephites, who are traveling northward ; 
and after a time the two nations become one under the 
old title of Nephites. All these peoples rapidly increase ; 
the Lamanites eventually covering the entire South Amer- 
ican continent, while the Nephites gradually extend north- 
ward until the greater portion of North America is occu- 
pied by them. 

The Book of Mormon, with the exception of the single 
Book of Ether already mentioned, is the professed his- 
tory of these two peoples. The Lamanites, at the very 
beginning of their separate history, were cursed by the 
Almighty with a "skin of blackness" — became a wild, 
ignorant, ferocious people, and the ancestors of the present 
Indian races. While the Nephites are represented as 
God's greatest favorites, enjoying advantages and favors 
such as no other people under heaven ever enjoyed — fur- 
nishing a list of kings, judges, prophets, apostles and 
martyrs such as have never been found upon earth in any 
age or country. Christian churches were organized, bap- 
tism by immersion administered, and all the blessings and 
privileges of the New Testament dispensation enjoyed, 
with the peculiar gifts of speaking with tongues, prophe- 
sying, performing miracles, and such like, hundreds of 
years before the appearance of Jesus Christ in the flesh. 

A few years after Jesus' crucifixion, resurrection and 
ascension in Judea, he appeared to His people upon this 
continent in his human body, and remained here forty 


days, preaching, performing miracles, ordaining twelve 
apostles, and otherwise establishing the faith of His peo- 
ple. And a few years after the whole country is reported 
converted — the entire population of both continents, the 
Lamanites of South America and the Nephites of North 
America are enrolled in Christian churches. And for 
nearly two hundred years a regular full-blown millennium 
is enjoyed. The arts of war being forgotten, peace, purity 
and religious culture are universal. But increased wealth 
and prosperity brought religious declension, and by and 
by apostacy from the faith. The apostates assumed the old 
name of Lamanites, and their old hatred of religion and 
religious people. This opposition increased in numbers 
and in power, until war, relentless and cruel, again filled 
the land with bloodshed and desolation. This resulted, in 
the year 384 A. D., in the complete destruction of the 
Nephites and all there was left of the religious element — 
leaving the infidel Lamanites, who had already become 
wild, barbarous and bloodthirsty, in full possession of 
both continents, where they were found upon the dis- 
covery of America by Columbus. 

Now the commander-in-chief of the Nephite forces was 
a prophet by the name of Mormon. Before this exter- 
minating war had ended, Mormon gathered up all the 
records of his predecessors, the kings and prophets and 
judges who had been inspired of God to write either his- 
tory or prophecy, or vision or exhortation — and made a 
careful abridgment of their writings down to his own 
time; and engraved this abridged record upon golden 
plates. These plates he turned over to his son Moroni, 
who commanded one division of the Nephite army under 
his father. This son finished his father's record, and, when 
completed, hid the whole in the sacred hill Cumorah, near 


Palmyra, New York. There they remained fourteen hun- 
dred years, until discovered by the prophet Joseph Smith, 
and by him translated into our language. 

This accounts for the name of the book, the Book of 
Mormon — while the book gives the name to the people, 
the Mormons. Moroni was raised from the dead in the 
form of an angel for the special purpose of showing Mr. 
Smith where said plates had been hidden, and assist him 
in translating them into our language. 

This all sounds very nonsensical, but remember that it 
was simply a romance evolved out of the fertile imagina- 
tion of Solomon Spaulding. As such it is quite interest- 

Now let us study the Book of Mormon more closely. 

It is a little remarkable that the Book of Mormon is not 
in the Book of Mormon at all. The reason of this, as I 
have previously explained, is that after Smith had dictated 
116 pages of the Book of Mormon to Martin Harris, Mrs. 
Harris got hold of the manuscript and either destroyed it 
or would not return it. So Smith decided to leave the 
Book of Mormon out entirely; saying that if he should 
translate it again his enemies would publish this manu- 
script with alterations, to make people believe that he 
could not translate it the same way twice. And so the 
Book of Mormon begins with the first book of Nephi. 
The second verse of the book shows it to be a fraud. It 
reads: "Yea, I make a record in the language of my 
father, which consists of the learning of the Jews and the 
language of the Egyptians/' The Book of Mormon pur- 
ports to be written by Jews and to contain the record of 
the descendants of Jews. But still it is written in the 
Egyptian language, though it is a well known fact that 
the Jews have the utmost veneration for their own Ian- 


guage and the utmost hatred for everything Egyptian, and 
certainly would hardly have used the Egyptian language 
in which to record their learning, together with their re- 
ligious history and principles. But it is claimed that it 
was "Reformed Egyptian," and that Martin Harris sub- 
mitted a paper containing some of the hieroglyphics to the 
distinguished scholar, Prof. Anthon, and he pronounced 
them Reformed Egyptian hieroglyphics. But Prof. An- 
thon says : "The whole story about my having pronounced 
the Mormonite inscription to be 'Reformed Egyptian 
Hieroglyphics' is perfectly false/' A paper was submitted 
to him, but he says that it "contained anything else but 
'Egyptian hieroglyphics.' " 

These hieroglyphics bear on their face evidence of the 
clumsiest fraud. Some of them no mortal man could de- 
cipher. Others it would hardly require the aid of a Urim 
and Thummim to read. Take the last several "21x4—" 
—he ought to have added "25" to make the equation com- 
plete. But notice that this Reformed Egyptian language 
was the universal language of the people of this continent 
when Mormon and Moroni compiled the Book of Mormon 
1,500 years ago. Nephi and Laman, being brothers, must 
have spoken the same language. The place where this 
Reformed Egyptian language was supposed to have been 
spoken and written was Central America and the northern 
part of South America. We have some of the hiero- 
glyphics of these countries at that period, taken from 
idols, tablets, books, etc. They bear no resemblance what- 
ever to those which Joseph Smith says were in actual 
use there at that time. Which was mistaken, Joseph Smith 
or the records in brass and stone? It is strange also that 
there is no record in those countries of any people by the 
names given in the Book of Mormon. If people by those 


names had been so numerous and so powerful there, cer- 
tainly there ought to be some trace of their names in the 
literature and in the present names of the country. There 
are plenty of names, but they are very different from 
those mentioned in the Book of Mormon. And so as to the 
names of cities and countries. The names preserved in 
the traditions of the natives and in all their writings are 
utterly unlike those given in the Book of Mormon. 

In Palestine and other Bible lands the names of the 
cities are preserved very much as given in the Bible, so 
that they can readily be identified, thus constituting a 
powerful testimony to the truthfulness of the Bible. But 
not so with the names of cities given in the Book of Mor- 
mon. Not a single one of them can be recognized in the 
present names of cities in the countries where they are 
said to have existed. The conclusion is irresistible that 
there were never any cities there by those names, that 
they are myths, and consequently that the Book of Mor- 
mon is simply a romance, and as a religious book is a pure 

There are so many evidences of its fraudulent character 
that I cannot undertake to mention them all. I can give 
only some of the most glaring. 

It is evidently very human. Its style is the same all 
the way through. It is heavy, verbose. One of its sen- 
tences contains over 340 words. In it the words "that" 
and "which" are repeated twenty times; the words "I," 
"my" and "me," eleven times ; the word "Father," eight 
times; "Gentiles," five times; the expression, "shall come 
forth," four times. All this in one sentence. And so on 
every page there is a lack of the simplicity and compre- 
hensiveness and perspicuity of the Bible. It abounds in 
such expressions as "and it came to pass," "behold," 


"thereof/' "insomuch," etc. The author seems to try to 
imitate the Bible, but as might be expected, he overdoes 
the thing. It makes a number of bad blunders, showing 
both its human and its modern origin. For instance, it 
says that the Nephites found in the forests "both the cow 
and the ox, and the ass and the horse, and the goat and the 
wild goat, and all manner of wild animals that were for 
the use of man." In another place it is stated of the 
Jaredites that they had "all manner of cattle, oxen and 
cows, and of sheep and of swine, and of goats, and also 
many other kinds of animals wriich were useful for the 
food of man; and they had also horses and asses, and 
there were elephants and cureloms and cumons." What 
the latter beasts were it is impossible to determine, but 
scientific men are unanimously agreed that elephants never 
existed on this continent, and that horses, asses, oxen and 
swine were introduced by the European settlers within 
the last three hundred years. Had they existed at the 
time alluded to by the Mormon writer, some vestiges of 
them would certainly ere this have been discovered. The 
idea of swine being spoken of by the descendants of He- 
brews as "useful for the food of man" will strike readers 
of the Bible with astonishment. 

In one place it is said that "all those who were true 
believers in Christ took upon them the name of Christ or 
Christians, as they were called, because of their belief in 
Christ who should come." This was a century before 
the coming of Christ. The question is asked eighty years 
before Christ: "Have ye been spiritually born of God?" 
Nearly all the proper names in the Book of Mormon are 
merely combinations of Old Testament proper names. A 
few are from Roman history. Some of these ancient 
Americans bear Roman names several centuries too early, 


as for instance the name Antipas occurs 500 years before 
the days of the Romans by that name. The prophets of 
the book also display remarkable accuracy in using the 
language of the New Testament, although they purport 
to have lived hundreds of years before the Christian era. 

Some of the miracles recorded in the book are most 
remarkable. Nephi had a compass given him by the Lord 
which would become balky and refuse to work whenever 
anything was done to Nephi, "the Lord's pet." Colored 
people are made white by conversion. Here is the story : 

"And it came to pass that those Lamanites who had 
united with the Nephites were numbered among the Ne- 
phites, and their curse was taken from them, and their 
skin became white like unto the Nephites ; and their young 
men and their daughters became exceedingly fair, and 
they were numbered among the Nephites, and were called 

Nebuchadnezzar's burning fiery furnace, the Philippian 
jail experiences, the darkness and awful dread of Sinai, 
the shining face of Moses, the still, small voice heard by 
Elijah, and the outpouring of the spirit on the day of 
Pentecost are all combined together, and all of them 
beaten, in the marvelous experiences of two preachers, the 
brothers Nephi and Lehi, sons of Helaman. 

Jared built not one ark like Noah but eight barges, "ac- 
cording to the instruction of the Lord." But when they 
were finished he found that the Lord had forgotten two 
important matters with reference to them — ventilation and 
light. The brother of Jared promptly informs the Lord 
of these omissions. He says : 

"And also we shall perish, for in them we cannot breathe 
save it is the air which is in them ; therefore we shall per- 
ish. And the Lord said unto the brother of Jared, behold, 


thou shalt make a hole in the top thereof, and also in the 
bottom thereof; and when thou shalt suffer for air, thou 
shalt unstop the hole thereof, and receive air. And if so 
be that the water come in upon thee, behold ye shall stop 
the hole thereof, that ye may not perish in the flood. And 
it came to pass that the brother of Jared did so, according 
as the Lord had commanded. 

"And it came to pass that they were many times buried 
in the depths of the sea because of the mountain waves 
which broke upon them, and also the great and terrible 
tempests which were caused by the fierceness of the wind." 
What was the object of the hole in the bottom of the 
barges and how they got air to breathe while the waves 
were breaking over them and burying them in the sea, 
so that they would have to stop up the hole in the top, are 
not made clear. 

Again the brother of Jared "cried unto the Lord saying, 
O Lord, behold I have done even as thou hast commanded 
me ; and I have prepared the vessels for my people, and 
behold there is 110 light in them. Behold, O Lord, wilt 
thou suffer that we shall cross the great water in dark- 
ness?" And the Lord, apparently, is puzzled to know 
how to manage this matter, and so he asks advice of the 
brother of Jared : 

"And the Lord said unto the brother of Jared, what will 
ye that I should do that ye may have light in your vessels? 
For behold, ye cannot have windows, for they will be 
dashed in pieces ; neither shall ye take fire with you, for 
ye shall not go by the light of fire ; for behold, ye shall 
be as a whale in the midst of the sea ; for the mountain 
waves shall dash upon you. Nevertheless, I will bring 
you up again out of the depths of the sea ; for the winds 
have gone forth out of my mouth, and also the rains and 


the floods have I sent forth. And behold, I prepare you 
against these things; for howbeit, ye cannot cross this 
great deep, save I prepare you against the waves of the 
sea, and the winds which have gone forth, and the floods 
which shall come. Therefore what will ye that I should 
prepare for you that ye may have light when ye are swal- 
lowed up in the depths of the sea ?" 

And the brother of Jared was quite equal to the emer- 
gency. He was evidently a man of remarkable resources. 
He went up into a very high mountain "and did moulten 
out of a rock sixteen small stones, and they were white 
and clear even as transparent glass/' 

And those sixteen stones he presented before the Lord ; 
and after an earnest prayer, in which he informs the Lord 
of his ability to do anything he pleases, he says : 

"Therefore touch these stones, O Lord, with thy finger, 
and prepare them that they may shine forth in the dark- 
ness; and they shall shine forth unto us in the vessels 
which we have prepared, that we may have light while we 
shall cross the sea." 

And the Lord did so, and touched the stones one by one 
with his finger, and they became luminous with light, and 
were placed two in each barge, one at each end. Glass 
ioo years after the flood ! 

In describing what took place at the time of the death of 
Christ the Book of Mormon completely outdoes the Bible : 

"Thick darkness upon all the face of the land, inso- 
much that the inhabitants thereof could feel the vapor 
of darkness; and there could be no light, neither can- 
dles, neither torches, neither could there be a fire kin- 
dled with their fine and exceedingly dry wood." And 
this "did last for the space of three days." Meantime, 
"There was great mourning and howling and weeping 



among all the people continually. . . . And thus 
were the howlings of the people great and terrible." 

In the midst of it all Jesus appeared upon the scene 
— herejn America — and spoke in "a voice heard among 
all the inhabitants of the earth, upon all the face of the 
land," he recounts all the terrible things that have oc- 
curred, mentions the names of the various cities, that 
have been so suddenly blotted out of existence, and tells 
the reason why this terrible visitation has been permitted, 
because of their sins. The narrative goes on to say: 

"And it came to pass that thus did the three days pass 
away. And it was in the morning, and the darkness disap- 
pears from off the face of the land, and the earth did cease 
to tremble, and the rocks did cease to rend, and the dread- 
ful groanings did cease, and all the tumultuous noises 
'did pass away, and the earth did cleave together again 
that it stood, (?) and the mourning, and the weeping, 
and the wailing of the people who were spared alive did 
cease; and their mourning was turned into joy, and their 
lamentations into the praise and thanksgiving unto the 
Lord Jesus Christ, their Redeemer." 

Christ then told the whole multitude to "Arise and 
come forth unto me that ye may thrust your hands 
into my side, and also that ye may feel the prints of the 
nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know 
that I am the God of Israel, and the God of the whole 
earth, and have been slain for the sins of the world." 
Then "the multitude went forth and did thrust their 
hands into his side, and did feel the prints of the nails 
in his hands and in his feet ; and this they did do, going 
forth one by one, until they had all gone forth." The 
multitude in another place is said to have numbered 2,300 
souls! Allowing a quarter of a minute to each person, 
this operation would have taken over ten hours! 



Here are some other very improbable stories told by 
the Book of Mormon : 

A Lamanite general is scalped after the most approved 
Indian fashion, though the plucky fellow refused to re- 
tire, and did his most effective fighting afterwards, 
minus a scalp ! 

The Lamanites are described as a wild, hardened, 
'ferocious people, delighting in robbery, plunder and 
murder, a "very indolent people," "many of whom wor- 
ship idols 1" And yet, though wild and naked, they 
possessed dwelling houses, built great cities in which 
are found synagogues and sanctuaries and temples. 

After the Nephites had been badly beaten by the Lam- 
anites, driven out of their strongholds in Central Ameri- 
ca, their principal cities taken and destroyed, General 
Mormon "wrote an epistle unto the King of the Laman- 
ites, and desired of him that he would grant unto us 
that we might gather together our people unto the land 
of Cumorah, and there we could give them battle. And 
it came to pass that the King of the Lamanites did grant 
unto me the thing which I desired. And it came to 
pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, 
and we did pitch our tents round about the hill Cumorah ; 
and it was in a land of many waters, rivers and foun- 
tains; and here we had hope to gain advantage over the 



Think of it ! A defeated general writes to his enemy 
and makes the polite request that he will transport his 
army of several hundred thousand, at least two thousand 
miles away from his base of supplies, into a sparsely 
settled country, where provisions were necessarily scarce, 
for no other reason than to allow his enemy to secure 
a good position where they "had hope to gain advantage 
over the Lamanites" ! The hill Cumorah is a small hill 
in Western New York. In reaching it General Mor- 
mon had climbed over hundreds of mountain fastnesses, 
had marched by scores of magnificent canons or river 
gorges and other of nature's hiding places or of Ther- 
mopylae passes — a thousand places had been presented 
that were a hundred times better adapted to the object 
he had in view : "to gain some advantage over the Lam- 
anites." But the reason of the request was very simple. 
In that battle all of the Nephites were to be killed. 
Mormon was to bury their records, which were after- 
wards to be revealed to Joseph Smith. These he claimed 
to have found in the hill Cumorah. And so, despite all 
geographical difficulties or military disadvantages, the 
author had to transport his armies there in some way, 
and the best way, of course, was for them to meet there 
by mutual agreement 

And so, throughout the Book of Mormon, there is 
"a multitude of unnatural, foolish and impossible stories," 
and "a love of the marvelous combined with a some- 
what stoical indifference to the ridiculous." A large part 
of the Book, and all that is good about it, is stolen directly 
from the Bible, but there is an evident purpose to beat 
the Bible in relating marvelous stories. 

It is a little curious, by the way, that in this copy- 
ing from the Bible the errors in translation are repro- 


duced. Remember that these expressions are put into 
the mouths of American prophets, apostles, etc., who 
lived centuries before the Bible was translated into Eng- 
lish at all and 1,200 years before King James' version, 
which is followed pretty closely throughout. This is 
certainly a most remarkable coincidence. True, Sidney 
Rigdon had King James' version. But of course he had 
nothing to do with the Book of Mormon ! Joseph Smith 
also had access to it, though I doubt if he owned a copy 
at this time, if ever. But all he had to do with the 
Book of Mormon was to read the "Reformed Egyptian" 
characters by means of his Urim and Thummim, and it 
just so happened that in dictating the translation he used 
the same language as King James' men! This fact in- 
deed is a tribute to the accuracy of King James' ver- 
sion, errors and all! The illustrations on this point are 
too numerous to quote. Take only one. The Book of 
Mormon says: "Charity suffereth long, and is kind, 
and envieth not, and is not puffed up, seeketh not her 
own, is not easily provoked." This is almost a verbatim 
reproduction of 1 Cor. xiii. 4. But the word "easily" 
is not in any Greek manuscript, and is left out of the 
Revised Version. How did the Mormon prophets 1,200 
years before King James' version, come to make the 
same mistake? 

A striking instance of this anachronism is the plagiar- 
ism of Hamlet's well-known speech, "To be, or not to 
be." Five hundred and seventy years before Christ, Lehi, 
in his last hours, addressing his sons, spoke of "the cold 
and silent graw from whence no traveler can return" 
Two thousand two hundred years later, Shakespeare, who 
had never read Lehi's writings, spoke of "the undiscov- 
ered country from whose bourn no traveler returns/' 


There are many other expressions in the book to in- 
dicate its modern origin. For instance, it contains a 
number of words that have a Greek or Latin deriva- 
tion later than 600 years before Christ, and others en- 
tirely modern, such as : "Faculties," "Popular," "Priest- 
craft," "State of dilemma," "Synagogue," "Bible," 
"Jews," "Gentiles," "Church," "Baptize," "Barges," "Im- 
mortal," and many others. These words convey ideas 
wholly modern. The book also abounds in expressions 
borrowed from the modern camp meetings, which, as I 
stated in the first chapter, were being held in Western 
New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio about the time the 
book was published. Here are some of them: 
"Encircled about eternally in the arms of his love." 
"They are encircled about with the matchless bounty 
of his love." 

"They were encircled about with everlasting dark- 
ness and destruction." 

"The chains of hell which encircled them about were 
loosed and their souls did expand, and they did sing 
redeeming love." 

"My brethren, if ye have experienced change of heart, 
and if ye have felt to sing the song of redeeming love." 
"For the arms of mercy are extended towards them." 
"Lay down the weapons of their rebellion." 
"Behold, your days of probation are past; ye have 
procrastinated the day of your salvation until it is ever- 
lastingly too late." 

"By the power of their words many were brought be- 
fore the altar of God, to call on His name, and confess 
their sins." 

These expressions sound much more like the Methodists 
of the 19th century than the Jews of 2,500, or even 1,500, 


years ago. There are many other modern phrases too 
numerous to quote. 

The bad English in the book is very noticeable. Here 
are some examples of it : Some of the brethren "did rebel 
against us ; yea, against I, Nephi, and Sam." This name 
Sam, by the way, sounds very modern. Nephi in course 
of time began to build a ship, and "did make tools of the 
ore which I did molten out of the rock." "And now there 
cannot be written in this book even a hundredth part of 
the things which Jesus did truly teach unto the people. 
. . . Behold I were about to write them all . . . 
but the Lord forbid it." "And when Moroni had said 
these words, he went forth among the people, waving the 
rent of his garment in the air, that all might see the writ- 
ing which he had wrote upon the rent!!!" Besides being 
very bad English, this sounds indecent. Certainly it is 
quite ridiculous. And then to think of writing upon a 
rent! Again, "There were no robbers nor murderers, 
neither were there Lamanites, or any manner of ites!!!" 
"Yea, this bringeth about the restoration of those things 
of which have been spoken by the mouths of the prophets." 
"I say unto thee, my son, that the plan of restoration is 
requisite (?) with the justice of God." "And now behold 
I say unto you, that ye had ought to search these things 
diligently." This last is a complete betrayal of the author. 
No one but a down East Yankee like Joseph Smith ever 
said "had ought." 

And so I mi£-ht use many other illustrations to show 
the modern origin of the Book of Mormon. But these 
will suffice. Through it all it is easy to recognize the hand 
of Sidney Rigdon, in its scriptural quotations and its 
doctrinal turn ; and the hand of Joseph Smith, in its 
modern phraseology and its ungrammatical expressions. 

On the title page of the first edition of the Book of 


Mormon was the inscription, "Joseph Smith, Author and 
Proprietor." This told the truth, but only part of the 
truth. Solomon Spaulding and Sidney Rigdon deserved 
to share with him the honor. 

After the facts which I have given above, I feel sure 
that the reader is ready to join with me in declaring that 
the Book of Mormon, with all of its involved sentences, 
its crude notions, its grotesque representations, its im- 
probable and often impossible stories, its absurd and 
ridiculous statements, its childish fancies, its geographical 
errors, its modern phraseology and its ungrammatical ex- 
pressions is a fraud of the deepest dye. Mr. Lamb, who 
has made the most thorough study of it that has yet been 
made, and of whose excellent work upon the subject I 
have made free use, says in the conclusion of his book: 
"My whole soul is moved, profoundly moved, in this mat- 
ter. I believe with all my heart, I am forced by irresistible 
logic to believe, that the Book of Mormon is a fraud." 
In another place he speaks of it as "a miserable fraud, a 
book to be execrated and hated by all good men who love 
the truth." And again he says that it is "full of blunders 
and mistakes and contradictions, and human imperfec- 
tions from beginning to end." And again, "The angel 
that dictated this book has been over and over again 
proven to be ignorant, self-conceited, visionary ; given to 
exaggeration ; forgetting important matters of record, and 
making numberless mistakes." 

Dr. W. Wyl, a German, who spent four months in 
Utah studying Mormonism and who has written one of 
the most interesting books I have read upon the subject, 
calls Mormonism "a most ridiculous and patent humbug," 
and the pretensions of Joseph Smith with reference to the 
Book of Mormon, "the clumsiest hoax ever invented." 

And he is right. 



The Mormon articles of faith say nothing about the 
Book of Doctrine and Covenants or about the Pearl of 
Great Price, for the reason that the articles were written 
by Joseph Smith and these books were officially adopted 
as standard authorities by the Mormon Church since the 
death of Smith. But they are regarded as much sacred 
books as the Bible and the Book of Mormon. They are 
not, however, as important as the Book of Mormon and 
I shall not attempt any lengthy examination of them as 
with the Book of Mormon. 

The Book of Doctrine and Covenants consists of two 
parts : 

1. A series of lectures on Faith, in which faith is 
described as "the principal (sic) of action and of power 
in all intelligent beings, both in heaven and on earth"; 
as "the principal upon which all eternity has acted and 
will act" ; and as "the principal upon which his creatures 
here below must act in order to obtain the felicities en' 
joyed by the saints in the eternal world." 

2. A number of revelations given "to" and "through" 
Joseph the Seer, at various times and places, and closing 
with the "revelation on the eternity of the marriage 
covenant, including plurality of wives." 

In discussing the doctrines of the Mormons, I have had 
occasion to quote frequently from the Doctrine and 



Covenants. I also gave this last "revelation" pretty fully. 
And so I need not dwell at any length now upon this book. 

The Pearl of Great Price is a curiosity. It is a con- 
glomerate medley of scraps. The following is the Table 
of Contents given in the book. 

Visions of Moses, as revealed to Joseph the Seer, in 
June, 1830. 

Writings of Moses, as revealed to Joseph the Seer, in 
December, 1830. 

The Book of Abraham, A Translation of some Ancient 
Records, that have fallen into our hands from the Cata- 
combs of Egypt, the writings of Abraham while he was 
in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own 
hand, upon Papyrus. Translated from the Papyrus by 
Joseph Smith. 

An Extract from a Translation of the Bible, being the 
twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew, commencing with the 
last verse of the twenty-third chapter, revealed to Joseph 
the Seer, in 1830. 

A Key to the Revelations of St. John. By Joseph 

A Revelation and Prophecy on War, by the Prophet, 
Seer and Revelator, Joseph Smith, Given December 25th, 

Extracts from the History of Joseph Smith, contain- 
taining an account of the first Visions and Revelations 
which he received ; also of his discovering and obtaining 
the plates of gold which contain the Record of Mormon, 
Its translation. His Baptism, and Ordination by the 

From the Doctrine and Covenants of the Church. — 
Commandment to the Church concerning Baptism. — The 
Duties of the Members after they are received by Bap- 


tism. — Method of administering the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper. — The Duties of the Elders, Priests, Teach- 
ers, Deacons, and Members of the Church of Christ. — 
Extract from a Revelation given July, 1830. — Rise of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. — Articles 
of our Faith. 

A Revelation' on the Eternity of the Marriage Cove- 
nant, Including Plurality of Wives, Given through Joseph 
the Seer, in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, July 12th, 

"The Writings of Moses" are simply a paraphrase of the 
first chapters of Genesis, from the creation of the world 
to the flood. It might be called a parody upon this part 
of the Bible if it were not so much of a travesty upon it. 

But the greatest curiosity of any is the "Book of Abra- 
ham." Its origin is quite interesting. A traveling show- 
man had some mummies. In 1835 ne came to Kirtland, 
Ohio, with them. But let Mr. Smith tell the story for 

"On the 3d of July, Michael H. Chandler came to Kirt- 
land to exhibit some Egyptian mummies. There were 
four human figures, together with some two or more rolls 
of papyrus covered with hieroglyphic figures and devices. 
As Mr. Chandler had been told I could translate them, 
he brought me some of the characters, and I gave him the 
interpretation, and like a gentleman 2 he gave me the 
following certificate: 

'Kirtland, July 6, 1835. 

This is to make known to all who may be desirous con- 
cerning the knowledge of Mr. Joseph Smith, Jun., in de- 
ciphering the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic characters in 
my possession, which I have, in many eminent cities, 
showed to the most learned ; and, from the information 


that I could ever learn, or meet with, I find that of Mr. 
Joseph Smith, Jun., to correspond in the most minute! 
matters. Michael H. Chandler, 

Traveling with, and proprietor of, Egyptian mummies/ " 

How Mr. Chandler knew anything about the Egyptian 
hieroglyphics so that he could tell when they were cor- 
rectly translated is not stated. At any rate the Saints 
bought the mummies for Smith, and soon afterward he 
declared that "much to our joy we found that one of these 
rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the 
writings of Joseph." "The writings of Joseph" are not 
published. The Book of Abraham occupies 13 pages in 
the Pearl of Great Price. I give one or two quotations 
from it to show its character: 

"Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to face 
as one man talketh with another; and He told me of the 
works which his hand had made; and he said unto me, 
My son, my son (and his hand was stretched out), be- 
hold, I will show you all these. And He put his hand 
upon mine eyes and I saw those things which His hand 
had made, which were many ; and He said unto me, This 
is Shinehah, which is the Sun. And He said unto me, 
Kokob, which is Star. And he said unto me, Olea, which 
is the Moon. And he said unto me, Kokaubeam, which 
signifies stars, or all the great lights which were in the 
firmament of heaven." 

Here is the way the Book of Abraham corrects the first 
chapter of Genesis : 

"And they (the gods) said let there be light and there 
was light, and they (the Gods) comprehended the light, 
for it was bright; and they divided the light, or caused 
it to be divided from the darkness ; and the Gods called 
the light day, and the darkness they called night. And 


the Gods also said, Let there be an expanse in the midst 
of the waters, and it shall divide the waters from the 
waters. And the Gods ordered the expanse, so that it 
divided the waters which were under the expanse from 
the waters which were above the expanse ; and it was so, 
even as they ordered. And the Gods called the expanse 
Heaven. And the Gods ordered, saying, Let the waters 
under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, 
and let the earth come up dry; and it was so, as they 
ordered ; and the Gods pronounced the earth dry, and the 
gathering together of the waters, pronounced they, great 
waters ; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed. And 
the Gods said, Let us prepare the earth to bring forth 
grass ; the herb yielding seed ; the fruit tree yielding fruit, 
after his kind, whose seed in itself yieldeth its own likeness 
upon the earth ; and it was so, even as they ordered. And 
the Gods organized the earth to bring forth grass from 
its own seed, yielding seed after its kind. And the Gods 
organized the lights in the expanse of the heaven, and 
caused them to divide the day from the night ; and organ- 
ized them to be for signs and for seasons and for days and 
for years ; and organized them to be for lights in the ex- 
panse of the heaven to give light upon the earth ; and it 
was so. And the Gods organized the two great lights, 
the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to 
rule the night ; with the lesser light they set the stars also. 
And the Gods watched those things which they had or- 
dered until they obeyed." 

Let us compare the interpretation of the pictures on 
the papyrus of the Book of Abraham made by Joseph 
Smith with the interpretation made by a French scholar, 
Mr. Deveria, to whom the pictures were shown. Take 
The Resurrection of Osiris. 




Fig. I. The Angel of 
the Lord. 

2. Abraham fastened up 
on an altar. 

3. The idolatrous priest 
of Elkenah attempting to 
offer up Abraham as a sac- 

4. The altar for sacrifice 
by the idolatrous priest 
standing before the gods of 
Elkenah, Libnah, Mah- 
mackrah, Korash and Pha- 

5. The idolatrous god of 

6. The idolatrous god of 

7. The idolatrous god of 

9. The idolatrous god of 

10. Abraham in Egypt. 

11. Design to represent 
the pillars of heaven as un- 
derstood by the Egyptians. 

12. Raukeegang, signi- 
fying expanse, or the firm- 
ament over our heads ; but 
in this case, in relation to 
this subject, the Egyptians 
meant it to signify Shau- 


Fig. I. The soul of Osir- 
is under the form of a 

2. Osiris coming to life 
on his funeral couch, which 
is in the shape of a lion. 

3. The god Anubis ef- 
fecting the resurrection of 

4. The funeral-bed of 
Osiris, under which are 
placed the four sepulchral 
vessels called canopes, each 
of them surmounted by the 
head of the four genii. 

5. Kebh son-iw, with a 
hawk's head. 

6. Tiomautew, with a 
jackal's head. 

7. Hapi, with a dog's 

8. Amset, with a human 

9. The sacred crocodile, 
symbolic of the God Sebet. 

10. Altar laden with of- 

11. An ornament pecul- 
iar to Egyptian art. 

12. Customary repre- 
sentation of ground in 
Egyptian paintings. (The 



word Shauman 

is not 

man, to be high, or the 
heavens, answering to the 
Hebrew Shaumahyeem. 

Here is another picture described by Mr. Deveria as 
the "Initial painting of a funerary Manuscript of the 
Lower Epoch which cannot be anterior to the beginning 
of the Roman dominion :" 



Fig. i. Abraham sitting 
upon Pharaoh's throne, BY 
THE KING, with a crown 
upon his head, representing 
the Priesthood, as emblem- 
atical of THE GRAND 
HEAVEN; with the scep- 
tre of justice and judg- 
ment in his hand. 

2. King Pharaoh, whose 
name is given in the char- 
acters above his head. 

3. Signifies Abraham in 
Egypt; referring to Abra- 
ham as given in the first 

RAOH, King of Egypt, as 
written above the hand. 

5. Shulem, one of the 
king's principal waiters, as 
represented by the charac- 
ters above his hand. 


Fig. 1. Osiris on his seat. 

2. The goddess Isis. The 
star she carries in her 
right hand is the sign of 

3. Altar with the offer- 
ing of the deceased, sur- 
rounded with lotus flow- 
ers, signifying the offering 
of the defunct. 

4. The goddess Ma. 

5. The deceased led by 
Ma into the presence of 
Osiris. His name is Horus, 
as may be seen in the pray- 
er which is at the bottom of 
the picture, and which is 
addressed to the divinities 
of the four cardinal points. 

6. An unknown divinity, 
probably Anubis; but his 
head, which ought to be 
that of a jackal, has been 



6. Olimlah, a slave be- 
longing to the prince. 

Abraham is reasoning 
upon the principles of As- 
tronomy, in the King's 

And so with other interpretations. Those given by 
Mr. Smith are utterly different from those given by Mr. 
Deveria, and they serve to show that, as Dr. Wyl says, 
"The book of Abraham is not only a fraud, but an un- 
speakably silly and clumsy one, too." 

Other parts of the Pearl of Great Price are all on a 
par with the Book of Abraham, and all go to prove that 
Mormonism is a system of "the most impudent lies ever 
concocted by low, ignorant impostors and cheats." 



The 9th article of faith in the Mormon creed reads : 

"We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does 
now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many 
great and important things pertaining to the kingdom 
of God." 

This is one of the most dangerous articles in the Mor- 
mon creed. It teaches that revelation did not close with 
the canon of Scripture, but that in these latter days God 
again reveals "many great and important things." To 
whom does He reveal them? Why, only to the Mor- 
mons, of course, and pre-eminently to the president of 
the Mormon Church, who alone is authorized to promul- 
gate revelations. 

As I stood in front of the office of the president of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Salt 
Lake City, a gentleman who was with me remarked: 
"Now you see the only place in the world where there 
is direct telephonic communication with heaven." The 
remark, strange, almost blasphemous, as it sounded, did 
not exaggerate the Mormon belief. And the president 
can get a message at any time on any subject he chooses. 
And, strange to say, it is always just the kind of message 
he wanted. Take, for instance, the 'revelation on the 
subject of polygamy given to Joseph Smith, and then 
the revelation to Wilford Woodruff, telling him its prac- 



tice might be suspended. But this revelation was not 
given until many of the apostles and bishops and elders 
had been put in the penitentiary for practicing polygamy, 
and not until under the Edmunds-Tucker act the church 
property had been confiscated by the government. These 
things seemed to bring "the Lord" to his senses. The 
truth is that the president and the Lord frequently get 
a good deal mixed up, and it is often a little difficult to 
tell which is which. In the case of Brigham Young they 
finally got to be identical. The Book of Mormon, the 
Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great 
Price are all put on an equality with the Bible. But these 
"revelations," being the latest and freshest, may super- 
sede all of these books. And as these "revelations" are 
liable to be given at any time and may, as in the case of 
polygamy, be radically different from their previous 
teachings, the Mormons never really know what is their 
belief until they have heard from headquarters and got 
the latest "revelations." 

This claim makes them utterly subservient to the 
priesthood, and ultimately to the high priest, the presi- 
dent. It gives him the keys to Heaven. It puts him on 
an equality with the pope, and, if anything, above the 
pope, as he claims rather more direct communication with 
Heaven than even the pope does. It opens the way for 
any sort of revelation the president may claim to have 
received, and requires implicit obedience to it, whatever 
it may be. Take the revelation on polygamy, for instance. 
There was the greatest objection to it at first, especially 
on the part of the women. But it was a "revelation," and 
so there was nothing to do but obey it, or apostatize from 
the Mormon faith, as many did. This claim makes of 
Mormonism an absolute monarchy, a complete despot- 


ism. It renders the priesthood infallible, and requires a 
blind, unreasoning, unquestioning obedience to it. Grant- 
ed this claim and ah else is possible. Accept it and you 
put your head in a halter and will be led whithersoever the 
whim of the president may dictate. It is the most dan- 
gerous menace to numan liberty ever invented by the 

It is, too, the refuge of fools and fanatics of every 
description as an apology for their misdeeds. It was the 
plea of Freeman, who killed his daughter; of Guiteau, 
who killed Garfield, and of Joseph Smith and Brigham 
Young in their numerous debaucheries and crimes. It 
takes the blame off their shoulders for all their misdeeds 
and saddles it on "the Lord." 

And besides, this claim of a new revelation flies direct- 
ly in the face of the concluding words in the last chapter 
of the Bible, where it is said : "For I testify unto every 
man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this 
book, If any man shall add unto these things. God shall 
add unto him the plagues that are written in this book; 
and if any man shall take away from the words of the 
book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out 
of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the 
things which are written in this book." 

The tenth article of faith says : 

"We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the 
restoration of the Ten Tribes, that Zion will be built on 
this continent, that Christ will reign personally on the 
earth, and that the earth will be renewed and receive its 
paradisiacal glory." 

There is nothing specially objectionable about this arti- 
cle. Many Christians believe the same thing, though 
there is a difference of opinion among them on the sub- 


ject. I do not think, however, that if Zion is built on 
this continent it will be at Salt Lake City. Certainly that 
city corresponds now much more to Sodom than it does 
to Zion. 


The nth article of faith in the Mormon creed says: 

"We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty God 
according to the dictates of our conscience, and allow all 
men the same privilege, let them worship how, where or 
what they may/' 

This certainly sounds very pretty. But let us see what 
is the interpretation the Mormons put on it in actual 
practice. At one time they had a band known as "whit- 
tiers." Whenever anyone would do anything they did not 
like, these whittlers would call upon him and, without 
saying a word, stand in front of him and begin to whittle 
pieces of pine. Everywhere he would go, they would 
follow him, still whittling, piling up their shavings around 
him and sometimes letting their knives slip and almost 
cutting him in the face. This would become intolerable 
after a while, and the poor fellow would either yield to 
their wishes or leave. 

While they were in Far West, Mo., the famous, or 
rather infamous, Danite Band was organized by Sidney 
Rigdon and Dr. Sampson Avard for the purpose of driv- 
ing out from Missouri all apostates or dissenters from the 
Mormon faith. It was variously called the "Daughters of 
Zion," "Big Fan," "Brothers of Gideon," and finally 
"Danites." The following is given as the origin of the 
name by Elder John Hyde : 

When the citizens of Carroll and Davies counties, Mis- 
souri, began to threaten the Mormons with expulsion in 

1838, a "death society" was organized under the direc- 


tion of Sidney Rigdon, and with the sanction of Smith. 
Its first captain was Captain "Fearnaught," alias David 
Patten, an apostle. Its object was the punishment of the 
obnoxious. Some time elapsed before finding a suitable 
name. They desired one that should seem to combine 
spiritual authority with a suitable sound. Micah iv. 13 
furnished the first name : "Arise and thresh, O daughter 
of Zion; for I will make thy horn iron and thy hoofs 
brass; and thou shalt beat in pieces many people; and I 
will consecrate their gain unto the Lord of the whole 
earth. " This furnished them with a pretext; it accu- 
rately described their intentions, and they called them- 
selves the "Daughters of Zion." Some ridicule was made 
at these bearded and bloody "Daughters/' and the name 
did not sit easily. "Destroying Angels" came next; the 
"Big fan of the thresher that should thoroughly purge 
the floor" was tried and dropped. Genesis xlix. iy fur- 
nished the name that they finally assumed. The verse is 
quite significant: "Dan shall be a serpent by the way, 
an adder in the path that biteth the horse's heels so that 
his rider shall fall 'backward.' " The "Sons of Dan" was 
the style they adopted, and many have been the times 
that they have been adders in the path, and many a man 
has fallen backward and has been seen no more. 
Addressing the Danite companies, Dr. Avard said : 
"My brethren, as you have been chosen to be our lead- 
ing men, our captains to rule over this last kingdom of 
Jesus Christ, who have been organized after the ancient 
order, I have called upon you here today to teach you 
and instruct you in the things that pertain to your duty, 
and to show you what your privileges are, and what they 
soon will be. Know ye not, brethren, that it soon will be 
your privilege to take your respective companies and go 


out on a scout on the borders of the settlements and take 
to yourself spoils of the ungodly Gentiles ? For it is writ- 
ten, The riches of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to my 
people, the house of Israel'; and thus waste away the 
Gentiles by robbing and plundering them of their prop- 
erty; and in this way we build up the Kingdom of God, 
and roll forth the little stone that Daniel saw cut out of 
the mountain without hands until it shall fill the whole 
earth. For this is the very way that God destines to build 
up His kingdom in the last days. If any of us shall be 
recognized, who can harm us? For we will stand by 
each other and defend one another in all things. If our 
enemies swear against us, we can swear also. [The cap- 
tains were confounded at this, but Avard continued.] 
Why do you startle at this, brethren? As 'the Lord' 
liveth, I would swear to a lie to clear any of you ; and if 
this would not do, I would put them or him under the 
sand as Moses did the Egyptian, and in this way we will 
consecrate much unto 'the Lord,' and build up His king- 
dom; and who can stand against us? And if any of us 
transgress we will deal with him amongst ourselves. And 
if any of this Danite Society reveals any of these things, 
I will put him where the dogs cannot bite him." 

The oath taken by the Danites in Missouri was simply : 
"In the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, I do 
solemnly obligate myself ever to conceal and never to 
reveal the secret purposes of this society, called the 
Daughter of Zion. Should I ever do the same, I hoid my 
life as the forfeiture." 

This oath was afterward altered, in Nauvoo, to read: 

'In the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, I do 

solemnly obligate myself ever to regard the prophet and 

first presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 


Day Saints as the supreme head of the church on earth, 
and to obey them in all things the same as the supreme 
God; that I will stand by my brethren in danger or diffi- 
culty, and will uphold the presidency, right or wrong, 
and that I will ever conceal and never reveal the secret 
purposes of this society, called the Daughter of Zion. 
Should I ever do the same, I hold my life as a forfeiture, 
in a caldron of boiling oil." 

From the "elite" among the Danites, as George Q. 
Cannon called them, twelve were selected, called Destruc- 
tives, or Destroying Angels, and sometimes Flying An- 
gels. Their duty was to act as spies, and to report to the 
first presidency. Their oath was as follows : 

"In the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, I do 
covenant and agree to support the first presidency of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in all things, 
right or wrong; I will faithfully guard them and report 
to them the acts of all men, as far as in my power lies ; I 
will assist in executing all the decrees of the first presi- 
dent, patriarch or president of the twelve ; and that I will 
cause all who speak evil of the presidency, or heads of the 
church, to die the death of dissenters or apostates, unless 
they speedily confess and repent, for pestilence, persecu- 
tion and death shall follow the enemies of Zion. I will be 
a swift herald of salvation and messenger of peace to the 
saints, and I will never make known the secret purposes 
of this society, called the Destroying Angel, my life 
being the forfeiture in a fire of burning tar and brim- 
stone. So help me God, and keep me steadfast." 

Referring to this Danite band, Dr. Wyl says that 
"Mormonism is nothing but the Religious Mafia of the 
United States." To tell all the dastardly deeds of this 
Danite band would fill a volume. The most notorious of 


all was the Mountain Meadows Massacre, of which I have 
already told. 

But even more horrible than the Danite band was the 
theory of Blood Atonement preached and practiced by 
the Mormons at one time. Its author was no less a person 
than Brigham Young, together with his right hand man, 
Jedediah M. Grant. An ex-Mormon elder by the name of 
Smith and some friends attempted to address the Mor- 
mons in the public street one Sunday just as Brigham 
was going home from the Tabernacle. On the following 
Sunday, March 27, 1853, Brigham was running over with 
"the Spirit," and revealed himself on the subject of apos- 
tacy : 

"When I went from meeting last Sabbath, my ears 
were saluted with an apostate crying in the streets here. 
I want to know if anyone of you who has got the spirit of 
Mormonism in you, the spirit that Joseph and Hyrum 
had, or that we have here, would say, 'Let us hear both 
sides of the question. Let us listen and prove all things/ 
What do you want to prove ? Do you want to prove that 
an old apostate, who has been cut off from the Church 
thirteen times for lying, is anything worthy of notice? I 
heard that a certain picture-maker in this city, when the 
boys would have moved away the wagon in which this 
apostate was standing, became violent with them, saying, 
'Let this man alone ; these are Saints that you are perse- 
cuting/ [Sneeringly.] 

"We want such men to go to California, or anywhere 
they choose. I say to those persons, 'You must not court 
persecution here, lest you get so much of it you will not 
know what to do with it. Do not court persecution/ We 
have known Gladden Bishop for more than twenty years, 
and know him to be a poor dirty curse. Here is sister 


Vilate Kimball, brother Heber's wife, has borne more 
from that man than any other woman on earth could bear ; 
but she won't bear it again. I say again, you Gladdenites, 
do not court persecution, or you will get more than you 
want, and it will come quicker than you want it. 

"I say to you, bishops, do not allow them to preach in 
your wards. Who broke the road to these valleys ? Did 
this little nasty Smith and his wife? No. They stayed 
in St. Louis, while we did it, peddling ribbons, and kiss- 
ing the Gentiles. I know what they have done here — > 
they have asked exorbitant prices for their nasty stinking 
ribbons. [Voices, "That's true."] We broke the roads 
to this country. 

"Now, you Gladdenites, keep your tongues still, lest 
sudden destruction come upon you. I say rather than 
that the apostates should flourish here, / will unsheath my 
bowie knife, and conquer or die. [Great commotion in 
the congregation, and a simultaneous burst of feeling, 
assenting to the declaration.] Now, you nasty apostates, 
clear out, or 'judgment will be laid to the line, and right- 
eousness to the plummet/ [Voices generally, 'Go it, go 
it!'] If you say it is all right, raise your hands. [All 
hands up.] Let us call upon the Lord to assist us in this 
and every other good zvork." 

In a sermon in the Tabernacle, March 12, 1854, Grant 
said : 

"Then what ought this meek people who keep the com- 
mandments of God do unto them ? 'Why,' says one, 'they 
ought to pray to the Lord to kill them.' I want to know 
if you wish the Lord to come down and do all your dirty 
work? Many of the Latter Day Saints will pray, and 
petition, and supplicate the Lord to do a thousand things 
they themselves would be ashamed to do." 


And again : 

"When a man prays for a thing, he ought to be willing 
to perform it himself. But if the Latter Day Saints should 
put to death the covenant-breakers, it would try the faith 
of the 'very meek, just and pious' ones among them, and 
it would cause a great deal of whining in Israel. 

"And then there was another odd commandment. The 
Lord God commanded them not to pity the person whom 
they killed, but to execute the law of God upon persons 
worthy of death. This should be done by the entire con- 
gregation, showing no pity. I have thought there would 
have to be quite a revolution among the Mormons before 
such a commandment could be obeyed completely by them. 
The Mormons have a great deal of sympathy. For in- 
stance, if they can get a man before the tribunal adminis- 
tering the law of the land, and succeed in getting a rope 
around his neck, and have him hung up like a dead dog, 
it is all right. But if the Church and kingdom of God 
should step forth and executei the law of God, oh, what a 
burst of Mormon sympathy it would cause! / wish we 
were in a situation favorable to our doing that which is 
justifiable before God, without any contaminating in- 
fluence of Gentile amalgamation, laws and tradition, that 
the people of God might lay the axe to the root of the tree, 
and every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit might be 
hewn down. 

"What ! do you believe that people would do right, and 
keep the law of God, by actually putting to death the trans- 
gressors? Putting to death the transgressors would ex- 
hibit the law of God, no matter by whom it was done. 
That is my opinion." 

But Brigham Young went still farther. In a sermon 
delivered in the Bowery, Salt Lake City, Sept. 21, 1856, 
he said : 


"The time is coming when justice will be laid to the line 
and righteousness to the plummet ; when we shall take the 
old broadsword and ask, 'Are you for God?' and if you 
are not heartily on the Lord's side, you will be hewn 
down ! 

1 * * * * * * * * 

"There are sins that men commit for which they cannot 
receive forgiveness in this world or in that which is to 
come ; and if they had their eyes opened to see their true 
condition they would be perfectly willing to have their 
blood spilt upon the ground, that the smoke thereof might 
ascend to Heaven as an offering for their sins, and the 
smoking incense would atone for their sins; whereas, if 
such is not the case, they will stick to them and remain 
with them in the spirit world. 

"I know, when you hear my brethren telling about cut- 
ting people off from the earth, that you consider it is 
strong doctrine; but it is to save them, not to destroy 
them. * * * 

I do know that there are sins committed of such a 
nature that, if the people did understand the doctrine of 
salvation, they would tremble because of their situation. 
And, furthermore, I know that there are transgressors 
who, if they knew themselves, and the only condition upon 
which they can obtain forgiveness, would beg of their 
brethren to shed their blood, that the smoke thereof might 
ascend to God as an offering to appease the wrath that is 
kindled against them, and that the law might have its 
course. I will say, further, I have had men come to me 
and offer their lives to atone for their sins. 

"It is true that the blood of the Son of God was shed 
for sins through the fall and those committed by men, yet 
men can commit sins which it can never remit. As it was 


in ancient days, so it is in our day ; and though the princi- 
ples are taught publicly from this stand, still the people 
do not understand them ; yet the law is precisely the same. 
There are sins that can be atoned for by an offering upon 
an altar, as in ancient days; and there are sins that the 
blood of a lamb, of a calf, or of turtle doves cannot remit, 
but they must be atoned for by the blood of the man." 

And in a discourse delivered in the Tabernacle, Feb. 8, 
1857, from the text, "Love thy neighbor as thyself/' he 
said : 

"When will we love our neighbors as ourselves? In 
the first place, Jesus said that no man hateth his own flesh. 
It is admitted by all that every person loves himself. 
Now, if we do rightly love ourselves we want to be saved 
and continue to' exist, we want to go into the kingdom 
where we can enjoy eternity and see no more sorrow nor 
death. This is the desire of every person who believes in 
God. Now take a person in this congregation who has 
knowledge with regard to being saved in the kingdom of 
our God and our Father, and being exalted, one who 
knows and understands the principles of eternal life, and 
sees the beauties and excellency of the eternities before him 
compared with the vain and foolish things of the world, 
and suppose that he is overtaken in a gross fault, that he 
has committed a sin that he knows will deprive him of 
that exaltation which he desires, and that he cannot attain 
to it without the shedding of his blood, and also knows 
that by having his blood shed he will atone for that sin 
and be saved and exalted with the gods, is there a man or 
woman in this house but would say, 'Shed my blood that 
I might be saved and exalted with the gods ?- 

"All mankind love themselves ; and let those principles 
be known by an individual, and he would be glad to have 


his blood shed. This would be loving ourselves even unto 
an eternal exaltation. Will you love your brothers or 
sisters likewise when they have a sin that cannot be atoned 
for without the shedding of their blood? That is what 
Jesus Christ meant. He never told a man or woman to 
love their enemies in their wickedness, never. He never 
meant any such thing; his language is left as it is for 
those to read who have the spirit to discern between truth 
and error; it was so left for those who can discern the 
things of God. Jesus Christ never meant that we should 
love a wicked man in his wickedness. 

"I could refer you to plenty of instances where men 
have been righteously slain in order to atone for their sins. 
I have seen scores and hundreds of people for whom there 
would have been a chance (in the last resurrection there 
will be) if their lives had been taken and their blood 
spilled on the ground as a smoking incense to the Al- 
mighty, but who are now angels to the devil, until our 
elder brother, Jesus Christ, raises them up, conquers 
death, hell and the grave. 

"I have known a great many men who have left this 
Church for whom there is no chance whatever for exalta- 
tion, but if their blood had been spilled it would have been 
better for them. 

"The wickedness and ignorance of the nations forbid 
this principle being in full force, but the time will come 


loving our neighbor as ourselves; if he needs help, help 
him; if he wants salvation and it is necessary to spill his 
blood on the earth in order that he may be saved, spill it. 
"Any of you who understand the principles of eternity, 
if you have sinned a sin requiring the shedding of blood, 
except the sin unto death, should not be satisfied or rest 


until your blood should be spilled, that you might gain 
that salvation you desire. That is the wav to love 
mankind. * * * Light and darkness cannot dwell 
together, and so it is with the kingdom of God. 

"Now brethren, sisters, will you live your religion? 
How many hundreds of times have I asked tha^ question? 
Will the Latter Day Saints live their rehgion? 
Following this advice, Jedediah Grant urged : 
"I say there are men and women here that I would 
advise to go to the president immediately, and ask him to 
appoint a committee to attend to their case; and then let 
a place* be selected, and let that committee shed their 



How literally the counsels of Brigham Young and 
others, as given in the last chapter, were fulfilled, may be 
seen from the following instances: 

The wife of one elder, when he was absent on a mis- 
sion, acted unfaithfully towards him. Her husband took 
counsel of the authorities and was reminded that the 
shedding of her blood alone could save her. He returned 
and told her, but she asked for time, which was readily 
granted. One day, in a moment of affection, when she 
was seated on his knee, he reminded her of her doom, 
and suggested that now when their hearts were full of 
love was a suitable time for carrying it into execution. 
She acquiesced and out of love he cut her throat from ear 
to ear. 

Franklin McNeal, who had sued Brigham Young for 
false imprisonment, was killed at his hotel door. At 
Springville, near Salt Lake, there was a family by the 
name of Parrish. They had at one time been very devoted 
to the Mormon church, but afterwards old man Parrish 
apostatized, as so many others had done, and he decided 
to leave Utah and go to California. The evening they 
were to start, two Mormons, who had been appointed to 
play the part of spies upon them, went to see them and 
proposed to assist them in leaving. When they had gone 
a little way, the old man was stabbed to death, his eldest 


son was killed, the younger son was severely wounded, 
but managed to escape — and all because they were "apos- 

Here is a story as related by a Mormon woman to Mrs. 
Stenhouse : 

"When first I came to this country I lived in the south- 
ern portion of Utah. One day I saw a woman running 
across the fields towards our house, pale and trembling. 
When she came in she looked round her as if she were 
frightened, and she asked if anyone besides our own 
family were present. On being assured that there was 
no one present whom she might fear, she said : 'Two men 
came to our house late last night and asked to see my 
husband, who had already retired. He was in bed, but 
they insisted that he must get up, as they had a message 
from the "authorities" for him. When they saw him 
they requested him to go with them to attend, they said, 
to some church business. I became very much alarmed, 
for my poor husband had been known to speak rather 
freely of late of some of the measures of the church, but 
he tried to reassure me, and finally left the house with 
the two men. In about an hour after they came back, 
bearing between them his lifeless body. They laid him 
upon the bed, and then one of them pulled aside a curtain 
which constituted our only cupboard, and took therefrom 
a bake-kettle and stood it beside the bed, in order to 
catch the blood that was flowing from a fearful wound in 
his throat. They then left the house, telling me to make 
as little noise about it as possible, or they might serve me 
in the same way. The men were masked, and I cannot 
tell who they are, but I spent a fearful night with my 
poor dead husband.' " 

Dr. J. King Robinson was a young physician of excel- 


lent character. He had married an ex-Mormon. H« 
took a good deal of interest in the Gentile Sunday school. 
He was the intimate friend of the Rev. Norman McLeod, 
who at that time was chaplain at the military post, and 
was preaching in Independence Hall in opposition to the 
Mormon faith. The doctor, doubtless, shared the senti- 
ments of the minister, and both of them were thoroughly 
disliked by the prominent Mormons. Dr. Robinson had 
a law suit with the city authorities over the possession of 
some property. The suit was decided against him and 
three days afterward he was assassinated. 

These are only a few of the murders committed. In 
summing up the evidence in the Springville murders, 
Judge Cradlebaugh concluded an address from the bench 
as follows: 

"Men are murdered here — coolly, deliberately, pre- 
meditatedly murdered. Their murder is deliberated and 
determined upon by church council-meetings, and that, 
too, for no other reason than that they had apostatized 
from your church and were striving to leave the terri- 

You are the tools, the dupes, the instruments of a 
tyrannical church despotism. The heads of your church 
order and direct you. You are taught to obey their orders 
and commit these horrid murders. Deprived of your 
liberty, you have lost your manhood, and become the 
willing instruments of bad men." 

But it may be said that these things occurred some time 
ago, that Mormonism has changed considerably since 
then. So it has. But the reason is, that in the light of 
publicity produced by the railroad and telegraph and 
printing press, it does not dare to do now what it used to 
do with impunity. Its principles, however, have not 


changed. They remain the same. Give it the same 
power and opportunity as before and the same results 
would follow. 

Sometimes, instead of killing people, they would sub- 
ject them to a most disgusting punishment, which was a 
peculiar invention of the Mormon mind. Mr. and Mrs. 
T. B. H. Stenhouse, who apostatized, were treated that 
way. Only a few months ago Mr. Charles Mostyn Owen, 
who has been quite active* in having polygamists arrested 
and fined, was threatened with that punishment. 

Give Mormonism the power it seeks and everyone in 
this country would either have to be Mormons or suffer 
persecution and perhaps death. And this is what the 
Mormons mean when they say in their article of faith : 

"We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God 
according to the dictates of our conscience and allow all 
men the same privilege, let them worship how, where or 
what they may." 

These articles of faith, remember, were written by 
Joseph Smith, before the sermons of Jedediah M. Grant 
and Brigham Young and the murders of Mr. Parrish and 
Dr. Robinson and the Mountain Meadows massacre. 
These were the commentaries upon this article. 

The twelfth article of faith in the Mormon creed says : 

"We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, 
rulers and magistrates, in obeying, honoring and sustain- 
ing the law." 

In view of the history of Mormonism, from its origin 
to the present, that article certainly sounds very queer. 
In giving its history I have already shown the theocratic 
nature of Mormonism, which makes it unwilling to sub- 
mit to any other authority, and how it has led to constant 
friction with the constituted authorities and sometimes 


to open rebellion. A few points in that history may be 
recalled — their expulsion from Missouri and from Illi- 
nois because of their unwillingness to submit to the law 
of the land, their persistent and open defiance of the laws 
against polygamy, even to the present day. In fact 
the whole course of the Mormons on the subject of 
polygamy has been one long and shameful story of decep- 
tion, of insubordination and of defiance of law. They 
have persistently broken every law on the subject — the 
Cullom law of 1862, the Edmunds law of 1882, the Ed- 
munds-Tucker law of 1887, and even the laws of their 
own constitution and of their penal code of Utah. They 
adopted these laws because they were made the condi- 
tion of the admission of Utah into the Union as a State. 
But they adopted them, as afterwards appeared, with 
the full determination to violate them whenever they 
pleased. They would have acceptd any conditions to get 

The presbytery which met at Manti in 1898 stated that 
there were over two thousand cases of polygamy in the 
State, or perhaps I should say of polygamous cohabita- 
tion. The Mormons understand by polygamy new polyga- 
mous marriages. The statement of the presbytery was 
vigorously denied and denounced as a slander. But 
afterwards one of the apostles in conversation with a 
Presbyterian minister, said that the Presbyterians made a 
great mistake. They should have said three thousand. 

According to an official statement issued by Mr. B. H. 
Roberts the day after his exclusion from the Congress of 
the United States for polygamy — but not issued until 
then — there are now in the United States 1,543 cases of 
polygamous cohabitation ; that is, there are that many men 
living with more than one wife. Most of these cases are 

M| ppTirfi7liiin. 



in Utah, in express violation of the laws of the State. 
Among these lawbreakers are presidents of stakes, coun- 
selors, apostles, bishops, elders too numerous to mention 
by name— in fact, nearly all the leading Mormons. These 
polygamists are upheld in their course by a strong public 
sentiment among the Mormons in favor of polygamy. It 
is not considered any disgrace, but rather a virtue, to be 
a lawbreaker. A short while before I was in Salt Lake 
City, Angus M. Cannon, president of the Salt Lake Stake 
of Zion, was arrested for living in polygamy. He pleaded 
guilty, was fined $100— and the people made up the 
money on the street to pay the fine. While I was there 
Joseph E. Taylor, one of the twelve apostles, was arrested, 
and because he would not promise to discontinue his 
polygamous practices in the future he was fined $150. 
The next Sunday afternoon, at a service in the Taber- 
nacle, which I attended, and at which there were 3,000 or 
4,000 Mormons present, Angus M. Cannon presided and 
Joseph E. Taylor occupied a prominent place in the 
apostles' seat. 

One Sunday night I attended a Sunday school mass- 
meeting in the Thirteenth Ward. At the meeting a letter 
was read from a Mormon missionary now in England, in 
which he said (I took down the language at the time) : 
"I see that our enemies are at work. I am sorry to learn 
that our people are being dragged into the courts for 
obeying the commandment of the Lord, and that Presi- 
dent Snow has fallen into the hands of these vultures." 
I mention these facts to show : 

1. That polygamy, or, as the Mormons would term it, 
polygamous cohabitation, is being practiced in Utah to a 
large extent. 

2. That while the offenders are fined by the courts, 


the public sentiment on the subject among the Mormons 
is such that they do not lose their ecclesiastical standing, 
but are rather honored and sometimes rewarded for what 
they call "obeying the commandment of the Lord" in the 
face of persecution. 

And this is what the Mormons mean in their article of 
faith : 

"We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers 
and magistrates, in obeying, honoring and sustaining the 


The last article in the Mormon creed says : "We be- 
lieve in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, 
and in doing good to All Men; indeed we may say that 
we follow the admonition of Paul, 'We believe all things, 
we hope all things, we have endured many things, and 
hope to be able to endure all things/ If there is anything 
virtuous, lovely, or of good report or praiseworthy we 
seek after these things." 

This certainly sounds very pretty. But it comes under 
the head of "interesting, if true." Is it true? We have 
been considering the historical and religious side of Mor- 
monism. Let us now look at its social side. 

As the cornerstone of its social system is polygamy, let 
us consider that at some length. 

In giving the history of Mormonism I discussed some- 
what the subject of polygamy, showing that Jo- 
seph Smith claimed that the revelation in regard 
to polygamy had been given to him July 12, 1843. 
Mr. B. H. Roberts now asserts that "It was in 
183 1 that plural marriage was first made known to Joseph 
Smith." And he is probably correct ; only the person who 
made it known to him at that time was the devil, not the 
Lord. As a matter of fact, it was practiced by Smith long 
before 1843, an d it finally, as we have seen, led to his 
death in 1844. It was also practiced secretly by Brigham 
Young and others. But it was not promulgated as a doc- 
trine until 1852, after the Mormons had reached Utah and 



when they thought themselves secure from molestation 
by the hated United States laws. Up to that time, while, 
as I said, it was secretly practiced, it was strenuously 
denied by the Mormon leaders. For instance, while John 
Taylor, who afterwards succeeded Brigham Young as 
president of the Mormon Church, was missionary in Bou- 
logne, France, in 1850, he was asked if the Mormons did 
not believe in polygamy. He denied it vigorously. At 
that very time he had at least six wives living in America. 

But after 1853 tne mask was thrown off and it was 
openly practiced. For a time the "Saints" were a little 
slow to take hold of the doctrine. But after awhile polyg- 
amy became a regular epidemic. Every Mormon was 
counseled to take as many wives as possible so as to 
"build up the kingdom," and, of course, he was required 
to "obey counsel," however much it might be against his 
inclinations. Sometimes this resulted in a good deal of 
inconvenience. An instance is given of two men, about 
60 years of age, each of whom was counseled by the 
priesthood to take another wife, but who were unable to 
comply because they could not find any suitable partners. 
They had all been taken. After awhile they heard of a 
man who had two daughters, one 14 and the other 12. 
They went to him, explained the situation, and asked him 
to relieve them of their embarrassment. He objected at 
first, but finally consented. It became a proverb about 
this time that if you should hang a petticoat on a fence 
pole and shake it, half a dozen men would flock at once to 
marry it. 

In 1862 Congress passed the Cullom law against polyg- 
amy, in 1882 the Edmunds law and in 1887 the Edmunds- 
Tucker law. I have already given the substance of these 
laws. The last was so stringent that it could not be 


evaded. Many went to prison for disobeying it. The 
church property was confiscated. In 1890 President 
Woodruff had a "revelation" and issued a manifesto, in 
which he stated that he proposed to obey the laws and ad- 
vised every one else to do so. 

On Jan. 4, 1893, a proclamation was issued by President 
Harrison granting amnesty to those Mormons who were 
in exile and in the penitentiary. This was expressly 
"conditioned upon the faithful observance of the laws of 
the United States against unlawful cohabitation.'' 

On Sept. 25, 1894, President Cleveland issued a similar 
amnesty proclamation, from whose provisions he excepted 
such "persons as have not complied with the conditions 
contained in said executive proclamation of Jan. 4, 1893. 

These amnesty proclamations were made on the most 
solemn promise of the Mormon leaders, pledging their 
"faith and honor" that old polygamous relations should 
cease and that no new polygamous marriages would be 
consummated, in other words, that they would obey the 

They then applied for statehood, which was granted 
in 1896. Having secured this, and thinking themselves 
secure, they had the legislature of Utah to pass the follow- 
ing law : 

"If any male person cohabits with more than one 
woman he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on con- 
viction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more 
than $300, or by imprisonment in the county jail for not 
more than six months or by both said punishments in the 
discretion of the courts." (Revised Statutes of Utah. 
1898, p. 900, section 4209.) 

This law, as is now admitted, was intended for "foreign 
consumption," not for home consumption. The Mormons 


themselves say it was never intended to be enforced. The 
old polygamous practices were then resumed all over the 

Nearly all of the Mormon leaders, presidents, counsel- 
ors, apostles and bishops have two or more wives, as have 
some of the people, though not many, as they are generally 
too poor. I met one layman who has three wives. He 
has five children by the first, four by the second and four 
by the third. I was told that his first wife "abominates 
polygamy" — as well she might. President Snow has had 
nine wives, five of whom are living. He lives, however, 
with only one — the youngest. Brigham Young is com- 
monly credited with having had nineteen wives, but the 
guide in the Tabernacle told me that he had twenty-six, 
and sold me a book purporting to contain their pictures, 
which I shall be glad to show my friends. But Heber C. 
Kimball broke the record, it is said, with forty-five wives. 
When charges were made that the Mormons were con- 
tinuing to practice polygamous cohabitation they replied : 
"If that is so, prove it ; the courts are open." No one had 
cared especially to carry the matter into court, as it would 
involve considerable trouble and would probably lead to 
unpleasant relations with his neighbors. But Charles 
Mostyn Owen, a Welchman, representative of the New 
York Journal, decided that he would accept the challenge. 
So he went quietly to work. The result was the arrest of 
President Angus M. Cannon, president of the Salt Lake 
Stake, and of Apostle Heber J. Grant. What did they do ? 
They pleaded guilty, were fined $100 each, which they 
paid, and returned to their holy duties — and their polyga- 
mous cohabitation. Apostle Joseph E. Taylor was also 
arrested, and after my arrival in Salt Lake City he was 
brought before the court, and because he would not prom- 


ise to discontinue his polygamous cohabitation in the fu- 
ture he was fined $150. 

Charles Kelly was indicted at Bingham City for unlaw- 
ful cohabitation. He pleaded guilty, and offensively ar- 
raigned the court for its definition of his offense. Shortly 
afterward he was promoted to be president of the Box 
Elder Stake. The Salt Lake Tribune said : "His reward 
came soon, and it is most unseemly." 

While I was in Salt Lake City Mr. Owen filed thirty- 
one affidavits against citizens of Cache county, charging 
thirty of them with unlawful cohabitation and one, the son 
of an apostle, with adultery. Cache county is probably 
the strongest Mormon community in the state, 98 per cent 
of the population being Mormons. The paper quotes Mr. 
Owen as saying that the list of alleged offenders was by 
no means exhausted. The paper adds that "ecclesias- 
tically the list ranges from low officials to an apostle, and 
civilly from a justice of the peace to the secretary of the 
agricultural college. In filing charges against so many at 
one time, Mr. Owen intends to refute the assertions of 
the defenders of the system that there may be a 'few 
sporadic cases' of such unlawful cohabitation." 



In the last chapter I showed that polygamy — or as the 
Mormons call it, polygamous cohabitation — is still being 
practiced extensively in Utah. 

What do the Mormons say about these things ? Instead 
of undertaking to speak for them, I shall let them speak 
for themselves, but for the benefit of those who may not 
have studied the subject I shall answer their arguments. 

The Salt Lake Herald of Nov. 26, 1899, contained a 
long article from Apostle Joseph E. Taylor defending him- 
self and others who like him are practicing polygamous 
cohabitation. I presume he will be considered good Mor- 
mon authority. I quote only a few sentences from the 
article, but these will serve to show its gist. He says : 

"I would ask: Is the act of which I was accused es- 
sentially a crime? Or in other words: Is it a crime in 
and of itself? From my standpoint it is not. That it is 
made so by statutory enactment I freely admit, but that 
does not constitute it a crime independent of such statute." 

By this Apostle Taylor means to say that while polyga- 
mous cohabitation is a crime in the eyes of the law, it is 
not a crime in the eyes of the Mormons, and he puts his 
religious belief above the laws of the State and of the 

Again the apostle said : "The anti-polygamy law known 
as the Cullom bill, passed in 1862, was considered to be a 


dead letter, and that it would never possess any life. Such 
was the honest conviction of the Mormon people. Twenty 
years afterward, when this old law was fanned into life 
and sustained by other laws passed for a specific purpose 
—which must be classed in future history as special legis- 
lation, as well as ex post facto in character, which is 
strictly forbidden in the constitution of the United States 
(Art. I, Sec. 9)— we then firmly believed that the court of 
last resort would declare the same unconstitutional." 

But what right had the Mormon people to consider the 
Cullom law a "dead letter ?" And what right had they to 
believe that the Supreme Court of the United States would 
declare the Edmunds law unconstitutional? They put it 
on the ground that Congress has no right to interfere with 
the religion of people, and polygamy is a part of their re- 
ligion. In the same way Freeman, who murdered his child 
in Maine some years ago, declaring that he was com- 
manded by the Lord to do so, might have claimed that 
murder was a part of his religion and that, consequently, 
the law had no right to interfere with him in the exercise 
of his religion. So also might any murderer or any high- 
way robber declare that he was simply exercising his 
religion in what he did. But he would be apt to find, as 
the Mormons found, that the law considers that a person's 
rights end where another's rights begin. And this is true 
in religion as well as in other things. But suppose the 
Mormons did believe that the Edmunds law would be de- 
clared unconstitutional, what right had they to continue to 
violate it until it was declared unconstitutional? As long 
as it remained on the statute books it was the law, and as 
such demanded obedience. 

Apostle Taylor goes on to say : 

"There is nothing in the manifesto, in the enabling act 


or in the Constitution of Utah that touches upon or relates 
in any sense whatever to plural marriages entered into 
previous to the dates I have mentioned ; the assertions of 
ministers, politicians and the avowed enemies of the Mor- 
mon people to the contrary notwithstanding." 

But what about the interpretation put upon the mani- 
festo by Presidents Woodruff and Snow on the witness 
stand that it related not only to future polygamous mar- 
riages, but also to polygamous cohabitation? And what 
about the law of the State of Utah upon the subject of un- 
lawful cohabitation? 

Apostle Taylor says again : 

"This brings us to the question at issue: What shall 
be done with plural wives who entered into that relation 
prior to the decision of the court of last resort? Shall 
they be abandoned, one and all, or, as in my case, shall I 
select one of the two plural wives named in the complaint 
— -there being no legal wife? If so, which one; and live 
with her exclusively, discarding the other, and that, too, 
without consulting her at all in the matter, and say to her : 
'Hereafter you must not come near me. I will give you 
food and clothing for yourself and children, but you must 
seek other society than mine.' " 

To this the reply is simply that no one proposes to de- 
mand that these plural wives shall be "abandoned." They 
ought to be supported. But what the law does demand, 
and what public sentiment demands, and what Christian 
civilization demands, and what common decency demands, 
is that a man shall not live with more than one woman as 
a husband, that he shall not cohabit with her and beget 
children by her. 

Apostle Taylor closes by saying : 

"Polygamous marriages are things of the past. Some 




few polygamous relations entered into in the past still con- 
tinue. To allow them to remain undisturbed is the wisest, 
the most humane and the only magnanimous course to 
pursue ; which the people of this great nation can afford to 
do. Let the law in relation thereto remain a dead letter 
upon our statute books. The Mormon people can be 
trusted implicitly; their word of promise is a sacred 
pledge. It will be kept inviolate, as every other promise 
made by them in the past has been. Call off the blood- 
hounds and let us have peace. ,, 

A few questions are in order. Are "polygamous mar- 
riages things of the past?" We shall see about that di- 
rectly. Is it true that only "some few polygamous rela- 
tions entered into in the past still continue ?" As we have 
seen there are 1,543 men now living with polygamous 
wives in the state of Utah. What is the use of passing a 
law if it is to remain a "dead letter?" Can the Mormon 
people be "trusted implicitly?" Is "their word of promise 
a sacred pledge?" Has "every other promise made by 
them in the past" been "kept inviolate?" Of course, by 
"the Mormon people," Apostle Taylor meant the Mormon 
leaders. What about the promise made by Presidents 
Woodruff and Snow on the witness stand in order to re- 
cover their confiscated church property, that not only 
future polygamous marriages, but polygamous cohabita- 
tion should cease? Has that been kept "inviolate?" Has 
it been kept inviolate by Apostle Taylor himself? The 
fine of $150 imposed upon him for unlawful cohabitation 
is sufficient answer to the question. 

"Call off the bloodhounds and let us have peace. bo 
any criminal might say. That would be an easy way to 
have peace. But it would be peace at the sacrifice of the 
law, and peace at the sacrifice of the dignity of the state, 


and at the sacrifice of righteousness and of all the finer 
sentiments of humanity. I imagine that the American 
people will not be satisfied to "call off the bloodhounds" 
until there is no further need for them. Then they will 
call them off, and then we will "have peace" — then, but 
not till then. 

The Salt Lake Tribune of November 27, 1899, contained 
interviews with a number of citizens of Cache County 
with reference to the affidavits which had been filed 
against thirty of the leading citizens of that County for 
unlawful cohabitation. Here is the way they view the 
matter up there. I quote most of the interviews. They 
are all of the same tenor, with the exception of one by a 
Presbyterian minister, Rev. N. E. Clemenson, who says : 

"I think the law should be fairly and impartially en- 
forced against all citizens without distinction. One crime 
should be shown no favoritism over another in this re- 

In this expression Mr. Clemenson voices the sentiments 
of the Christian people of the United States. But others 
in Cache County do not agree with him. 

John A. Hendrickson says : "We who look upon this 
matter from a church standpoint construe Owen's actions 
as an attack aimed at the Mormon church. I think if 
Owen felt the necessity of improving 'the moral tone of 
mankind he could find plenty of immoralities against 
which to exercise his activity rather than create this trou- 
ble for a few citizens who care for their families." Mr. 
Hendrickson here admits the Mormon belief in polygamy, 
and claims that the filing of affidavits against people for 
unlawful cohabitation is "an attack upon the Mormon 
church," thus putting the whole Mormon church in the 
attitude of a willful and flagrant lawbreaker. In this he 
was probably not far wrong. 


Mr. Hendrickson also suggests that Mr. Owen could 
find "plenty of immoralities against which to exercise his 
activity" elsewhere. Any criminal might make the same 
argument to any prosecutor. 

Dr. W. B. Parkinson says : "I look upon Owen in the 
same way as I would look upon a procurer. He has no 
right whatever to come here and file suits. If the 15,000 
people of this county cannot take care of their own legal 
affairs, no one from the outside should feel it his duty to 
meddle with them." 

And so Jesse James and his gang might have said to the 
officers of the law : "You let us alone. You have no right 
to come here and interfere with our business." 

Attorney George T. Rich is quoted as saying : "I do not 
believe that the threatened prosecution will be or should be 
tolerated in Cache County. I think that the Prosecuting 
Attorney should take cognizance of the fact that all of the 
respected citizens of this region, both Mormon and Gen- 
tile, are opposed to such prosecutions. Owen has quali- 
fied himself to file such suits, it is true, but he is not a 
bona fide resident, and can have no personal interest in the 
alleged violation of the law." 

This, mark you, is from an attorney, a man who is sworn 
to uphold the law. "All of the respected citizens of this 
region are opposed to such prosecutions." Who are the 
respected citizens of that region? Why, those who are 
"opposed to such prosecutions," of course. Mr. Owen 
has "no personal interest in the alleged violation of the 
law." Neither have the people of the United States out- 
side of Cache County. Neither have I any personal inter- 
est in the prosecution of a murderer. But I have a good 
deal of moral interest in it, and I want to see the law 
enforced. Besides, I have a personal interest in it from 


the fact that in the enforcement of the law lies my own 

Robert Murdock said he knew every one of the men 
against whom suit was to be filed and he knew they were 
all honorable American citizens, who had not married 
their wives since the manifesto was issued. He knew they 
had no intention of willfully violating the law, and thought 
Owen was making a mistake in prosecuting them. 

The manifesto ? The Mormons are continually throw- 
ing up the manifesto to us, and saying that there have 
been no new marriages since the manifesto. But what 
have the people of the United States to do with the mani- 
festo? Their will upon the subject of polygamy was 
expressed in the Cullom law of 1862, the Edmunds law of 
1882, the Edmunds-Tucker law of 1887, and by the en- 
abling act of 1894. It was incorporated also in the laws 
of Utah, both in its Constitution and in its penal code. 
These laws are all that the people of this country care 
about. Have they been obeyed ? Are they being obeyed ? 
But the fact that the Mormons in talking about polyga- 
mous marriages, always ignore the law against them and 
talk only about there having been none since the mani- 
festo, indicates that they put the manifesto of President 
Woodruff above all the laws of the land, that they cared 
nothing for the laws, and only had regard for the will of 
their president. As a matter of fact, however, it is quite 
a question as to whether there have not been some polyga- 
mous marriages since the manifesto of 1890. 

Take the case of Mr. Roberts, for instance. If he mar- 
ried Dr. Maggie C. Shipp before the manifesto he and she 
certainly acted very queerly. Usually when a man mar- 
ries a woman she takes his name. But it was not until 
1897, seven years after the manifesto, that she changed 


her name from Dr. Maggie Shipp to Dr. Margaret C. 


But the question is frequently asked : Have there been 
any instances of polygamous marriages since statehood? 

The following instances are given : Lilian Hamblin was 
engaged to David Cannon. He died while on a mission 
in Germany. Abram H. Cannon already had three 
wives. But in a spirit of self-sacrifice he decided to take 
Lilian and raise up seed to his brother, David, according 
to the old Jewish custom, and according to Mormon teach- 
ings. So they went to San Francisco in June, 1896. Where 
they were married or by whom is not known. But soon 
after their return he was taken sick and died on July 26, 
1896. All four wives were at the funeral. In 1897 a child 
was born to Lilian. She then went to school under the 
name of Mrs. Cannon, to prepare herself for teaching, and 
she is now teaching in Brigham Academy, a Mormon in- 
stitution at Provo, near Salt Lake City, under the name 
of Mrs. Cannon. 

Another : Marion Scoles went to reside in the family 
of Apostle George Teasdale, at Nephi, in Utah, as nurse 
for his children. He already had at least one wife, if not 
more. This was in 1897. In August, 1898, she subscribed 
to a book and signed her name Marion Scoles Teasdale. 
On December 17, 1898, she died in childbirth. Her lov- 
ing husband had a tombstone erected over her grave with 
the inscription upon it : "Sacred to the memory of Mar- 
ion Scoles Teasdale, wife of Apostle George Teasdale. 
Born in London, England, April 6, 1865. Died December 
7, 1898." A photograph of the tombstone was taken, a 
copy of which I have seen. The wife of a prominent apos- 
tle, when shown the article with the above facts, said it 

was absolutely true. 


When Apostle George Teasdale and Marion Scoles 
were married and by whom are uncertain quantities. That 
they were married seems beyond question. That they were 
not married by State authorities is quite certain. Who 
married them ? 

It is stated also that a number of Mormons have gene 
to Canada or to Mexico to be married to their polygamous 
wives since the manifesto and since statehood — how many 
can only be conjectured. I should say, however, that I 
do not believe that instances of polygamous marriages 
since statehood, or since the manifesto, have been very 
numerous. But the reason for it is not because the Mor- 
mons do not believe in polygamy, but simply because the 
younger generation are afraid to undertake to practice it, 
and because they feel themselves released from obliga- 
tions to do so since the manifesto of President Woodruff. 
But this manifesto did not propose to abolish polygamy as 
a principle, but only to suspend its practice for the sake of 

In the next chapter I will give their reasons for their 
belief in polygamy. 



I have shown that many Mormons in Utah are now 
living in polygamous cohabitation with two or more 
wives, and have let them state their reasons for it. The 
truth of the matter is that polygamy is as much a part of 
the Mormon creed as it ever was. They will all tell you 
that they believe in it, all except the missionaries, who 
prefer not to discuss the subject and always evade it. I 
was told over and over again in Salt Lake City by Mor- 
mons, men and women, married and unmarried, that they 
believed in polygamy. Only one person who claimed to 
be a Mormon to whom I put the question denied believing 
in it, and she was an intelligent young lady who said that 
"intellect is everything/' and who did not believe a single 
distinctive Mormon doctrine. As I told her, she is not a 
good Mormon. She represents, I think, a growing class 
of young people there who are losing faith in Mormonism. 
But wherever you find a genuine Mormon you will find 
one who believes in polygamy, whether he practices it or 
not. As a number said to me, it is a "part of our relig- 
ion." They have several reasons for believing in it. 

I. They say that God sanctioned it in the Old Testa- 
ment, as in the case of Abraham and Jacob and David. 
This was the argument used by Joseph Smith in the 
"revelation" decreeing the establishment of polygamy. 
In the Improvement Era for May, 1898, of which B. H. 
Roberts was at that time the editor, he had an extended 


article on the subject of polygamy, in which he made the 
same argument. This reason is now urged by some, but 
not very strongly. They leave out of account the follow- 
ing facts : 

(a) That God originally created only one man and one 
woman. If they make any reply to this it would be in the 
language of Brigham Young: that God came down to 
earth in the form of Adam, and "brought Eve, one of His 
wives, with Him." 

(b) That God permitted polygamy, as Jesus said He 
did divorce, "because of the hardness of their hearts." 
In the childhood of the human race God permitted some 
things which He afterwards refused. 

(c) There is no instance of polygamy in the New 
Testament, though nearly all Mormons believe and some 
will openly say that Jesus lived in polygamy while on 
earth with Mary and Martha and Mary Magdalene — an 
imputation too absurd and too blasphemous to need seri- 
ous refutation. But certainly the tenor of the teachings 
of the New Testament is against polygamy, to say the 
least. When Paul said that the bishop must be 'the hus- 
band of one wife," he evidently meant of only one, though 
the Mormons take it to mean of at least one. 

(d) In maintaining the practical numerical equality of 
the sexes, God evidently intended that there should be one 
woman to one man. 

(e) As a matter of fact, it is said that there are about 
2,000,000 more men in the United States than women. 
So that if polygamy were permissible anywhere else, it 
certainly would not be in this country. 

But I need not argue the question of polygamy. It is 
most too late in the day to do so. I make the above sug- 
gestions, however, in case any of my readers may have 


occasion to discuss the subject with some Mormon elders 
sometime. As a rule, however, the missionaries are very 
shy about discussing polygamy, though most Mormons 
will discuss it freely in Utah, and contend for it stoutly. 

2. To the Mormon a stronger argument for polygamy 
than that it is sanctioned by God in the Old Testament 
is found in the fact that, as they claim, it was commanded 
by the Lord through His prophet, Joseph Smith. Even 
B. H. Roberts says in the article in the Improvement Era, 
to which reference has been made : "Subsequently, Joseph 
Smith received a commandment from the Lord to intro- 
duce that order of marriage into the church, and on the 
strength of that revelation, and not by reason of anything ( 
that is written in the old Jewish Scriptures, the Latter 
Day Saints practiced plural marriage." In saying this he 
practically gives up the scriptural argument and rests his 
case in the transcendent authority of Joseph Smith. 

3. They argue that a man needs more than one woman. 
This is the physiological argument. It is certainly a very 
low one. It puts man on a level with the brutes— with the 
stud-horse, the jackass, the billy-goat and the rooster. In 
earlier days it used to be used frequently under the name 
of the barnyard illustration. They forget that a wife is 
far more than a woman. 

4. Kindred to the above is the argument that polygamy 
makes a man a better man. This argument is used quite 
frequently. I have heard it several times, both from men 
and women. The idea is, if I may be pardoned for ex- 
pressing it, that as a man needs more than one woman, if 
he can't get them in one way, he will in another, and the 
Mormons imply very broadly, and seem to believe, that 
this is true generally of the men in other States, and they 
boast that they take their wives openly instead of secretly. 


While this imputation applies to some, sad to say, yet it is 
of course the grossest slander upon most men, and could 
only be born in minds whose whole thoughts are steeped 
in sensualism. 

5. They say that the first, if not the chief, duty of men 
and women is to "be faithful and multiply and replenish 
the earth," and this can best be done through polygamy. 
This idea seems to underlie all of their thinking. In a 
Sunday-school mass-meeting one Sunday night, to which 
I have previously referred, I heard a young man urge 
upon the people the importance of sending their children 
to the Sunday-school, saying that while it was their first 
duty to multiply and replenish the earth, they should also 
train their offspring. 

6. It has been surmised that Joseph Smith made a cal- 
culation of this kind: One man, one woman, 100 years, 
equals so many Mormons. One man, three women, 100 
years, equals so many more Mormons. One would mean 
an arithmetical ratio of increase and the other a geomet- 
rical, and by the latter ratio the Mormons would soon take 
the world. 

7. They not only believe that God is a married man, but 
that He is a polygamist ; and, as I have stated, they be- 
lieve that Christ was a polygamist on earth, and conse- 
quently is in heaven, because they say that a man marries 
a wife not only for time, but for eternity. 

8. They believe that God is generating spirits; that 
these spirits are imperfect ; that they are longing and 
anxious for bodies so that they may have a higher state 
in glory, because it is the privilege of every man to become 
a God, but not of these spirits, except as they pass 
through human bodies. And consequently it is the sacred 
duty of every man to generate as many bodies as possible 
for these spirits to occupy. 


9. They believe that a man who has several wives will 
have greater exaltation in heaven than one who has not. 
Some have even gone so far as to say that a man's deifi- 
cation depends upon his having at least three wives. 

I have mentioned these reasons which the Mormons 
have for believing in polygamy to show how thoroughly 
polygamy is a part of the Mormon system, and how com- 
pletely it is interwoven into all the warp and woof of 
their thoughts and their doctrines. That they still be- 
lieve in polygamy is indicated by the following circum- 
stance: The editor of the Vernal Express, a Mormon 
paper, as ward teacher, ha'd been denying that the Mor- 
mons believed in polygamy, in order to gain some Gentiles, 
but Apostle Cowley said to the editor : 

"The law of plural marriage is God given and as eter- 
nal as any law ever given by the Father, and that any 
persons who disbelieved it, or sought to hide behind the 
government restriction or the manifesto, or were afraid 
to advocate its principles were not Latter Day Saints." — 
Apostle M. F. Cowley, reported in Vernal Express, Aug. 
13. I900- 



The following interview is copied from the Nashville 
American, being one of several letters written by myself 
to the American from Salt Lake City. 

The information which I have given in previous letter's 
with reference to Mormonism I obtained from all sources 
available, from books and papers and people, Mormon and 
non-Mormon. Desiring an authoritative expression in re- 
gard to these matters, I sought interviews with Charles 
W. Penrose, editor of the Deseret Evening News, the of- 
ficial organ of the Mormon "Church," and with Lorenzo 
Snow, president of the "church." 

Mr. Penrose received me rather suspiciously at first. He 
said that there seemed to be quite a prejudice in the South 
against Mormons. I told him I supposed this was natural, 
but that I had come to Salt Lake City with a commission 
from the editor of the American to find out the facts about 
them. He spoke kindly of the American and agreed to the 
interview, for which an hour in the afternoon was named. 

I then called upon President Snow. His private secre- 
tary, Mr. Gibbs, stated that he was very busy just then, but 
that if I would call again about 3 o'clock he thought the 
president would consent to see me, though Mr. Gibbs him- 
self eyed me quite critically and said that President Snow 
did not like to be worried with interviews. It seems that 
"Polly Pry," of the Denver News, and Dr. Hepworth, of 
the New York Herald, had recently interviewed him, and 

a 3 6 


in their reports of the interview had misrepresented his 
views, so he claimed, though they would claim, I presume, 
that they reported it as it occurred. To avoid any mis- 
representation, however, I proposed to bring a stenogra- 
pher with me. But Mr. Gibbs said that this would be 

At 3 o'clock I knocked again at the office of the first 
presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints. This office is a low, long, frame building situated 
between the famous "Lion" and "Bee Hive" houses, which 
were the homes where Brigham Young kept most of his 
twenty-six wives, while just across the street is the 
"Amelia Palace," where his favorite wife, Mrs. Amelia 
Folsom Young, lived. Mr. Gibbs again met me. He told 
me that President Snow was still busy, but asked me to 
wait awhile and he would perhaps see me. I waited— 5, 
10, 15 minutes. Mr. Gibbs came out of the inner sanctum 
and stated that he had telephoned for Mr. Penrose to 
come over and introduce me to President Snow, as he was 
better acquainted with me and with the paper I repre- 

In a short time Mr. Penrose came. He entered the 
closed door into the majestic presence without knocking. 
So did several others, among them Messrs. George Q. 
Cannon, Angus M. Cannon and Brigham Young, Jr. But 
they we're saints, apostles, presidents, counselors, etc., and 
so privileged characters. 

After awhile, though, at 3 145, the door opened again 
and Mr. Penrose smilingly ushered me into the sacred pre- 
cincts and introduced me to President Snow, who received 
me kindly. He is a man about 85 years of age, but well 
preserved, remarkably so considering the fact that he has 
had nine wives, five of whom are still living. This remark 


is especially applicable to his hair and beard, which are full 
and long. I suppose all married men will wonder how he 
managed to keep them that way with so many wives. He 
is tall and slim and courteous in his bearing. 

I began the conversation by stating that I was from 
Nashville; that the Southern propaganda of his church 
was located in Tennessee; that there was a good deal of 
prejudice in the South against the Mormon missionaries, 
in which I confessed that I shared, but that the Nashville 
American had asked me to find out the facts about Mor- 
monism, especially in its relation to the Roberts case, 
which was attracting the attention of the country ; that I 
was in Salt Lake City for that purpose, and that I had 
come to him for an authoritative expression about these 

I then began unrolling some paper on which I had 
written a number of questions. 

Just then he called Brigham Young, Jr., who was about 
to leave the room, and asked me to excuse him a moment. 
While he was gone Mr. Penrose asked me to read over 
some of my questions and let him see what they were. I 
read one or two. President Snow, who had been standing 
just behind me talking to Apostle Young, then came up 
and said that I would have to excuse him, and he would 
turn me over to Mr. Penrose. 

I said to him : "I know Mr. Penrose. He is the editor 
of the News, but he is not the president of the Mormon 
Church. I have come to you because I wanted to come to 
headquarters and get an authoritative expression with 
reference to various questions of interest to our people." 

He replied that Mr. Penrose would answer the ques- 
tions. I asked him if he would indorse anything Mr. Pen- 
rose said. He answered a little evasively, but left the im- 


pression that he would, saying Mr. Penrose was a very 
clever man. So I had to content myself with interviewing 
Mr. Penrose. We adjourned to his office near by, when 
the following interview took place. I took down his an- 
swers at the time and read each answer over to Mr. Pen- 
rose before asking the next question. I publish the ques- 
tions and answers just as they occurred. Remember that 
during the interview Mr. Penrose was acting as the rep- 
resentative of President Snow. 

Question. "The Roberts case is attracting a good deal 
of attention over the country just now. Do you, as presi- 
dent of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 
of which he is a member, propose to stand by him and help 
him in any way to retain his seat in Congress ?" 

Answer. "The church had nothing to do with the elec- 
tion of Mr. Roberts, and is not doing anything in relation 
to his defense. He was the candidate of a political party 
and was elected by the votes of citizens, receiving a ma- 
jority in a fully contested political election. The church is 
not in politics. Its members are divided as citizens among 
the various political parties and vote independently, ac- 
cording to their own choice." 

"Does not Mr. Roberts admit that he is now cohabiting 
with three wives ?" 

Ans. "He admits tacitly that he has three wives, but 
not that he is living with them." 

"What about the famous twins born to Celia Dibble 
Roberts, Aug. 1 1, 1897?" 

Ans. "All I know is what I see in the papers. It is the 
common understanding that he has three wives. But he 
says that he married his wives before the manifesto of 
President Woodruff in 1890. This is understood to be the 

"Do you believe in polygamy as a principle?" 

Ans. "In the general acceptation of the term, I do not. 


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints accepted 
the doctrine of celestial marriage, including a plurality of 
wives, as revealed to Joseph Smith. This required the 
authorization by the head of the church, who alone holds 
the keys of that authority for the solemnization of a plural 
marriage. The head of the church having ceased to exer- 
cise that authority, I do not believe it is right for men to 
practice polygamy or plural marriage now. The constitu- 
tion and laws of the State of Utah forbid polygamous mar- 
riages. It is a dead issue and there is no occasion to offer 
any reasons why it was once practiced." 

"Do you believe in the continued polygamous cohabita- 
tion of those who took their polygamous wives before the 
manifesto of President Woodruff in 1890?" 

Ans. "Every such individual must answer this question 
for himself. ,, 

"To secure statehood and recover your escheated prop- 
erty did you not promise that polygamy should cease, and 
that 'the rightfulness of the doctrine of polygamy should 
not be inculcated ?' " 

Ans. "No." 

"Did you not on the witness stand interpret the mani- 
festo as having reference to unlawful cohabitation?" 

Mr. Penrose declined to answer the question for Presi- 
dent Snow. This, he said, has no bearing on the Roberts 

"Did not the manifesto advise that polygamy should 
cease? And did it not refer to polygamous cohabitation as 
well as to new polygamous marriages ?" 

Ans. "The manifesto said : 'And I now publicly de- 
clare that my advice to the Latter Day Saints is to refrain 
from contracting any marriage forbidden by the law of 
the land/ " 


"Do you think it right for a man to continue living in 
unlawful cohabitation with the wives he has already mar- 

Ans. "Every man must answer this for himself." 

"Was not this against the laws of the United States be- 
fore statehood, e. g., the Edmunds law of 1882 and the 
Edmunds-Tucker law of 1887?" 

Ans. "Yes." 

"As a matter of fact, have not nearly all the present po- 
lygamous wives been taken since 1882, and so in direct 
contravention of the laws of the government ?" 

Ans. "Certainly not." 

"Is not this true of Mr. Roberts?" 

Ans. "Personally, I do not know anything about his 
family affairs." 

"Has not this law against polygamy and polygamous 
cohabitation been incorporated into the laws of the State 
of Utah?" 

Ans. "Yes." 

"Is not Mr. Roberts living in unlawful cohabitation?" 

Ans. "I do not know." 

"Has anything been done with him about it by the 

Ans. "Before any action can be taken by the church 
as to one of its members a complaint must be entered by a 
church member. No charge has been preferred against 
Mr. Roberts that I am aware of." 

"Is he still a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter Day Saints, in good standing ?" 

Ans. "Yes, he is." 

"Was not Angus M. Cannon, President of the Salt 
Lake Stake, recently indicted for living in unlawful co- 
habitation with Senator Mattie Hughes Cannon, and did 
he not plead guilty?" 


Ans. "Yes." ' 

"Has he been censured for it ?" 

Ans. "Ask President Snow. This is a purely church 

"The papers stated a day or two ago that Joseph E. 
Taylor, First Counselor of the Salt Lake Stake, on No- 
vember 13 pleaded guilty of living in unlawful cohabi- 
tation, and was on November 22 fined $150 therefor, and 
that he refused to state whether he would continue his un- 
lawful cohabitation in the future. Will he be punished 
in any way by the church authorities ?" 

Ans. "The church authorities could not do anything 
without a complaint being made. If a man breaks the 
law of the State he is amenable to the State law. If he 
breaks a law of the church, a proper complaint must be 
made before a proper church tribunal, before any action 
can be taken, and that is a church matter entirely. It 
does not concern anybody else." 

"Have there been any instances of new polygamous 
marriages since the manifesto ?" 

Ans. "I do not know of any." 

"Have there been any since statehood ?" 

Ans. "Same as above." 

"What about Abram H. Cannon and Lilian Hamblin?" 

Ans. "I don't know anything about them, only the 
rumors that I have heard." 

"Was that unlawful cohabitation ?" 

Ans. "I do not know." 

"What about Apostle George Teasdale, of Nephi, and 
Marion Scoles?" 

Ans. "Let him answer for himself." 

At this point Mr. Penrose grew somewhat excited, not 
to say angry. He turned red in the face, arose from his 


chair, paced up and down the floor and said some pretty 
severe things, to the effect that it was outrageous to be 
digging up old scandals ; that no decent paper would care 
to do such a thing; that he didn't believe the American 
was doing it, either, but that those questions had been 
prepared in the office of the Salt Lake Tribune, and that 
he could show me typewritten copies of them. I laid 
down my pen and said to him that I had met the editor of 
the Tribune, but only casually ; that the questions had been 
prepared by myself, and that they related to matters about 
which our people would like to know. 

There were some other questions which I had intended 
asking President Snow, or Mr. Penrose, as his repre- 
sentative, relating chiefly to matters of doctrine, but as 
my time and the patience of Mr. Penrose both were about 
exhausted, I passed over them and asked only one or two 
others, as follows : 

"Do you believe in the union of church and state?" 

Ans. "The church has always been separate from the 
state, and is today." 

"Is the state above the church or the church above the 

Ans. "The state is above the church in state affairs. 
The church is above the state in church affairs, but 
neither has the right to interfere with the other." 

"Do you believe in continued revelation ?" 

Ans. "Yes." 

"Do you have such revelations ?" 

Ans. "The man who stands at the head receives reve- 
lations for the whole church. Each individual is entitled 
to receive revelations for himself or herself, also to a wit- 
ness from God of the truth of the revelation that may 
come through the head for the guidance of the church." 


"Have you published any revelations ?" 

Ans. "Do not know of any." 

Before I left, Mr. Penrose said he hoped that I would 
not consider anything he had said as personal to myself. 
We chatted pleasantly for a few minutes, shock handst- 
and parted in good humor. 



I have just a few comments to make upon some of the 
answers given by Mr. Penrose in the interview published 
in the last chapter. 

I. It certainly sounded strange to hear Mr. Penrose say 
that the Mormon church had nothing to do with the elec- 
tion of Mr. Roberts in view of the following facts, some 
of which I have previously mentioned, (a) Some of the 
most prominent Democrats in the State were among his 
strongest opponents. It may have been true that in the 
election some Gentiles voted for Mr. Roberts and some 
Mormons against him, but as his opponent was also a 
Mormon, it was simply a choice between Mormons. So 
far as I could tell, it seemed to be true that almost every 
Gentile in the State was against him, and almost every 
Mormon was for him. (b) The Democratic organ of 
Utah, the Herald, seemed quite indifferent about the seat- 
ing of Mr. Roberts, while the organ of the Mormon 
church, the Deseret Evening News, of which Mr. Penrose 
is editor, was the recognized champion of Mr. Roberts and 
defended him in every issue, (c) Several years ago Mr. 
Roberts and Mr. Moses Thatcher fell out with the church 
and proclaimed their political independence. The church 
authorities issued a manifesto against them. In the elec- 
tion which followed both were badly defeated. Mr. Rob- 
erts had a revelation in which his dead ancestors besought 



him earnestly to submit to the authority of the church, and 
he agreed to do so. Mr. Thatcher held out longer. He 
was waited on by the church leaders, and as he still re- 
mained stubborn they were about to excommunicate him, 
when he submitted. The church authorities announced 
that no one should run for office without their consent, 
and it is understood that no Mormon since then has done 
so. And certainly Mr. Roberts himself, after his pre- 
vious experience, did not do so. 

2. Mr. Roberts may not admit that he is living with 
three wives, but the fact that one of his plural wives, Celia 
Dibble Roberts, had a child born to her in 1895, and twins 
in 1897, would seem to indicate it, as also the fact that 
Dr. Maggie C. Shipp in 1897 assumed the name of Dr. 
Margaret C. Roberts and proclaimed herself the wife of 
Mr. Roberts. It was known also that there was an in- 
dictment pending against Mr. Roberts in Utah for un- 
lawful cohabitation, to avoid which he was compelled to 
leave the State several months before the opening of 

3. If Mr. Roberts did marry his last wife, Dr. Margaret 
C. Shipp Roberts, before the manifesto of President 
Woodruff in 1890, it is certainly a little curious that she 
did not assume his name until seven years afterwards. 
Besides, it is beyond question that he married both of his 
plural wives since the Edmunds-Tucker law of 1887 or the 
Edmunds law of 1882, and this is what the people of the 
United States are concerned about. They have nothing to 
do with the manifesto of President Woodruff. 

4. Mr. Penrose may regard polygamy as a "dead issue," 
but when there are 1,543 men in Utah living in polyga- 
mous cohabitation, including Mr. Penrose himself; when 
there have been several undoubted instances of new polyg- 



amous marriages recently; when those who have en- 
gaged in them have gone unrebuked by the church, and 
when an acknowledged polygamist is elected to Congress, 
it doesn't seem to the people of this country such a dead 

5. When Mr. Penrose gave a negative answer to the 
question, "To secure statehood and recover your escheated 
(property, did you not promise that polygamy should cease, 
and that the rightfulness of the doctrine of polygamy 
should not be inculcated?" he was evidently speaking only 
for himself at that time and not for President Snow, 
whose representative he was supposed to be in the inter- 
view. As a matter of fact, President Snow did make such 
a promise on the witness stand, as also did President 
Woodruff. Their language was taken down at the time 
and I can quote it in full if necessary, as also their lan- 
guage in which they interpreted the manifesto as having 
reference to unlawful cohabitation. The answer of Mr. 
Penrose with reference to the manifesto in which he 
simply quoted its language was evidently an evasion. 

6. Mr. Penrose is quite an agnostic with reference to 
the affairs of Mr. Roberts and others understood to be 
living in polygamy. In fact, he is most too ignorant about 
affairs which are matters of common knowledge to every 
one else in Utah. It is probable, however, that he is kept 
too busy with his onerous duties as editor of the News 
to take any interest in such matters. 

7. It may be true that it is necessary for someone in 
the church to make a complaint against anyone before 
he can be arraigned for church discipline, but it certainly 
seems strange that Mr. Roberts and Moses Thatcher 
could be disciplined for declaring their political independ- 
ence, while such men as Angus M. Cannon, Heber J. 


Grant, Joseph E. Taylor and others could be fined for liv- 
ing in unlawful cohabitation, and Apostle George Teas- 
dale could be proven beyond doubt guilty of a new polyga- 
mous marriage, and yet no one in all the church could be 
found to make complaint against these men. These facts 
only prove that the public sentiment of the Mormon 
church is so strongly against anyone declaring his political 
independence of the church, and so strongly in favor of 
polygamy and polygamous cohabitation, that complaint 
would be made against a person for the former but not 
for the latter offense. 

8. I should state that Mr. Penrose admitted to me in 
our conversation just before I left that there had been 
numerous instances of polygamous marriages since the 
Edmunds law of 1882 and the Edmunds-Tucker law of 
1887, but he said that his people believed that these laws 
were unconstitutional, on the ground that Congress had 
no right to interfere with the religion of a people, and 
polygamy was a part of their religion, but that as soon 
as the Supreme Court of the United States declared the 
law constitutional, then President Woodruff issued his 
manifesto advising his people to refrain from polygamy. 
On this point I have to say: (a) President Woodruff 
did not issue his manifesto until many of the Apostles 
and Bishops and other church authorities had been put 
in jail for violating the law, and not until the church prop- 
erty had been escheated to the government under the law. 
(b) What right had the Mormons to assume that the 
law would be declared unconstitutional and go on violat- 
ing it? Until it was declared unconstitutional it was the 
law, and should have been obeyed by every law-abiding 
citizen, (c) As a matter of fact, the Supreme Court 
had already declared the law constitutional in the case 


of Reynolds vs. the United States. This decision was 
rendered January 4, 1879, by Chief Justice Waite, and 
thoroughly upheld the constitutionality of the anti- 
polygamy law of 1862. This was four years before the 
Edmunds law was passed and nine years before the Ed- 
munds-Tucker law was passed, both of which laws were 
simply amendments to the law of 1862, and twelve years 
before the manifesto of President Woodruff. I presume 
that Mr. Penrose had forgotten about this case, 



Mormonism begins in literalism, runs into materialism, 
and degenerates into sensualism. With such views of God 
and heaven and marriage as held by Mormons, what would 
you expect their social life to be? I know the claim is 
made that Mormonism results in better social conditions 
than other religions. Let us see about that. The Mor- 
mons contend that a man needs more than one woman, and 
that if he cannot get them in one way he will in another. 
It is a favorite argument of theirs to point to the houses 
of ill fame in our eastern cities, and claim that these are 
the outcome of the principles of other denominations, 
while they have nothing like them in Utah. But they for- 
get that these things are not by the authority and under 
the sanction of the Christian churches. On the contrary, 
they are against the principles of these churches, while 
with the Mormons their polygamy is carried on under the 
sanction of the church, and it becomes an ecclesiastical 
prostitution, religious adultery. 

But, as a matter of fact, does polygamy make men bet- 
ter? Does Mormonism result in better social conditions? 
I made a special study of this point while in Salt Lake 
City, and here are some facts I gathered while there. 
They will be of interest, perhaps, along this line, though I 

* 5 o 


feel like apologizing to my readers for referring to them. 
The Mormons continually emphasize the injunction of 
the Lord to our first parents to be fruitful and multiply 
and replenish the earth. This is drummed into the ears of 
the young until they are likely to get the impression that 
this is the first, and indeed the chief duty of men and 
women. It used to be preached constantly in the Taber- 
nacle, but it is not heard there so often now. But it is 
preached in their ward meetings, and is generally believed. 
I heard it preached at a ward meeting. All children have 
lovers. Their ideal of life is to get married and have as 
many children as possible. The result is, as might be ex- 
pected, that with their minds continually turned to such 
things, the finer, more delicate sensibilities of the people, 
old and young, are broken down. "There is something 
about this Mormon system that breaks down all respect 
for morality and purity and truthfulness," said a gentle- 
man to me in Salt Lake City, who lias lived among the 
Mormons for a good many years. 

There is a freedom and an abandonment of speech be- 
tween the sexes unknown among people of refinement in 
the east. But a worse result than that is that there is often 
a freedom of action between them. 

In one town in Utah of about 3,000 inhabitants, seven- 
teen young ladies in the winter of '96-'97 were compelled 
to enter the marriage relation to cover up their dishonor. 
And they did not lose their standing, either in society or in 
the church. In some instances they had the marriage cere- 
mony at home, went to a public hall and had a dance, drank 
liquor and went home about 2 o'clock in the morning 
drunk. In another town of about the same size, a physi- 
cian stated that over 75 per cent of the marriages of the 
Mormon young women were forced. In one county, dur- 


ing the last five years 75 per cent of the marriages were 
forced. Two Mormon girls in a certain town told a lady 
missionary while she was in that town that they did not 
know of any marriage which had occurred there for two 
years that was not forced. 

I can give the names of my informants, and places 
where the facts are said to have taken place, if necessary, 
but I withhold them to save any possible unpleasantness. 
Here is a name, however, I can give, and which, I suppose, 
will be considered good authority: Apostle John W. 
Taylor, the "Mouthpiece of God," whose "voice is the 
voice of God," said in a Mormon conference in the Taber- 
nacle, October 7, 1898, as reported in the Salt Lake Tri- 
bune the next day, that he had heard much of late of im- 
morality in various parts of the state; that it existed in 
places little dreamed of. He named five localities and said 
there were other places he could not then remember. He 
had heard, he said, from a man with whom he had recently 
talked that young people of different sexes belonging to 
the Tabernacle choir (about 500 in number) had gone from 
choir practice together to a lodging house whose rooms 
were kept for immoral purposes. Members of the choir 
of both sexes, he said, had been seen in places at times 
that would suggest acts of immorality. 

The remark passed unnoticed at the time, but after its 
publication in a Gentile paper he was made to apologize to 
the choir. This he did by saying that he had recently had 
the nerve of one of his wisdom teeth exposed, and he 
would be obliged to go to the dentist and have it extracted, 
"for you see," he added, "the little wisdom I have had 
given me is starting to decay." Which meant to say that 
while what he said was true, he had no business saying 
it so publicly. This was considered sufficient apology. 


And now the apostle continues to preach in the Tabernacle? 
and the choir continues to sing accompaniments to his ser- 
mons as if nothing had happened. Apostle Taylor also 
said that he had stood on a street corner of Salt Lake City 
recently with a man who declared that nine out of ten 
young girls who passed were impure. For this remark he 
made an apology. So numerous were the cases of young 
women becoming mothers a few months after marriage 
that the matter was publicly discussed by George Q. Can- 
non, first counselor to the president, at a recent general 
conference. But nothing, so far as I learned, was ever 
done about it, except that the young people would, per- 
haps, come before their ward meetings and say they were 

On Commercial street in Salt Lake City is a large build- 
ing with the initials over it, "B. Y. T. Co.," which mean 
the Brigham Young Trust Co., property of the Brigham 
Young estate, of which George Q. Cannon is president. In 
this building there is a gambling saloon on one side and a 
house of ill fame on the other. When attention was called 
to these facts the property was leased to an agent and sub- 
let by him. But the gambling saloon and the house of ill 
fame are still there. In the Whittingham block, and in 
the Nauvoo block, both on First South street, and both 
belonging to the Brigham Young Trust Company, there is 
a saloon in each block. It is said that there are altogether, 
on the whole estate of Brigham Young, fourteen saloons 
and five houses of prostitution. The Valley hotel, the 
property of President Woodruff, had a saloon in it for 
many years, and since his death is still continued in the 
interest of the family. 

Belonging to the estate was a house which would rent 
for $25 per month and the trustees were offered $75 a 


month for its use as a house of prostitution. They asked 
the heirs about it. They told the trustees that if they could 
rent it for any other purpose and get as much money to 
do so; but if not, to rent it for that purpose. It is so 
rented, and is still being used for that purpose. 

Thd Kinsman for June, 1900, a magazine published in 
Salt Lake City, says: "To tell the truth, this tendency 
toward the social evil is a thousand times greater among 
the people who have been testing this method [polygamy] 
of preventing it than among any other class of people that 
I have ever known. The houses of prostitution in Utah 
are filling up with Mormon girls ; and we are supplying 
inmates for such houses for all the surrounding region of 
country, including Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, 
New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada. If the Congress of 
the United States would only exercise sufficient religious 
toleration to permit us to try this mode of prevention for 
about a quarter of a century, Mormonism would exter- 
minate itself." 

Over a good many business houses in Salt Lake City is 
the mysterious sign, Z. C. M. I., accompanied by an all 
seeing eye, and the inscription "Holiness to the Lord/' 
This sign means "Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institu- 
tion." Formerly the stores belonged to the "church" and 
were operated by it. But at the time the United States 
government was confiscating the church property in order 
to enforce the law against polygamy, these stores passed 
into the hands of prominent Mormons, and most of them 
have never been restored to the "church." But the Z. C. 
M. I. drugstore is owned by the "church," and here liquor 
is sold, a liquor license having been taken out for the pur- 
pose. Occasionally at a country dance, which is opened 
and closed by prayer, a jug of whisky plays an important 
part in the jollification. 


The Mormon apostles used to preach against Garfield 
Beach on Salt Lake and warn their people against it. 
They then opened Salt Air Beach. The Salt Air Beach 
Company, under their control, rents saloon privileges at 
Salt Air Pavilion and permits whisky selling on Sunday 
and gambling devices to flourish there for the reason, it is 
suggested, that these whisky earnings increase the rental 
value to the pious owners. The selling of intoxicants as 
a beverage recently received a pulpit indorsement in the 
Tabernacle. There are other things I heard about Salt Air 
Beach which I could not so much as mention here, but 
which if true stamp it as one of the vilest places in this 

The scenes which occurred at its opening on May 30, 
1900, were described in the daily papers as most disgrace- 
ful. Drunkenness and revelry ran riot: Old and young, 
male and female, were drunk. Fights were frequent. A 
committee from the Ministers' Association was appointed 
to see President Snow and "ask that the privilege of sell- 
ing liquor at the resort be done away with." He declined 
to accede to their request, giving among other reasons 
that "there are honorable people who go there expecting 
to find refreshments of all kinds, and to close up the bar 
would mean the loss of this custom, to say nothing of the 
profits." (Salt Lake Herald, June 5, 1900.) This, mind 
you, is from the "President of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter Day Saints." Certainly they are very latter day 

In the early days of Mormonism, Joseph Smith claimed 
to have received the following revelation : 

"Behold, it is said in my laws, or forbidden, to get in 
debt to thine enemies (the Gentiles) ; but behold, it is not 
said, at any time, that the Lord should not take when he 


please and pay as seemeth to him good. Wherefore, as 
ye are agents, and ye are on the Lord's errand, and what- 
soever ye do according to the will of the Lord is the 
Lord's business, and he has sent you to provide for his 
saints." (xxx. n.) 

In accordance with this revelation (?) the "Saints" did 
not hesitate to take anything they could from their "ene- 
mies," the Gentiles. This was one special cause of the 
friction between them and their neighbors in Missouri; 
Vilate Kimball, the first wife of Heber C. Kimball, is 
reported to have said : "I know it to be a fact that our 
people used to go out nights for the purpose of stealing 
the wash from the lines of the Gentiles in a circuit of 
twenty miles around Nauvoo." 

W. W. Phelps, a prominent Mormon, once remarked : 
"If the Mormons had behaved like other people, they 
would never have been driven from Illinois and Mis- 
souri; but they stole, robbed and plundered from all their 
neighbors, and all the time." 

Nor have they entirely departed from the commandment 
of Joseph Smith in the above revelation. About the time 
I was in Salt Lake City a granddaughter of Brigham 
Young was arrested for shoplifting. I do not mean to 
say that all the Mormon people will steal. By no means. 
As a rule, they are honest and straightforward in busi- 
ness. But their founder and prophet taught the privilege, 
if I may not say the duty, of stealing, and some of them 
follow his teachings. 

Dancing is a common amusement with the Mormons. 
The rear end of their meeting houses over the State is 
fitted up with a stage and sliding scenes used for theatrical 
representation. Every few weeks they turn the house 
into a dance hall. I myself heard a young lady Sunday- 


school teacher at a ward meeting on Sunday night an- 
nounce that she would give a dance to her Sunday-school 
on the following Wednesday night— they have no prayer 
meetings on that or any other night. Brigham Young - 
was an accomplished dancer— not very graceful, perhaps, 
but very experienced in the art. He was a constant par- 
ticipant in the dances, especially when he was looking out 
for a new partner. It is said also that he could swear like 
a sailor upon occasion. In this accomplishment, as in the 
other, he has many imitators among the Mormon bishops 
and elders, as well as laymen. Nor are all the missionaries 
entirely free from this vice, despite their sanctimonious 
looks. In fact, it is said to be quite common among all 
classes of Mormons. The disgusting habit of telling foul 
jokes is a common one. In this some of the apostles and 
high dignitaries are said to be very proficient. 

Lying has been reduced to a fine art by many Mormons, 
especially when the interests of their religion are involved. 
Their very articles of faith, misleading as they are in al- 
most every instance, and calculated and intended to be 
misleading, are an illustration of this, as is also their use 
of the word polygamy. In fact, word- juggling, or as a 
recent writer has called it, prestidigitation with the truth 
for the purpose of deception, has become quite a science 
with them. And this is not regarded as a crime, but 
rather as a virtue. Joseph Smith and John Taylor could 
deny the existence of polygamy at a time when they were 
practicing it. I have never heard of any Mormon con- 
demning them for it. Instead of that they are honored 
for their smartness. George Q. Cannon could tell a cool, 
deliberate lie, and be rebuked for it to his face. But he 
only met the rebuke with a smile, and no Mormon has 
ever seemed to think any the less of him for it. At any 


rate he is still the first counselor to the President of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 

President Rich could state in a daily paper of Chatta- 
nooga that Mormonism results in better social conditions 
than other religions, when the exact reverse is true, as I 
have abundantly shown, only he did not suppose that any 
one living here would know it. But as that was done in 
behalf of the church, it was all right, according to Mor- 
mon ethics. 

A Mormon woman, on the witness stand, said that she 
was the mother of a certain young woman, that her daugh- 
ter was married, but that to save her life she could not 
tell who was the father of her daughter's child. This 
was either a severe reflection upon her daughter's honor 
or a deliberate lie. It was the latter. When reproached 
afterwards for thus perjuring herself, she replied : "I did 
not lie to my God ; I lied to their God." And thus they 
justify themselves. And they are right. They do not lie 
to their God, but they do lie to ours. And these are the 
people who are sending missionaries to us to teach us the 
principles of morality and religion ! And this is the com- 
mentary in practical life upon the last article in the Mor- 
mon creed : 

"We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, 
virtuous, and in doing good to all men ; indeed, we may 
say that we follow the admonition of Paul, we believe 
all things, we hope all things, we have endured many 
things, and hope to be able to endure all things. If there 
is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good report or praise- 
worthy, we seek after these things." 



The information 'as to the social life in Utah, which I 
gave in the last chapter, I obtained from various sources, 
all good. It is possible that in some instances my inform- 
ants were mistaken. But where there was such a general 
consensus of opinion it is hardly possible that they were 
mistaken in every instance. Where there was so much 
smoke there must have been some fire. 

Lest it be thought that I was perhaps misinformed, or 
that I have exaggerated what I heard, I give a few ex- 
tracts from some Open Letters, published as editorials in 
Living Issues of Salt Lake City. The editor of Living 
Issues, Mr. Scott Anderson, is a highly intelligent gentle- 
man. He was converted to the Mormon faith in England, 
but on coming to Salt Lake City he found, as many others 
have done, that things were not what they were repre- 
sented to be abroad. He has lived in Salt Lake City for 
sixteen years, and for a good part of that time he was 
affiliated with the Mormon Church. But he is intelligent 
enough to see the fraud and folly and vices of the Mormon 
system, and he determined to show them up, as he did in 
the series of open letters. 

In Living Issues for Dec. i, 1899, he said in an open 
letter addressed to the First Presidency of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (I wish I had space to 
quote it in full) : 



"One of the greatest failings and evils prevailing in our 
midst is Phariseeism. Great faults and grave sins are 
hidden, cloaked, covered or denied. In long speeches and 
prayers the declaration is made that we are not as other 
men. This is carried to such an extent that when any one 
dares to doubt it, or produce facts to prove the contrary, 
he or she is liable to be insulted. 

"Distilleries and breweries were established (in 1847) 
and while, for a time, the licensed saloon was not present, 
drink circulated freely; was openly sold and was even 
paid as wages to the laborer and mechanic. 

"One detestable vice was very prevalent — the indulgence 
in filthy and obscene talk. If there is one thing more 
than another that degrades a man below the beast it is 
this practice. Profanity and bad language were also 
common. . 

"After fifty years of Mormonism in this valley and in 
these mountains, under the leadership of Prophets, Seers 
and Revelators, what has been done, and where do you 
stand to-day? Are the Mormons, in their walk and con- 
versation, living lives superior to the members of other 
churches ? Are they equal to them, or do they fall below 
them? So far as our observation goes they have fallen 
far behind. We may be told that there are men and 
women (Mormons) who live according to the light of the 
gospel, keep the word of wisdom and lead pure and vir- 
tuous lives. We believe it, but are not dealing with them. 
If they were in the majority or even a very large minority 
of the church we would keep silent, but we doubt if two 
per cent is not a large estimate of their number. What 
about the 98 per cent? What are you doing with them 
and for them ? How many Presidents of Stakes and their 
Counselors drink, smoke and use bad language? How 


many High Counselors, High Priests, Seventies and Eld- 
ers do this ? Do Bishops, Superintendents of schools and 
Teachers do this? You know they do, and it is not sur- 
prising either, considering the example set before 

"A returned missionary, after spending two years in 
England, returned to Bountiful; speaking in the taber- 
nacle of that city he testified that he had heard more bad 
language in Bountiful in one day that he had heard in 
England in two years. We do not know about Bountiful, 
but so far as Salt Lake City is concerned, from infants 
barely able to talk up to men of 90 the vice is all but uni- 
versal, and is rarely or never rebuked. Of course, the 
swearers are not all Mormons, by any means, but no 
other church in the city allows their members to swear. 

"There are many who draw the line at blasphemy, but 
use every other objectionable word in the lexicon, and as 
for filthy talk, it is almost impossible to go into company 
without finding some one without moral sense or decency, 
seeking eagerly to indulge in their favorite vice. We 
know several in high places who do this. 

"The instances in which brothers (so-called) have 
robbed their fellows are so numerous that we need not go 
into them. Mormons in this respect do not differ from 
the rest of the world, only that they profess more. To 
sum the whole matter up, we hold that Mormons differ 
little or none from other men, only they more closely fol- 
low their leaders — that is our excuse for this letter. ,, 

Again, in an open letter addressed to Angus M. Cannon, 
President of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion, he said : 

"You could lay your finger on High Priests, Seventies 
and Elders who are to be found in gaming hells ; who let 
their premises for houses of ill-fame and for saloons. 


Some of them even run saloons. Drinking, swearing and 
bad language are so common that when a good brother 
turns up who abstains from all these he is a curiosity and 
a marvel You could tell, if you would, of many a group 
of big officials who spend hours in relating obscene and 
blue stories. Brigham Young was living when you were 
appointed President of the Stake. You knew him and 
were familiar with his property. When it was proposed 
to let his property for saloons you were silent. When 
the twenty-one members of your Stake arranged to fur- 
nish a grand brothel on Commercial street, we never 
heard your protest. When Ada Wilson sent out her 
beautiful circulars of invitation to the young men of Zion 
to come to her gilded palace of vice, where were you? 
What did you do? In the twenty-three years of your 
Presidency, how many of the residents of this fair city 
have joined your church? You could almost count them 
on your fingers. How many have left it? Why, tens of 
thousands. Among those who left you were some of the 
best men and women who ever joined you. Did you ever 
stop to think of that, and of the awful gaps made in the 
church? Of the three special witnesses to the Book of 
Mormon all apostatized. Of the first quorum of the 
first Presidency, two apostatized. Of the first Twelve 
Apostles, seven apostatized. Of the first seven Presidents 
of seventies, four apostatized. Of the High Priests, 
Bishops, Seventies, Elders and members who have been 
excommunicated or withdrawn there must have been 
hundreds of thousands. 

"When the members came to Utah they found all the 
great leaders engaged in two things to such an extent that 
there was no room for spirituality. What were these two 
things? Love of money and women — getting gain and 
having a lot of wives. 



"President Snow relates, in the Christmas News, that 
Joseph Smith told him in 1843 tnat he (Smith) had mar- 
ried Eliza R. Snow for time and eternity, his first wife 
being still living. What was the world and the church 
generally told at that time by Joseph Smith ? Why, this : 
'Inasmuch as this Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints has been charged with the crime of fornication and 
polygamy, we declare that we believe that one man should 
have one wife and one woman but one husband except 
in case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again/ 
This declaration was printed in the Book of Covenants 
and taught everywhere as the doctrine of the church. 

"You have the reputation of being a coarse, vulgar 
tyrant. We have heard Apostles declare that you were 
a tyrant unfit for so high an office. Have you no sense of 
shame at the awful condition of things in your stake? 
How far from wrong was Apostle Taylor when discussing 
the immorality of the city ? We lay these things at your 
door ; having power to do good, you have done evil." 

And in another letter addressed to President Cannon 
in the issue of Jan. 5, 1900, Mr. Anderson said : 

"The saloons, gaming hells and other houses of sin in 
Salt Lake are five times as numerous as your meeting 

"Sixteen years ago, when the present editor of Living 
Issues came to Salt Lake, he found the saloon, the gaming 
hell and the brothel in full swing. At that time no non- 
Mormon had ever been in the city council; no non- 
Mormon had ever been elected to the legislature. Where 
were your laws against these vices ? Oh, you had some ! 
Yes, but they were dead letters. You had been President 
of the Stake for seven years and practically ruled in the 
city and county. What did you do? and what are you 
doing now ?" 


Mr. A. T. Shroeder, a prominent lawyer of Salt Lake 
City, has a strong article in the Kinsman for December, 
1899. The article was written originally for the Arena 
in reply to an article published in that magazine in defense 
of the Mormons. After a severe arraignment of them 
for their doctrine of blood atonement, he says : 

"I have taken more than a little pains to reproduce 
some few evidences of the iniquity of Mormonism, be- 
cause I know from my own experience how loath some 
people are to believe that such barbarism should in this 
century be taught in the name of religion. 

"I am now, as when I came to Utah, outside the pale of 
orthodox Christianity. I knew something of the history 
of its past bigotry and was therefore ready to believe that 
every improbable anti-Mormon tale was the product of a 
diseased intellect produced by religious fanaticism. I 
refused to affiliate with the Liberal party or vote its ticket. 
I made myself obnoxious to my non-Mormon friends by 
my Jack-Mormon aggressiveness. I was active in the 
attempt to break up the Liberal party and to secure Amer- 
ican politics in Utah. I started my investigation with 
every prejudice in its favor and a vague hope that my 
study of Mormonism would furnish me with some new 
evidence that Christian bigotry had maligned a God- 
fearing and man-loving people. I was ready, whenever 
some good Mormon or deceived Gentile denied that the 
doctrine of blood atonement had ever been taught in the 
church to certify to the correctness of his 'unprejudiced 
statement of facts/ just as the editor of the Arena en- 
dorsed Mr. Curtis. // / am not now in the same frame 
of mind it is because during some years past I have been 
spending a few leisure hours in studying the Mormon 
side of Mormonism, and have found that they justify lying 
by revelation." , :w . , , . v ... .,,^ , 



I gave in the last chapter the testimony of Mr. Scott 
Anderson, an ex-Mormon, and of Mr. A. T. Shroeder, a 
prominent non-Mormon lawyer, both of Salt Lake City, 
with regard to Mormonism. Lest it be thought that they 
are prejudiced, I give some extracts from a book, written 
by a German, Dr. W. Wyl, after a four months' study of 
Mormonism on the ground. Dr. Wyl was simply a lit- 
erary person, who had no prejudice either for or against 
the Mormons. In his introduction he says : 

"I do not wish to insult anybody in this book, or to hurt 
anybody's feelings. I desire to do my simple duty as a 
writer. That is all ; to do it as a critic and observer, hav- 
ing the courage of my opinions, and being happily free 
from 'all entangling alliances.' " 

Again : 

"Such teachings find many believers, who, having de- 
voted themselves to the service of some fancied 'Lord,' 
can lie and perjure themselves, rob and butcher, believing 
that they do the bidding of that God whom Jesus of 
Nazareth taught to be a loving father to all. 

"The witnesses whose depositions are contained in my 
book have been, for the most part, victims of a great de- 
lusion. The Mormon missionaries told them in Europe 
that the Gospel of Christ had been restored ; that miracles 
of all kinds, including the gift of the Holy Ghost, daily 



revelations of the Almighty, and scores of other blessings 
would be given to the faithful followers of Joseph Smith, 
the great Seer and Prophet; that here in Utah was the 
'home of the pure* ; a paradise of innocence and goodness ; 
nothing but brotherly love, peace and fidelity; that this 
was the new 'Zion.' But when they came here, they saw 
a different picture. They saw that Brigham Young was 
just as Joseph Smith had been, the great shark and that 
the faithful were the carp. They did not hear any more 
of the Bible, as they had heard in the old country; in 
'Zion' the Gospel was : Pay your tithing, obey the priest- 
hood in all things; ask never any questions, but do as 
you are told; take more wives, and if you have only a 
little one-roomed log cabin, never mind, take wives and 
build up the Kingdom, so that Brigham Young might soon 
be king of an independent State of the Union ; pay your 
tithing and pay besides to swell all kinds of donations; 
give away your money ; ask never for an account, but be 
happy in your poverty, while the High Priesthood are 
living upon the fat of the land. Be spied upon every 
day in your actions by the 'teachers/ and even in your 
thoughts, and be a spy yourself on your neighbor; see 
whether he is strong in the faith, and if he is not, kill 
him — 'cut his throat to save his soul ; that is the way to 
love your neighbor/ Hate your enemies — Tray for 
them,' as Kimball said publicly ; 'yes, that God may damn 
and destroy them' — and hate all that are not of your clan. 
Hate all that is American, and swear terrible oaths, in 
the Endowment House, that you will avenge the blood 
of the Prophet on this nation. To make it short: 'You 
may do anything, you may be the most brutal wretch, you 
may marry twenty wives and neglect one after the other, 
you may rob and even kill your fellow-citizens (non^ 


Mormons) — if you pay and obey you are all right; so 
long as you do this you are a faithful and worthy brother, 
and sure of your kingdom and eternal glory in the other 
world.' Such were the public teachings in the earlier 
times of the Utah theocracy. Since 1870 the talk and 
practice have become milder, but the principles are still 
the same. 

"How could this tale, told to me a hundred times over, 
fail to convince me that this whole 'religion' was a specu- 
lation to enrich a few, give them gold, power and all 
the brute pleasure hidden in the Greek word 'polygamy.' ' : 

In the body of the book Dr. Wyl says : 

"Mormonism has too long fooled the world, the new 
and the old. It has too long claimed immunity as a 're- 
ligion/ as an honest religious faith, with the known and 
long established facts attending its original fabrication 
and its appalling development. Is it not indeed puerile 
for the great Government of the United States to still 
continue tampering and temporizing with the outrageous 
fraud as it has hitherto done ? You prattle of 'polygamy* 
and refuse to see the constant rebellion and treason ; you 
see a tree and are blind to the forest. You like to joke 
about the 'old monarchical countries' and about ironclad 
Prince Bismarck. But I tell you that he would solve the 
'Mormon Problem' in a week, while you are puzzled by it 
since fifty years. He would not, like you, stand a helpless 
babe before the high schools of treason and licentiousness, 
called 'Mormon Temples' He would bid them go, those 
builders of the Kingdom, and build elsewhere. 

"But the Mormon leaders are enemies of the Mormon 
people, enemies of the United States, enemies of the law, 
simply because they do not want to be disturbed in the 
piling up of great fortunes, exercising absolute power and 


lordship, and enjoying the embraces of as many 'child- 
bearing' (id est young and tender) concubines as they 
have a mind to." 

Again he says : 

"Let it be remembered forever that the men who know 
all the facts published by me, and more, deny them daily 
as 'infamous slanders,' and that these same men are the 
leaders of this abomination called a 'church' by its illiter- 
ate dupes only and by the overcultivated ladies and gen- 
tlemen of the East. . . . Mormonism has produced 
the most abject slavery ever witnessed in the history of 
the world." 

He speaks of Mormonism as "a system invented by im- 
posters and carried out by outlaws all the way through." 

With reference to Joseph Smith, he says : 

"J could not find a bright point, an extenuating circum- 
stance, in the whole life of the great imposter. It is lie 
and crime all through." 

Again : ''Joseph was a wretched imposter." In another 
place he calls Joseph an "imposter, law breaker and con- 

Again he says that Joseph was a "hell of a fellow with 
the women." Brigham Young he characterized as a 
"born bandit." 

Again he said : 

"Mormonism gave up the strictly Scriptural dodge and 
turned from the parody of Bible to a travesty of Masonry, 
which is the little understood key of Mormonism in its 
present state. 'Mormonism is nothing but criminal Ma- 
sonry' said to me one of my most thoroughly informed 

"Lying in this 'church' is 'hiding pearls from the 
swine'; stealing is taking as the Lord's agents; seducing 


other people's wives is exalting, and killing people is sav- 
ing them" 

He calls the leaders of the church "the most cunning 
rascals on earth," and says that "those smooth, smiling, 
clean-shaven gentlemen were liars." He declares that 
"Morrnonism is nothing but the Religious Mafia of the 
United States," and asks: 

-Who is there among my readers who does not feel that 
all this infernal humbug is nothing but a conspiracy of 
scoundrels to dupe a horde of fanatics under religious pre- 
tense? To make them give up every cent they have, and 
make tools of them for all sorts of criminal purposes?" 

He adds: . 

"Yes, Morrnonism is a very peculiar religion, it 
preaches murder as a religious duty, and treats the mur- 
derer as a distinguished member of the 'church.' I am 
not joking. Said a poor Mormon widow to me, whose 
husband was killed in the foulest manner imaginable by 
the police of this holy city: They bless the bread and 
wine in the tabernacle-there is half a dozen of murder- 
ers among them ; I could point them out any time.' 

And again he speaks of "this 'church/ which in its real 
essence is nothing but a secret criminal conspiracy for the 
purpose of defying the laws and ^ keeping up a system 
radically inimical to republican institutions." 

I could give other quotations from Dr. Wyl. But these 
are sufficient. 

The following statistics were gathered under the direc- 
tion of the Ministers' Association of Salt Lake City. The 
report is incomplete, but the figures give a fair repre- 
sentation of the work in Utah. Number of Evangelical 
churches, 40; present membership, 3,220 ; received from 
Mormon Church and families, 514—16 per cent; from 


Mormon sources since organization, 1,417—44 P er cent 
In Sunday-school there are 1,319 from Mormon fami- 
lies — 28 2-3 per cent ; in schools, 1,048—61 per cent. 

The forty churches report an aggregate loss of only 
nine members to Mormonism, "showing," the report says, 
"most conclusively that Mormonism is wholly without 
power to secure converts in the State where it is best 

In the forms sent out the following questions were 
asked : "What is the prevailing practice of the Mormon 
Church in your community with reference to: I. The 
observance of the Sabbath? 2. The use of intoxicating 
liquor? 3. Profanity? 4. General moral condition?" 
These questions were answered in only about one-half of 
the returns made, these being chiefly from the smaller 
cities and rural districts. 1. As to Sabbath observance. 
Five-sixths of the reports declare that the Sabbath is 
habitually violated by the common people, especially in 
such portions of the day as are not set apart for worship. 
Many do secular work and the young people make the 
day a day of sport and pleasure. 2. As to the use of 
liquor. The testimony is uniform that the members of the 
dominant faith are given to its use, many drinking to ex- 
cess. 3. As to profanity, the reports concur in the state- 
ment that the use of profane language is general among 
the men, and many of the women and children also are 
addicted to the practice. 4. As to general morals, it is 
reported that in addition to the continuance of polyga- 
mous relations by many of the leading and older "saints," 
there is also much looseness of morals among the young 
people, that many marriages are forced marriages, and 
that quite generally there is a freedom of thought and 
speech and practice concerning sexual relations unknown 


m respectable Gentile communities and undreamed of in 
other religious circles than that of the Mormon faith. 
The report concludes : "The conditions existing, as well 
as the result of Christian effort already begun, argue 
most powerfully for increased devotion to the work of 
Christianizing and civilizing this peculiar form of heath- 
enism existing in the midst of a supposedly Christian 

From all these facts you will see that there is very little 
morality and absolutely no spirituality in the Mormon 
religion. The truth is that no one who has had the op- 
portunity of observing the workings of Mormonism has 
much respect for it as a religion. It is making almost no 
converts at home, where it is best known. Nearly all of its 
converts come from abroad. And that is why so many 
missionaries are laboring in our Southland and elsewhere. 
But instead of gaining converts at home, it is continually 
losing its followers there. A large proportion of those 
who become Mormons apostatize. Brigham Young said 
five-sixths did so. I met a number of ex-Mormons in 
Salt Lake City. They were all persons of much intelli- 
gence. I was told that many of the Mormon young 
people are losing their sympathy for the church. When I 
asked what was the reason for this, the answer was : "It 
can be expressed in three words : Broadening of intelli- 
gence." Judge John W. Judd, formerly Associate Justice 
of the Supreme Court in Utah, told me that he once said 
to a young Mormon : "Christiansen, I want to ask you a 
question. It is a privileged question, and you can answer 
it or not, as you choose." "Well," said Christiansen, 
,"with that understanding, Judge, fire away." "What do 
you think of Mormonism ?" "Judge, you know my father 
and mother are Mormons. I have great respect for them. 


But I tell you, I think the whole thing is a d— d fraud." 
"Well, you have a number of companions about your age. 
What do they think of it?" "They think the same thing 
I do." And, leaving off the oath, many others think the 
same thing. 

Understand that I do not speak now of the Mormon 
people, but of the Mormon system. The people, as a rule, 
are kind and clever, but poor, ignorant, misguided, and 
utterly subservient to the priesthood. Judge C. C. Good- 
win said in Munsey's Magazine for June, 1900: "Mor- 
mon business men are fair and honest in their dealings, but 
the moment that anything pertaining to their faith is 
touched upon a great many of them have no scruples in 
resenting it. They will deliver testimony in court which 
is enough to make the flesh creep. I once asked a Mormon 
lady how such perjury could be reconciled with their 
consciences. Her answer was: 'When a saint has been 
sealed in the Temple, his or her soul has been saved, no 
matter what may be thereafter/ Still the Mormons, when 
their religion is not involved, are a friendly, polite, hos- 
pitable and peaceable people." 

True, but the Mormon system as a system, is utterly 
bad, as I have shown. The truth is that Mormonism is a 
combination, or rather a conglomeration, of the literalism 
of Campbellism, the materialism of Fetishism, the sensual- 
ism of the Phallic worship, or Venus worship, the polyg- 
amy of Mohammedanism, the polytheism of Grecian 
Mythology, the theocracy of Judaism, the priestcraft of 
Catholicism, the despotism of Jesuitism, the self-right- 
eousness of Pharisaism, the transmigration of souls of 
Buddhism, the cruelty of the worship of Juggernaut, the 
superstition of Confucianism, the degradation of women 
of heathenism, the mystic rites of Masonry, the hypno- 


tism of mesmerism, the fanaticism of Dervishism, the 
salvation by works of Socinianism, the sacerdotalism of 
High Church Episcopalianism, and the political organ- 
ization of Tammany Hall. 

In short, it has borrowed the worst features of all re- 
ligions, and all creeds, and woven them into a conglomer- 
ate but compact mass of incongruous absurdities. It was 
born in the womb of imposture, nursed in the lap of fraud, 
rocked in the cradle of deception, clothed in the garments 
of superstition, fed on the milk of ignorance, and fattened 
on the strong meat of sensualism, despotism, fanaticism, 
crime, bloodshed and rebellion. The whole system is a 
deification of lust, a glorification of sensualism, religious 
adultery, ecclesiastical prostitution, earthy, sensual, dev- 
ilish. It is the Upas tree of our civilization, the octopus 
of our political life, a travesty on the name of religion, a 
foul blot on the escutcheon of Christianity, a "hideous 
she monster," as its name implies. It is un-Christian, un- 
American, a colossal fraud, a mammoth sham, a gigantic 
humbug, a huge farce, which would be comical if it were 
not so tragical in its results. It is nothing short of a 
shame and disgrace and an insult to any Christian com- 
munity that it should rear its slimy head in that commu- 

There are four things which hold it together, ignorance, 
superstition, sensualism and despotism. But before the 
light of advancing civilization and growing intelligence 
these are receding, and one of two things is certain : 
Either Mormonism must change materially, or it is 
doomed to destruction. It is changing. It has changed 
considerably since the railroad and the telegraph came 
to Utah and brought the Mormon people into contact with 
the outside world, thus showing them the falsity of many 


things they had been taught. This contact has served 
largely to drive away the clouds of ignorance and super- 
stition in. which they were involved, and to loosen the 
chains of sensualism and despotism with which they had 
been bound. But not all the clouds and not all the chains 
are gone. Many are still there. Its principles still re- 
main. The question comes, Will Mormonism change 
sufficiently to save it from destruction? Can it, in con- 
sistency with its essential principles? Is there enough 
of the salt of Christian truth in it to act as an antiseptic 
for all of its corruption, and preserve it from decay ? May 
be so, but I think not. I think Mormonism is doomed, 
sooner or later — the sooner the better. 



If Mormonism be such a monstrous system as we have 
seen it to be, historically, doctrinally and morally, will it 
not sink by the weight of its own iniquity, and if so how 
does it constitute any menace to our American institu- 
tions ? In what respect does it threaten them ? 

i. In the first place it is a menace to our homes. A 
home! the dwelling place of the husband and wife, of 
father and mother and children, of brothers and sisters ; 
the one place in all the world which they can call their 
own and where they may feel free from all restraints ; the 
place hallowed by love and made dear by tenderest ties, 
and around which our fondest memories cluster ; a sweet, 
a pure, a modest Christian home — "be it ever so humble, 
there's no place like home." On such a home God's 
brightest smiles are thrown and his richest benedictions 
rest. In such a home "Heaven comes down our souls to 
greet," and around it guardian angels hover. Such a 
home is the foundation of all good government, the bul- 
wark of society, the Gibraltar of our civilization, the 
haven of rest for souls weary with worldly cares, the 
plant-bed of religion, the nursery of all that is noblest and 
truest in our natures, the very Gettysburg of our history, 
the battle ground on which our life's destiny is fought 
and decided, and on whose momentous issues eternal in- 
terests are hung. 



I do not mean to say that the Mormons have no homes. 
But under their system of polygamy — which, as I have 
shown they believe in, and which is a part, an important, 
almost an essential part of their religion — the home is 
robbed of much of its significance and happiness. The 
wife is simply a woman, and the home is transformed into 
a barnyard, or into an assignation house. All of the ten- 
derer, more delicate feelings which should exist between 
husband and wife — the mutual sympathy and dependence, 
the intimate relations which make each an essential part 
of the other — are necessarily broken down to a greater 
or less extent when there are several to share the hus- 
band's affections. 

Nor is the home the same to the children. The father 
is almost a stranger to them. They do not have the same 
love for the home, and the home does not exert the same 
influence over them as is the case when there is just one 
family, composed of father and mother and children. 
And so Mormonism constitutes a menace to the home. 
And as long as it continues its belief in and practice of 
polygamy — which is likely to be as long as it exists — it 
will be as much a blot upon our social system as ever 
slavery was. As it was with slavery, so shall it be with 
Mormonism, sooner or later — it must be either mended 
or ended, and like slavery the best way to mend it is to 
end it. 

2. It constitutes a menace to the Christian religion. It 
is not only un-Christian, but anti-Christian. It does not 
regard any one as saved outside of its own pale. It aims 
at breaking down all Christian denominations and creeds, 
but is itself subversive of the principles of Christianity. 
It is another and very different gospel which it preaches 
from that of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus 


Christ Paul had never heard of Mormonism, of course, 
but he described it pretty accurately when he wrote to 
the Galatians: "I marvel that ye are so soon removed 
from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto 
another gospel: which is not another ; but there be some 
that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. 
But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any 
other gospel unto you than that which we have preached 
unto you, let him be accursed. As we said before, so say 
I now again, If any man preach any other gospel unto 
you than that ye have received, let him be accursed 
"( Gal i 6-9 ) It sounds also as if Paul was talking about 
Mormons when he said to Timothy: "This know also, 
that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men 
shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, 
proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, 
unholy, without natural affection, truce-breakers, false 
accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are 
good, traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures 
more than lovers of God ; having a form of godliness, but 
denying the power thereof; from such turn away For 
of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead 
captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers 
lusts, ever learning, and never able to come to the knowl- 
edge of the truth. Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood 
Moses, so do these also resist the truth; men of corrupt 
minds, reprobate concerning the faith." (2 Tim. .11. 1-8.) 
Jude must certainly have been thinking about Mormon 
elders when he wrote: "For there are certain men crept 
in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this 
condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our 
God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, 
and our Lord Jesus Christ." (Jude 4.) And to whom are 


the words of John so appropriate as to Mormon elders : 
"Whosoever transgresseth and abideth not in the doctrine 
of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine 
of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there 
come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive 
him not into your house, neither bid him God speed : for 
he that biddeth him God speed is partaker of his evil 
deeds." (2 John 9-1 1.) I did not say that. The kind, 
the gentle, the loving, the beloved John said it. And he 
was talking about Mormon elders when he said it. 

The Mormon elders have three objects in view as they 
go through the country. (1) To undermine the Chris- 
tian religion and substitute their semi-heathenism in its 
place. (2) To convert all the men they can so as to get 
their money and their votes. (3) To convert all the 
women they can for their wives. 

As I have shown, they are making no converts at home, 
either among the men or the women, and so they must 
gain converts abroad or they will soon perish. I do not 
believe in hanging or shooting or rotten-egging these 
elders. In the first place it is not right, and in the second 
place it gives them the opportunity to cry persecution, 
which they love to do. 

But I do not believe that we are called upon to receive 
them into our homes and support them while they are 
trying to subvert our religion and pervert our family. If 
they must engage in such work, let their friends at least 
support them while they are doing so. When we enter- 
tain them, we may find too late that like the farmer in 
Aesop's fable, we had been nursing a viper which re- 
warded our hospitality by striking its fangs into our 
bosom. I have heard of several instances of the kind 
recently. In an article on Mormonism in his book, "Some 


Latter Day Religions," Mr. George Hamilton Combs 
says : "What should be our attitude toward this ism, and 
what should be done to meet its insidious political en- 
croachments ? 

"After even an outline consideration of its doctrines — 
untrue, coarse, immoral— the first part of the question is 
easily answered : that of uncompromising hostility. Other 
isms may be treated with tolerance ; this blasphemy only 
as an enemy. Let it be war to the hilt and no quarter. 
This abortion is an enemy to our civilization. It is not 
to be temporized with. Let us do battle. Smite, smite, 
smite ! The sword of the Lord and of Gideon." 

3. Mormonism constitutes a menace to our political 
institutions. As I have had occasion to say so much upon 
this point in previous chapters, I need not dwell upon 
it at length here. But something needs to be said upon it. 

I said that no one who knows it has much respect for 
Mormonism as a religious system. But every one has a 
great deal of respect for it as a political system. As a 
matter of fact it is much more of a political system than 
a religious system. In a recent issue of the Atlantic 
Monthly Mr. R. L. Hart declares the Mormon Church 
to be a "perfectly conscienceless political machine, abso- 
lutely accurate in its every movement, strong as Tam- 
many and twice as treasonable, and that it is at once a 
religion, an empire, a fraternity, a trust and a partnership 
in crime." And so it is. 

The members of the Mormon Church vote as completely 
at the dictation of their leaders as do the members of Tam- 
many Hall at the dictation of their leaders. They do not 
all vote the same ticket now, it is true. They used to do 
so. But the leaders concluded that this was bad politics, 
as it made the issue of Mormon and anti-Mormon too 


plain. And so the Mormon people divided between the 
two political parties. But the leaders hold the balance of 
power, and they always see to it that there are enough 
votes to elect the man they want elected. Woe to the 
Mormon who dares to act independently of the dictation 
of the junta in the Mormon headquarters. He is imme- 
diately made to feel the weight of the Mormon heel upon 
his neck. The machine moves rapidly and it cuts sharply. 
Few can resist it. Moses Thatcher tried it, and so did 
Brigham H. Roberts several years ago. But it was not 
long before both were compelled to yield. It is either 
absolute obedience or excommunication. 

The Mormon priesthood claim the right of control 
politically as well as religiously. Mr. Roberts says that 
they "who hold the priesthood possess divine authority 
thus to act for God; and by possessing part of God's, 
power they are in reality part of God . . . and 
men who honor the priesthood in them honor 
God, and those who reject it reject God." George Q. 
Cannon said in a sermon in the Tabernacle, April 5, 1897 : 
"I would just as soon think of heaven entering into chaos 
and of the throne of God being shaken to its foundation 
as to think that the priesthood of the Son of God had gone 
wrong in its authority or that the Lord would permit such 
a thing. . . . It is a dreadful thing to fight against 
or in any manner oppose the priesthood." Moses Thatcher 
and Brigham Roberts evidently found it so. President 
Gowans said : "Their priesthood gives them the right to 
advise and instruct the Saints, and their jurisdiction ex- 
tends over all things, spiritual or temporal." Brigham 
Young claimed the right to control everything, "from the 
setting up of a stocking to the ribbons on a woman's 


Theocracy, the claim that God governs the church 
through its president, is a fundamental principle of the 
Mormon creed. Necessarily this brings it into conflict 
with republican institutions. In studying the history of 
Mormonism we have seen how often this conflict resulted 
in quarrels, rows, bloodshed and sometimes open rebellion. 
Mormonism aims at nothing less than the entire control 
of this government. 

In 1880 Bishop Lunt said : "Like a grain of mustard- 
seed was the truth planted in Zion ; and it is destined to 
spread through all the world. Our church has been or- 
ganized only fifty years, and yet behold its wealth and 
power. This is our year of jubilee. We look forward 
with perfect confidence to the day when we will hold the 
reins of the United States Government. That is our pres- 
ent temporal aim; after that we expect to control the 
continent." When told that such a scheme seemed rather 
visionary, in view of the fact that Utah could not gain 
recognition as a State, Bishop Lunt replied : "Do not be 
deceived; we are looking after that. . . . We in- 
tend to have Utah recognized as a State. Today we 
Jiold the balance of political power in Idaho, we rule Utah 
absolutely, and'in a very short time we will hold the bal- 
ance of political power in Arizona and Wyoming. A few 
months ago, President Snow of St. George set out with 
a band of priests for an extensive tour through Colorado, 
New Mexico, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho and Arizona 
to proselyte. We also expect to send missionaries to 
some parts of Nevada, and we design to plant colonies in 
Washington Territory. 

"In the past six months we have sent more than 3,000 
of our people down through the Sevier Valley to settle in 
Arizona, and the movement still progresses. All this 


will build up for us a political power, which will in time 
compel the homage of the demagogues of the country. 
Our vote is solid, and will remain so. It will be thrown 
where the most good will be accomplished for the church. 
Then, in some political crisis, the two present political 
parties will bid for our support. Utah will then be ad- 
mitted as a polygamous State, and the other territories we 
have peacefully subjugated will be admitted also. We 
will then hold the balance of power, and will dictate to 
the country. In time our principles, which are of sacred 
origin, will spread throughout the United States. We 
possess the ability to turn the political scale in any par- 
ticular community we desire. Our people are obedient. 
When they are called by the church they promptly obey. 
They sell their houses, lands and stock, and remove to 
any part of the country the church may direct them to. 
You can imagine the results which wisdom may bring 
about with the assistance of a church organization like 

As a result of such absolute political despotism, the 
Mormon Church now controls Utah completely, virtually 
controls Idaho, Wyoming and Arizona and is aiming for 
the balance of power in other States in the West. Presi- 
dent Woodruff declared that men of to-day would live 
to see every State west of the Mississippi River under 
Mormon control. And then this octopus will reach out its 
long, slimy tentacles to grasp hold of the Eastern and 
Southern States, using its favorite method of holding and 
wielding the balance of power. And finally it will seek 
to lay its foul hand even upon the White House. I have 
mentioned before the fact, which is not generally known, 
that in 1844 Joseph Smith was a candidate for the Presi- 
dency against Polk and Clay, and Mormon elders were 


sent over the country to electioneer for him. He was not 
elected, one reason being that he was killed before the 
election came off. But if the Mormon program could be 
carried out, what is to prevent a Mormon from occupying 
the White House some day ? That such will ever be the 
case I do not believe, but the fault will be not with the 
Mormons, but with the American people. And yet the 
best time to crush despotism is in its incipiency. "Resist 
the beginnings," is an old and ever true maxim. Com- 
menting on Bishoo Lunt's claims, Mr. George Hamilton 
Combs says : 

"This may seem but an empty boast, but far-reaching 
and systematic schemes of colonization in the West when 
carried out will make the Mormon vote — a vote, never let 
it be forgotten, that can be cast as one man's — a prize for 
which great political parties will eagerly bid, and thus 
make possible the fulfillment of this prophecy. Let the 
people awake to the magnitude of this power. Eternal 
vigilance is the price of our liberty's preservation. Mor- 
mon schemes must be exposed, Mormon diplomacy coun- 
teracted by an outraged public sentiment, Mormon cun- 
ning met and mastered by the wisdom of a Christian 
statesmanship. If this power shall pit itself further 
against our institutions, let it be crushed into powder. 
Let Christian sentinels be ever alert, and, at slightest hint 
of Mormon encroachment, sound the tocsin of war." 

The exclusion of Brigham H. Roberts from the House 
of Representatives has done much to check the pretensions 
of Mormonism. It has inspired Mormons with a more 
wholesome respect for public sentiment. But the mon- 
ster is only scotched, not killed. You may be sure that 
he will raise his head again. More needs to be done. Let 
the anti-polygamy amendment to the Constitution of the 


United States, now pending, be passed by Congress. 
This will do more than any other one thing to give a 
death blow to Mormonism. And then let Utah and the 
surrounding States be peopled by good, intelligent, law- 
abiding Christian citizens. This will keep down Mor- 
mon supremacy, with its attendant despotism ; and will 
also leaven the lump of Mormonism with American and 
Christian principles. And after a while the whole lump 
shall be leavened, and this foul blot upon our civilization 
shall be known only as a horrid nightmare of the past — 
this "hideous she monster" shall retire to the black caverns 
of hell from which she came. 
G«d grant it may be so! 



Some of my observations and experiences in Salt Lake 
City may be of interest to the reader and will also serve 
to throw considerable side lights upon the subject of 

"Salt Lake City. All out for Salt Lake City." Here 
I am at last in the city of which I have read so much, 
especially in recent months, and which is the objective 
point of my trip West. I must confess that I was consid- 
erably disappointed in it at first sight. I had expected 
to see a city of from 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants, and 
one of the prettiest cities in the country. Instead, it has 
only about 60,000 inhabitants. These are nearly evenly 
divided between the Mormons and the Gentiles. In the 
city election which occurred just before I reached there 
the city was carried by the Gentiles by a few hundred 
majority. They had the assistance, however, it should 
be said, of the "Jack Mormons," as they are called, which 
means either those who have apostatized from the Mor- 
mon faith, or who do not cling to it very closely. 

The first thing that attracted my attention as I got off 
the train and started up town in the bus was the muddy 
streets. There seemed to be mud, mud everywhere — 
very appropriate, I thought, for the city of the Mormons. 
Some of the streets, however, are nicely paved with 
asphaltum, but I was told that when the Liberals, as they 
were called, or the Gentiles, got control of the city in 1890 
there were no pavements at all. And yet the Mormons 



boast of what they have done in Salt Lake City, and how 
they have made the desert to blossom as a rose. The streets 
are broad. They were laid off by Brigham Young, and as 
a rule are 132 feet wide from wall to wall. They are 
lined on either side with rows of Lombardy poplar trees. 
I presume that in the summer they must be quite pretty, 
but on the 18th of November the leaves were dead, and 
the streets had rather a desolate appearance. The tele- 
graph and telephone and street railway poles are all placed 
in the middle of the streets, which mar their beauty con- 

The heart of the city, and the place to which visitors 
naturally first make their way, is the 


This embraces ten acres of ground in the heart of the 
city, beautifully laid off with lawns, walks, trees, shrubs 
and flowers. There is a high stone wall around the en- 
closure through which there are several gates. On the 
inside are the Temple, the Tabernacle and the Assembly 
Hall. The Temple is the main building. This is the 
center of the city, and in fact many of the Mormons re- 
gard it as the center of the earth. All the streets in the 
city take their names from their location with reference 
to the Temple. They are known, for instance, as East 
Temple Street, West Temple, South Temple, North Tem- 
ple, First South Street, Second South Street, Third East, 
Fourth North, Fifth West, etc., which means that they 
are the First or Second or Third streets North or East or 
West or South of the Temple. At first it is a little con- 
fusing to a stranger, but after he gets used to it, it becomes 
easier for him to find his way about in the city than where 
the streets are given names, such as Walnut and Chestnut 
and Broad and Market and College and Cherry, etc. 


The foundation of the Temple was laid on April 6, 
1853, by Brigham Young, and its dedication occurred 
April 6, 1893. So that it was over forty years in building. 
It is 180 feet long and 99 feet wide. The foundation wall 
is 10 feet thick. But the walls get thinner from story to 
story until they are only five feet wide at the top. There 
are three towers on each end, the center one of which is 
higher than the others. The east central one, which is 220 
feet high, is surmounted by the figure of the angel Mo- 
roni, twelve and one-half feet in height, made of ham- 
mered copper, gilded. Moroni is the angel who, as the 
Mormons believe, announced to Joseph Smith the exist- 
ence and location of the golden plates. He is represented 
on the Temple with a trumpet in his mouth, as if in the 
act of delivering his message of "glad tidings" to all the 
nations of the earth. It is estimated that the Temple cost 
from three to four million dollars. A good deal of this, 
however, was given not in money but in labor or in prod- 
uce. No one but a Mormon is allowed within the 
Temple, and he must be a pretty good Mormon. In Ap- 
pendix C, however, I shall tell the reader about the secrets 
of the Temple as related by an ex-Mormon. Mormonism 
is a curious mixture of various things, among which is 
a kind of bastard Masonry, with its mystic rites. 

But while none except Mormons are admitted to the 
Temple, in the same enclosure is the Tabernacle, where 
religious services are held each Sabbath afternoon, to 
which the public is invited. This is a very much less 
costly structure than the Temple. The first stone in the 
building was laid April 5, 1865, and it was dedicated Oct. 
6 1867. The cost was about $300,000. The dimensions 
of the auditorium are 150 feet wide by 250 feet long and 
80 feet in height. Its seating capacity is about 7,000. 


It is claimed that it is the largest house for religious wor- 
ship in the world. I am not sure about that. I doubt, 
however, if there is a finer auditorium anywhere. It is 
built on the plan of the ellipse. The speakers stand in 
one focus of the ellipse, and as there are no pillars and 
no arches to break the air waves set in motion by the 
speaker, his voice is easily carried to every part of the 
building. I attended two services in the Tabernacle, both 
times sitting a little way back, and had no trouble in 
hearing the speakers, except one young missionary who 
spoke too low. Visiting the Tabernacle during the week, 
I requested permission to stand at the desk and try the 
acoustic properties of the building, and found that it 
required very little effort to speak. I also stood at the 
back end of the building in the gallery and distinctly 
heard a pin drop at the other end. This is a famous and 
favorite method which the guide has of impressing upon 
you the wonderful acoustic qualities of the Tabernacle. 
I could also distinguish the words which he spoke in a 
whisper. The construction of the building is very pe- 
culiar. The roof has no pillar to support it, but has im- 
mense arches which rest upon forty-four stone piers. It 
is constructed very much like the bottom of a boat. On 
the outside the building looks strikingly like a huge turtle. 
The organ is said to be the second largest in America, 
the largest being in Trinity Church, New York. Its 
dimensions are 30 by 33 feet, and 48 feet in height. It has 
67 stops and 2,648 pipes. The choir numbers from 500 
to 600 persons. The singing, as might be supposed, is 
very fine. It sounds, however, more like a grand opera 
than it does like church music. There is more of melody 
than of spirituality about it. The members of the choir 
are seated on a large raised platform which runs back 


on both sides of the organ. Just in front of the organ 
are four rows of seats occupied at the Sunday services 
by the dignitaries and officials of the Mormon Church. 
The highest and principal seat is reserved for the first 
presidency of the church, the next for the twelve apostles, 
the third for the president of the stake, his counselors 
and others, while the fourth and lowest is reserved for the 
lesser or Aaronic priesthood. 

The audiences in attendance upon the Sunday after- 
noon service usually number about three or four thousand 
people. This includes not only the Mormons themselves, 
but a good many visitors who go out of curiosity. The 
speaking — it could hardly be called preaching — is not, 
as a rule, of a very high order. The speeches which I 
heard — and they were by some of the best speakers in 
the Mormon Church, such as Brigham Young, Jr., Dr. 
J. E. Talmage and others — were taken up with discussing 
the alleged growth of Mormonism, and predicting the 
time when all nations should adopt it and should "gather 
to Zion." There was very little in the speeches to edify 
or inspire a man to a higher life, and nothing to fill the 
soul. There was an utter absence of spirituality and 
emotion. I doubt if a tear was ever shed in the Taber- 
nacle. And this is characteristic of all Mormon meetings. 

Standing near the Temple enclosure, at the intersection 
of Main and First South Streets, is Brigham Young's 
statue. This was erected several years ago at the expense 
of the city, but over the protests of the Gentiles, who did 
not believe that Brigham Young was a character of suffi- 
cient public spirit and general importance to be thus 
honored. They take their revenge now, however, by call- 
ing attention to the fact that he stands with his back to the 
Temple and his hand stretched out to the bank, which 


attitude they say was characteristic of him during life. 
I took three pictures of the statue; but when they were 
developed, lo ! and behold ! I found that I had cut off his 
head every time. I do not know whether to interpret this 
as having any special significance or not. On one corner 
near the statue is the office of the Deseret News. This 
is the official organ of the Mormon Church, and true to 
the character of the church, is both a religious and a po- 
litical paper. It is published every afternoon. I had a 
very interesting interview with its editor, Mr. C. W. 
Penrose, which I gave on page 236. At the other end 
of the same block stands a group of houses famous in 
Mormon history. They are known as the Bee Hive, the 
Office and the Lion House. The Bee Hive stands on the 
corner. It takes its name from the fact that there is a 
large bee hive on the cupola. Just why the bee hive 
should have been placed there is not quite certain. But 
as this was the home of Brigham Young, in which he kept 
several of his wives, perhaps the Bee Hive was intended 
as symbolical of that fact. The Lion House was, how- 
ever, the home where most of his wives were kept, and 
where he had his dining room. This is sometimes called 
the "House of Seven Gables" from its numerous gable 
windows. It was supposed that there was a wife to every 
window. But as a matter of fact there are more than seven 
gables, and there were probably more than seven wives 
there at one time, as he had twenty-six in all. At meal time 
he would assemble his numerous familyin the diningroom, 
wives, children and all. This was the only time he saw 
them all together. Over the door of the Lion House is 
the figure of a crouching lion, from which the house takes 
its name. This was perhaps intended to give warning that 
no one would be allowed within its portals, or that Brig- 


ham Young was himself the lion of the house. Between 
the Bee Hive and the Lion House and adjoining the two 
so that he could pass from one to the other without com- 
ing out upon the street, is the office of the president, 
which is still used for that purpose. Here I had the 
pleasure of meeting President Snow. All of these houses 
are frame buildings. The Bee Hive and the Lion House 
are two-story buildings, while the office has only one 
story Formerly there was a high stone wall around all 
the buildings, but it had just been taken down when I 
was there, and I had better opportunity of observing them 
than is usually given to strangers. 

Just across the street from the Bee Hive is what is 
known as the Amelia Palace, which was built by Brigham 
Young for his favorite wife, Mrs. Amelia Folsom Young. 
She was his twenty-fourth wife, and was one of the hand- 
somest, and perhaps the most cultured, of them all. Read- 
ers of Mormon history will remember how ridiculous he 
made himself over her when he was courting her, and how 
he had to exercise his priestly authority to "cut out some 
of the other boys. The Palace is quite a nice modern 
brick structure. It now belongs to one of the United 
States Senators from Utah. There are some seven or 
eight of Brigham Young's wives still living, several of 
them, it is said, in the Lion House, and others in different 
parts of the city. I wanted to meet some of them, but 
did not wish to obtrude myself upon them. 

Just east of the Bee Hive is the Eagle Gate, so called 
from the large eagle surmounting an arch which spans 
the road. Originally it was the gateway leading into 
Brigham Young's private grounds, but new residences 
have been built up all along there, and the road is a regu- 
lar street leading to that part of the city, through which 


the street cars run. On the east side of this street, sur- 
rounded by a high stone wall, is Brigham Young's private 
school house, which, it is said, he built for the education 
of his numerous children. Around the corner and about 
a block further up is his private cemetery, in which he 
is buried, together with eight of his wives. There is 
plenty of space left for the other eighteen as well as for 
his children. As he had twenty-six wives, and there are 
only eight living and eight buried there, the question 
came as to where were the other ten. This I could not 
find out, though I searched the Mormon cemetery for an 
answer to the question. It is quite significant that he 
needed both a private school house and a private ceme- 

I reached Salt Lake City on Saturday morning, Nov. 

On Sunday morning, in company with a friend and his 
daughter, I attended a Mormon Sunday-school. I had 
a kind of feeling that I ought to be in a Baptist Sunday- 
school, especially as I had been notified that I would be 
expected to preach that morning at the First Baptist 
Church. I replied, however, that I was a Baptist at 
home, but I wanted to be a Mormon in Salt Lake City. 
I was there on a special mission, and I thought I ought 
to take every opportunity of learning all I could about 
Mormons. Most visitors go only to the great Tabernacle 
in the afternoon, but here the Mormons are on dress 
parade. I wanted to see them in their every-day clothes. 
One of the best places to do so, as I knew, was in their 
Sunday-school. When we walked in the room the Sun- 
day-school had begun. The teachers were sitting around 
their classes teaching — what? The superintendent, or 
some one else, asked if we would not like to go up to the 


theological class, to which we assented. We were con- 
ducted through a back door and up a flight of stairs to a 
small room in which the theological class was being 
taught. The teacher was a very nice looking and clever 
young man. A woman was reciting the book of Nephi 
in broken language. She was a Swede, I presume. To 
me she spoke in an unknown tongue in a double sense. 
When she finished, three young men were called on suc- 
cessively to recite, but each excused himself, saying that 
he did not know the lesson. Another lady then took it 
up The book of Nephi says that three Nephites are still 
living. In proof of that claim the following stories were 
told: There were some shepherds lost once, and they 
said they saw these three Nephites in a cave. Another 
man was in the Mississippi bottom, and he was led out 
three different times, and it was supposed that each time it 
was by a separate person, who were these three Nephites. 
At the conclusion of the lesson the teacher asked if we 
would like to ask any questions. My friend asked a ques- 
tion with reference to the Indians, whom the Mormons 
claim are the descendants of the Lamanites, the great ene- 
mies of the Nephites. 

The teacher had stated that they believed not only the 
Bible, but also the Book of Mormon to be the word of 
God I asked him on what he based this belief. What 
were the evidences of its divinity? He replied that it 
would take some time to answer that question, but that 
he would try to do so. About this time the bell rang vio- 
lently. He sent some one down stairs and asked him to 
explain to the superintendent the situation. The mes- 
senger came back in a minute and reported that the super- 
intendent said that the teacher might remain up stairs 
with his visitors, but that he wanted the class to come 
down, and down they went, and we with them. 


After the Sunday-school was over I had a long talk 
with the teacher and with another gentleman, counselor 
to the Bishop, I think he is, whom the teacher called in 
to assist in the discussion. I cannot give the conversation 
in detail. It lasted, perhaps, for an hour and a half. I can 
only give the substance of it. It began by the teacher* 
asking me very politely if I would like to ask any ques- 
tions. He handed me a copy of their articles of faith, and 
said perhaps I would like to ask some questions with 
reference to them. That was exactly what I wanted. So 
I said : "I see your first article of faith says, 'We believe 
in God, the Eternal Father.' What kind of a God ? What 
kind of a Father?" 

The following admissions were made in the course of 
the conversation by the gentlemen : 

1. That God is a literal Father. He is the Father of 
our spirits. Our earthly father is the father of our bodies. 

2. There are many Gods. 

3. God has a wife, and maybe many wives. 

4. "As man is, God was. As God is, man may be." 

5. Christ was probably a polygamist. Many Mormons 
think so. 

6. The Holy Spirit is a substance. They spoke of 
Him as "it." 

7. "Adam fell that men might be." 

8. No one but a Mormon can be saved, but there will 
be a second probation. And yet it will be harder for 
those who reject the gospel here to be saved. 

9. They believe in polygamy. It is needed, for all of 
a man's powers should be used for procreation. 

10. They said there had been no plural marriages since 
the manifesto in 1890. They admitted that Mr. Roberts 
and others have been living in cohabitation with more 


than one wife, but thought that as he had promised to be 
a husband to them, he should be in the fullest sense. They 
said that the clause in the State code against unlawful 
cohabitation slipped in by mistake. 

In the course of the conversation I was simply an in- 
vestigator. I did not attempt to argue with them. I was 
only trying to find out what they believed. I knew pretty 
well before hand what they believed on all these points, 
because I had read it in the books, but it was interesting 
to hear the expression of their faith from their own lips. 
There were other points I wanted to bring out, but as it 
was now about 1 o'clock, and as I wanted to attend the 
services in the Tabernacle that afternoon, we had to bring 
the conversation to a close. Before I left the teacher 
asked me, "Are you not a preacher?" I told him I was. 
"Where from?" I told him Tennessee. He said he had 
labored as a missionary in Tennessee some time ago. We 
then parted in good humor. 

After a delightful meal at the home of my friend we 
hurried off to the Tabernacle. Here we found some four 
or five thousand people assembled. The great choir of 
five hundred voices was singing as we went in. They 
certainly make beautiful music, but, as I said before, 
there is more of melody than of spirituality about it. Nor 
is there any spirituality about the Mormon prayers, which 
are few, cold and formal. I did not hear a passage of 
Scripture read at any of their services. It is customary 
for two persons to speak at each service. The two speak- 
ers that afternoon were Brigham Young, Jr., and Dr. 
James E. Talmage, who is their brag theologian. Brig- 
ham Young, Jr., looks a good deal like his distinguished 
father, though he lacks his father's strength of charac- 
ter. I give an outline of his remarks as I took them down 


at the time to indicate the character of the preaching in 
the Tabernacle. Mr. Young said: "We want room. 
There are other lands for us to occupy. The people in 
the East are surprised that we believe in God, the Father, 
the Son and the Holy Ghost. A gentleman said to me that 
he thought the foundations of the Christian faith were 
destroyed when the law against polygamy was passed. 
I told him that polygamy is a small part of our system. 
God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost have appeared in 
these latter days. The foundation of the church of the 
Latter-Day Saints is God. It shall never be overthrown. 
The Spirit of God dwells in it. If you are laboring for 
money the church teaches that you must use that money 
for God's glory. There must be faith, repentance, bap- 
tism, laying on of hands in order to salvation. There is 
nothing done without that Spirit. It dwells in us day and 
night. This makes us fit companions for the great I Am. 
We shall be with him, because we shall be like him. Noth- 
ing daunts us while we keep that Spirit. We can laugh 
at persecution. See the difference between those who 
have the witness of the Spirit, and those who have it not. 
It is the difference between black and white. Zion is the 
stone cut out of the mountain side. I was unfortunate 
enough to have to spend two weeks in Chicago. I took 
it as a great calamity, but I survived it. Everything was 
money, money. I was accustomed to ask, Is it the will of 
God ? not, Is there money in it ? 

"A frost at Liverpool in 1891 and 1892 slew two hun- 
dred innocents. In Chicago it is worse than that. It is 
the mission of the Latter-Day Saints to redeem and save 
the world. When I sought the witness of the Spirit did 
I get it? I did. 'Seek first the kingdom of God and 
His righteousness/ Shall we continue laboring to save 


the world ? What inducements are there ? I want to meet 
those gone before, to make those around me happy, to 
save the dead by baptism. It is a stupenduous work. May 
God bless every sect that is trying to do right, and those 
who are hypocrites may the curse of God rest upon them." 

At the conclusion of Mr. Young's address a gentleman 
turned to me and said : "Well, what do you think of that 
harangue?" The word was very fitting. It was not a 
sermon, but a stump speech, full of braggadocio, and de- 
livered in a rather awkward manner. One of the daily 
papers next day expressed surprise that Mr. Young 
should have made the reference he did to Chicago seeking 
money, when it was understood that he was there himself 
on a business trip. 

The other speaker was Dr. James E. Talmage, for- 
merly president of the Mormon College in Salt Lake City. 
I took down his remarks, but as they were quite lengthy 
I shall not give them. Mr. Young was uncouth and un- 
polished. Dr. Talmage is a man of some culture and 
spoke with ease and grace. After the services were over 
I got a good look at him as he passed near me, and was 
really very much disappointed to find that he has the 
same short bull neck, and the same coarse, sensual appear- 
ance characteristic of nearly all Mormon elders. 

At night I attended a ward meeting. The whole of 
the territory of Utah, and especially of Salt Lake City, is 
divided into wards corresponding largely in size to the 
wards in our various cities. In each ward there is one 
meeting house for that ward, which all Mormons in the 
ward are expected to attend, and as these meeting houses 
are not very large they are generally about full. As we 
entered the house a young Mormon missionary was speak- 
ing. I could not but be struck with his ignorance of 


Scripture. For instance, at one time he quoted a passage 
from Isaiah and attributed it to Malachi. At another 
time he represented Elijah as being in a cave at Mt. 
C arm el. When he closed, according to the Mormon cus- 
tom of having two speakers at every meeting, an old 
man by the name of Spencer (David Spencer, I think) 
arose. He argued that it was not the witness of the 
Spirit but belief in Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, etc., 
that makes a true Mormon — and he was certainly right 
about it. He told about the Mormon persecutions, as 
the Mormons always term their sufferings, regardless 
of the fact that they themselves had provoked the people 
of Missouri and of Illinois into driving them out. He 
claimed that the Mormons were the servants of the Lord, 
the embassadors to carry the gospel to all the world, 
and that it is a glorious privilege given them to do so. 

During the week I had several interesting conversa- 
tions with some of the Mormon people. For instance, in 
a certain store there are two Mormon lady clerks. I 
got into a conversation with one of them. She is a 
young married woman. She said that she believed that 
God is a man with flesh and bones, but without blood; 
that he is our literal father; that Christ was a polyga- 
mist; that the Holy Spirit is a substance; that she be- 
lieved in polygamy, but she did not know why. Her 
husband, she told me, is off on a mission in Germany 
and had been gone fifteen months. 

Another lady in the store came by, and the first lady 
said to her that I had put a question to her she could 
not answer — that I had asked her why she believed in 
polygamy. The second, who was a very pretty young 
lady, said that she knew why she believed in polygamy. 
"Why?" I asked. "Because," she said. "Well, that is 


a woman's reason," I said; "give me a man's reason." 
"Because," she said, "it makes a man a better man, and 
a woman a better woman." Another reason she had for 
believing in it was that Joseph Smith commanded it. "It 
is a part of our religion," she said. She also thought 
that God was a man, and that he was Adam, and that 
man may become God. 

While having my shoes polished one day I got to talk- 
ing with the bootblack. He told me that he was a Mor- 
mon. He said that he believed that God is a man, that 
there are many Gods, and that he believed in polygamy, 
for the reason that "it makes a man a better man." He 
referred to corruption in Eastern cities. I asked him 
what about Salt Lake City. Another man standing by, 
not a Mormon, said that it was full of corruption. This 
testimony I received over and over again from various 
witnesses. I have already given some of the facts which 
were related to me in this connection. 

I had a conversation one day with a young lady stenog- 
rapher in a certain office. She said that she was a Mor- 
mon because she believed that Mormonism is the only 
religion. She believed that God is a man, but that there 
is only one God. She does not, however, believe in polyg- 
amy. Polygamous wives, she said, are unhappy, what- 
ever they may tell you. She proposed to accept whatever 
the priesthood tells her if it was according to her reason. 
"Intellect," she said, "is everything." She thought that 
a person would be saved by his own deeds, that the good 
would overbalance the bad. She goes to Sunday-school 
and Tabernacle services and ward meetings only when 
she feels like it. I told her that she is not a good Mor- 
mon. And there are a good many Mormons, who, like 
her, are throwing off the shackles of Mormonism as they 


come in contact with the outside world and see the falsity 
of many things they had been taught to believe. God 
speed the day when the shackles shall all be gone. 

Just back of the Lion House in Salt Lake City is the 
tithing office. The Mormons demand that all members 
of their church shall pay tithes of their income. Not all 
of them do it, however. If they did, the income of the 
church would amount to about $3,000,000. As it is, it 
amounts to only about $700,000 or $800,000. But special 
efforts have been made recently to induce every one to 
pay his tithes. All of the privileges of the church are 
withheld from them until they do. Tithing may be paid 
either in money or in produce or goods. There are three 
houses for the reception of the tithes, all joined together. 
In one money is received, in another dry goods, in another 
groceries. Strict account is kept of everything received, 
and of the names of those who give it, but no account is 
ever rendered to the people as to how the money is spent. 

I went down to the tithing office one day. The man 
who receives the money was busy, so I stepped into the 
dry goods department. As I began talking to the clerk a 
little girl came in to buy something. I told him that I 
had no special business and to wait on his customer. He 
said that that was all right, she could wait. I asked him 
about the system of tithing. He told me, what I have 
stated, that tithings are contributed either in money or 
in goods, that in his department the merchants will con- 
tribute their tithings in goods out of their stores at whole- 
sale rates, and that he sells them at the same price at 
which the merchants would sell them. I asked him what 
became of the money thus received, whether it was given 
to the officials of the church. He said that none of the 
officials received any salary — a fact which I already knew 


— but that sometimes the bishop would come down and 
get a pair of shoes or something of that kind from him. 
I then asked very innocently if there was any account 
rendered of the money. He looked a little surprised and 
said, "Sir?" I said, "Is there any account rendered to 
the people of the money ?" He said, "Well, I am very 
busy ; if you will go into the next store, perhaps the man 
in there will have time to talk with you." The fact is, as 
I said, that there is no account rendered. No one knows 
what becomes of the money — that is, no one except those 
who get it. 

I have been asked several times since my return home 
if I saw any polygamous families while in Salt Lake City. 
I was really anxious to get into a polygamous home while 
there, and see the polygamous wives for myself. I stated 
my desire to an ex-Mormon, and he introduced me to a 
polygamist, whom I found to be a very clever man. I got 
pretty well acquainted with him, and one day he invited 
me to go to his home. I thanked him and asked him when 
I could go. He said, "Any time ; go this evening ; go now, 
if you wish." I told him I did not care to go to his home 
when he was not there. So it was arranged that I should 
call that night while he was at home. He said, "Now, I 
don't want you to tell on me." You see, people were being 
arrested in Salt Lake City at that time for living in 
polygamous cohabitation. I replied to him, "I will tell you 
candidly, I am representing a paper, and I expect to 
write up what I see, but I will not call your name and will 
not tell anybody about you." Soon after supper I started 
to his home, but while I was on my way I received word 
that he had sickness in his family, and that it would not 
be convenient for me to call that night. I saw him the 
next morning, and inquired about his family, and told 


him that I hoped the sick ones were better. He said that 
he was afraid that they were threatened with scarlet 
fever or something of that kind, and he did not know 
just how it was going to turn out, so that it would not be 
convenient for me to go to his home at that time, but that 
he wanted me to be sure to do so the next time I came to 
Salt Lake City. I told him that I would be glad to do so. 

'The next time!" And so I found it ever with the 
Mormons. You can go just so far with them and no 
farther. Up to a certain point they are pleasant and 
polite as possible. They do not mind giving you any in- 
formation about their religion which does not mean any- 
thing. But if by your questions you show that you know 
too much, or if you try to get into the inner circles and 
find out the hidden things which they mean to keep hidden 
from the outside world — and there are a great many of 
them — you instantly find yourself blocked very thor- 

I have given a good deal of space to Mormon affairs 
in Salt Lake City because I went there for the purpose of 
studying them, and also because the city has become iden- 
tified in the public mind with Mormons, and I knew that 
my readers would feel a special interest in having me tell 
about them. But the Mormons are not the only people in 
Salt Lake City by a good many. As I stated, they form 
at present only half of the population of the city, there 
being about 30,000 Mormons and 30,000 Gentiles. In 
the election which occurred just before I was there, the 
city was carried by the Gentiles by a few hundred votes. 
This, however, was by the aid of some ex-Mormons, or 

There are a number of other churches at work in the 
city, Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, Campbellite, etc. 


I attended the general Ministers' Conference the first 
Monday morning I was there. There were some eighteen 
or twenty ministers present, and they were a bright, fine 
looking set of men. They will compare well with the 
ministers in any city. The Presbyterians seem to be in 
the lead ; at least I met more Presbyterian ministers than 
of any other denomination. Certainly they are in the 
lead in opposition to Mormonism. The names of Drs. 
Paden and McNiece, and Rev. W. R. Campbell, 
of Salt Lake City ; Revs. N. E. Clemenson, of Logan, 
and H. H. McCreery, of Mt. ^Pleasant, are worthy of 
special mention in this connection. It is to them, more 
than to any others, perhaps, that credit is due for work- 
ing up public sentiment against the seating of Mr. Roberts 
in Congress. The Kinsman, a magazine issued monthly 
by the Kinsman Publishing Co., has also done, and 
is doing, noble service along this line. I mention these 
names because I felt that I wanted to give honor to whom 
honor is due. 

The Baptists are not very far behind. They are repre- 
sented by three churches, the First Baptist Church, of 
which Rev. H. B. Steelman is pastor, and East Church, 
Rev. E. H. Shanks, pastor. Also Rev. J. D. Johnson is 
pastor of the Baptist Church at Murray, which is a suburb 
of Salt Lake City. I had the privilege of preaching in the 
First and East Churches. A revival was in progress at 
the East Church, conducted by Rev. E. H. Shanks, who 
had just come to the city, and who has since been called 
to the pastorate of the church. He is a cultured, conse- 
crated Christian man, and I expect him to accomplish 
much good. The membership of his church is not very 
large, but it is composed of an excellent class of people. 
Miss Parsons, who is laboring under the auspices of the 


Home Mission Society in Salt Lake City, is a member of 
that church. She is doing much good, especially through 
her industrial school. She has a large class of boys, to 
whom she imparts much practical and useful knowledge, 
and whom she tries at the same time to instruct in the way 
of the Lord. 

The second Sunday of my stay in the city I preached at 
the First Baptist Church in the morning. Rev. H. B. 
Steelman is the popular and scholarly pastor. He was 
confined at home on account of sickness in his family. The 
church is centrally located, has a good house of worship, 
and is composed of some of the best people in the city. 
The congregation was large, and was very attentive and 
sympathetic. I enjoyed very much preaching to them. 

Churches of other denominations besides the Mormons 
do not, however, have a very easy time in Salt Lake City. 
In the first place, the Mormon church — I call it so for the 
sake of convenience — is the big church of the city. About 
half the people in the city are members of it. The Tem- 
ple is the center of the city, and the Tabernacle on Sunday 
afternoons is the great gathering place for the people. In 
the second place, the Mormons and Gentiles, like the Jews 
and Samaritans, have no dealings with one another. They 
trade very little with each other. The Mormons have 
their stores and the Gentiles have theirs. The Mormons 
go almost entirely to their own services, and attend the 
churches of other denominations very little. Nor do 
Gentiles go much to Mormon services. They are not 
allowed to go into the Temple at all. Some of them go to 
the Tabernacle services on Sunday afternoons, but very 
few, if any, go to their Sunday schools or their ward 
meetings. The two peoples are almost as distinct as the 
Jews and Gentiles, or as the Americans and French in 
New Orleans. The Mormons make almost no converts 


from the Gentiles. It is estimated that one per cent would 
cover the number. On the contrary, about 16 per cent of 
the membership in the Gentile churches came from the 
Mormons. But it requires hard work to get them, even 
after they leave the Mormon church. In that case, as is 
the case with Catholics in Italy and Mexico, they are apt 
to go oft into infidelity. The Mormon church claims to 
be the only true church, and these ex-Mormons seem to 
feel that if the claims of the Mormon church are not true, 
they do not know where to turn, and so they drift into 
indifference and infidelity. 

Another reason why it is difficult to make converts from 
the Mormons is that their religion is so utterly different 
from any other religion. It claims to be the only true 
religion, and yet it has no spirituality about it at all. 1 he 
Mormons make fun of emotion in religion. It is all a 
cold dead, formal worship, which dries up the fountains 
of spirituality, and of the deepest religious experiences. 
This not only makes it difficult to get converts among 
them to other churches which teach the importance of 
having this spiritual power, but it has a reflex influence 
upon these churches, and tends to deaden their own 
spiritual life. An old-fashioned, genuine revival of re- 
ligion, with tears of sorrow and shouts of joy, wou d 
seem so much out of place in Salt Lake City that it would 
be an anomaly, even if it were a possibility. 

Before taking my leave of Salt Lake City, allow me to 
say that I enjoyed my two weeks' stay there upon the 
whole very much. I met a number of excellent people 
and made some good friends among them. They were all 
very kind to me. Even the Mormons were kind and polite 
until I got to asking too many questions and coming too 
close home, and then their manner would change, and 
they would usually shut me off. If only the curse of 


Mormonism could be removed from the fair city, it would 
become exceedingly prosperous. Situated just on the 
west of the Rocky Mountains, in a rich valley between 
the Wasatch and Oquirrh mountains, and near the Great 
Salt Lake, it has many natural advantages. This the 
Gentiles are recognizing, and many of them are taking up 
their residences there, so that the Gentile population of 
the city is growing much faster than the Mormon. In a 
short while the Gentiles will have entire control of the 
city, and perhaps also of the State after a while. And 
then the desert will be made to "blossom as the rose." 



JULY 22, 1899. 

Three movements in the second quarter of the nine- 
teenth century, each of which was claimed by its leader to 
be a reformation of religion, have an important place in 
American religious history. The earliest of these move- 
ments was the one led by Alexander Campbell and Wal- 
ter Scott, resulting in the establishment of the Disciples of 
Christ, or Christians, as a separate body. 

The second was the beginning and rise of Mormonism 
under the manipulations of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rig- 
don. The third was the development of modern spiritual- 
ism, or "spiritism," beginning with the "rappings" of the 
Fox sisters in Western New York. The first two "re- 
formations" had close connection with Baptist history in 
and about Pittsburgh, Pa. Having been pastor of a Bap- 
tist church in Pittsburgh for about ten years, with excel- 
lent opportunities for investigations, I propose to tell what 
I have learned as to the relation of Sidney Rigdon to the 
Book of Mormon. Of course, this story will be denied by 
Mormons and their friends; within twelve hours of this 
writing I have been visited by two Mormon officials and 
treated to a strenuous and indignant denial ; but denial is 
not proof. I submit the plain, unvarnished facts to the 
public, and abide by its verdict. 



rigdon's beginnings. 

He was born February 19, 1793, on a farm near the 
hamlet of Library, a few miles south of Pittsburgh. Elder 
David Phillips baptized him into the membership of the 
Peter's Creek Baptist Church, at Library, May 31, 18 17. 
On January 28, 1822, he became the third pastor that the 
First Baptist Church of Pittsburg had had, said church 
having been organized in 1812. Alexander Campbell had 
supplied the pulpit at times, and it was largely through his 
influence that Rigdon was called. He had almost sup- 
planted his faithful pastor at Peter's Creek by his for- 
wardness and ambition. Elder Phillips said, "As long as 
Rigdon lives he will be a curse to the church of Christ." 
Rev. Samuel Williams was a successor to Rigdon in the 
Pittsburgh pastorate. From a sermon of Williams' on 
Mormonism, I quote : "There was so much of the miracu- 
lous about Rigdon's conversion at Library, and so much 
parade about his profession, that the pious and discerning 
pastor entertained serious doubts at the time, in regard to 
the genuineness of the work." Rigdon afterward con- 
fessed to a deacon of the Pittsburgh church that he "made 
up his experience in order to get into the church." 

He came to Pittsburgh direct from Warren, Ohio. The 
church here had ninety-six members. In September, 
1822, six months after his pastorate began, the First 
Church entertained the old Redstone Association. Alex- 
ander Campbell and his father, Thomas, were both pres- 
ent, talking and preaching their new doctrines. Rigdon 
was converted to their views and began preaching them. 
A strong minority protested. A deacon, the clerk, and 
thirteen other members were excluded for protesting 
against the preaching of the pastor. They went to the 
school room of Rev. John Winter, M.D., a regular Bap- 


list minister, and under his leadership maintained the 
claim that they were the First Regular Baptist Church of 
Pittsburgh. A carefully prepared paper was drawn up 
by them, protesting against their exclusion and asserting 
that the majority party were no longer Baptists. They 
also asserted their moral, legal, and ecclesiastical right to 
the church property. A mutual council was finally called. 
It met October 11, 1823. The moderator was Elder Frey, 
the clerk being Ephraim Estey. The verdict was in favor 
of the excluded minority. Rigdon was found guilty of 
"holding and teaching the doctrine of baptismal regenera- 
tion and many other abominable heresies." He was there- 
upon deposed from the ministry and excluded from the 

He and his sympathizers surrendered the property and 
the Regular Baptists were once more "at home." The fol- 
lowing were the things charged against him : 

1. That he taught that Christians are not under obliga- 
tion to keep the moral law, it having been abolished by our 

2. That the Jewish dispensation was not the best one 
that God might have given to them, for it had made them 
three-fold more the children of hell than they were before. 

3. That a change of heart consists merely in a change of 
views and baptism. 

4. That there is no such thing as religious experience. 

5. That saving faith is a mere crediting of the testimony 
given by the evangelists, such as all men have in the truth 
of any history. 

6. That it is wrong to use the Lord's prayer, inasmuch 
as the reign of Christ has already commenced. 

He was also said to emphasize the restoration of the 
ancient order, especially as to the bringing of one's pos- 


sessions and laying them at the apostle's feet. He con- 
demned the regular ministry for accepting salaries and 
said "they milched the goats." Elder Williams said, 
"While Rigdon denounced others for milching the goats, 
he himself could without difficulty take them down, hide, 
horns and all." 

In 1824 he and his followers effected a union with an 
independent congregation meeting in the Pittsburgh 
Court House under the leadership of Walter Scott, and 
practicing immersion. Within a few months after this 
Rigdon went to the Western Reserve, Ohio. From this 
time until his public connection with Joseph Smith, he 
propagated the doctrines of Alexander Campbell and Wal- 
ter Scott by preaching and circulating their books and 
periodicals. In a number of instances he succeeded in 
forming a party in churches where he was allowed to 
preach, and by stratagem or force succeeded in securing 
to said parties the church property. 

In August, 1827, Campbell, Scott and Rigdon met again 
at the Mahoning Baptist Association, in New Lisbon, 
Ohio. Campbell was a member of the association, the 
two others were visitors. By courtesy of the association 
Rigdon preached a sermon on the evening of August 23. 
The story of the appointment at said association of Walter 
Scott as associational evangelist, his hesitation to accept 
because he was not a Baptist, his final acceptance through 
the influence of Campbell and Rigdon, his two years' 
work in that capacity, and the disbanding of the associa- 
tion at Austintown, in 1829, is interesting, but it is "an- 
other story." Scott's biographer, Baxter, says : "The ac- 
tion taken at Austintown may be regarded as the formal 
separation from the Baptists. Those Baptists who had 
embraced the new views, together with the new converts 


made, were called Campbellites, and by many Scottites ; 
but after the dissolution of the association, which was 
really brought about by the efforts of Scott, they were 
called Disciples." 

So much for the origin of the "Disciples." We turn 

again to 


When Rigdon preached at the association in New Lis- 
bon his home was in Kirtland, Ohio. Just thirty days 
after that sermon Joseph Smith proclaimed his finding of 
"The Golden Bible," better known as the Book of Mor- 
mon, at the little village of Manchester, six miles from 
Palmyra, N. Y. Rigdon soon went thither, professed im- 
mediate ' conversion to the "find," and straightway 
preached the first Mormon sermon. It was preached in 
Palmyra and showed a remarkable amount of information 
for a new convert. It was said that he seemed to know 
more about it than Smith himself. Abundant reason for 
this will soon be shown. Smith claimed to have been 
directed by an angel to the burial place of a stone box in 
which was a volume six inches thick and composed of thin 
gold leaves, eight by seven inches, fastened together by 
three gold rings. The writing on them was called "Re- 
formed Egyptian." There was also a pair of "super- 
natural spectacles," two crystals, that Smith called "Urim 
and Thummim," set in a silver bow. When Smith 
put these on he claimed to be able to translate the reformed 
Egyptian language. I have heard my father-in-law, then 
nineteen years old and still living, who knew Smith, say 
that he was scarcely able to read or write plain English. 
He characterizes him as a quick-witted, lazy, superstitious 
fellow, who spent his time in digging for treasures and 
locating springs for wells with a divining rod. He was 


just the man for Rigdon to attempt to use as a tool, 
although in the long run he proved too shrewd for his 
former master. It probably will never be known why 
Rigdon did not take first place in Mormonism. It is cer- 
tain that Smith developed better qualities of leadership, 
and it is probable that Rigdon never dared offend Smith 
for fear of exposure as to their secret. 

Neither Smith nor Rigdon had money to publish this 
"Golden Bible." They succeeded in interesting a well-to- 
do farmer named Martin Harris, who furnished the 
means. Oliver Cowdery was employed as an amanuensis. 
He wrote what Smith dictated to him from the farther 
side of a concealing curtain. In 1830 the book was print- 
ed, and with it a sworn statement by Cowdery, Harris and 
a David Whitmer, that an angel of God had shown them 
the plates of which the book purported to be a transla- 
tion. Some years later these three men renounced Mor- 
monism and declared said sworn statement false. I re- 
cently opened the Book of Mormon that lay upon the 
pulpit in the Mormon Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. Upon 
its page was this sworn statement by these three men, but 
their recantation was not there. The Mormons explain 
the disappearance of the "golden leaves" by assuming that 
an angel took them away. As a matter of fact, we have 
only Joseph Smith's word for it, aside from the above 
statement, that they ever existed. In spite of this a lead- 
ing Mormon told me, as he and I stood by Brigham 
Young's grave a few weeks ago, that they had two Bibles 
of equal authority. One contained the Old and New 
Testament, the other is the Book of Mormon. 


Now we return to Pittsburgh. In 1761, Solomon 
Spaulding was born in Ashford, Conn., and was gradu- 


ated from Dartmouth College in 1785. Later in life he 
lived in New'Salem and Conneaut, Ohio. There he wrote 
a manuscript which he called "The Manuscript Found." 
He read it to numerous of his relatives and friends. Its 
leading characters bore such names as Mormon, Moroni, 
Lamanite and Nephi. It divided the population of this 
continent into two classes, the righteous and the idola- 
trous, and told an imaginary story of the discovery of 
their history as recorded on a manuscript that was cen- 
turies ago concealed in the earth. It was full of wars 
and rumors of wars and presented a record of the preach- 
ing of Christianity in America during the first century 
after Christ. Mr. Spaulding being a minister and familiar 
with Bible history, made his romance correspond closely 
to the biblical records as their sequel. In 1812 he moved 
to Pittsburgh. Robert Patterson had a printing establish- 
ment here ; his foreman was Silas Engles. Spaulding de- 
sired Patterson to publish his work, but was unable to 
guarantee the expenses if the book should prove a failure. 
Patterson testified that he saw said manuscript and told 
Engles to print it if Spaulding furnished security for ex-^ 
penses He farther testified that Spaulding was unable to- 
do so and that he supposed that Engles returned the 
manuscript to its author. As a matter of fact, Spaulding 
moved to Amity, Washington County, Pennsylvania, in 
1814 and died there in 1816. Joseph Miller, of Amity, 
was an intimate friend of Spaulding; he heard him read 
much of his manuscript and testified (see Pittsburgh Tele- 
graph in 1879) to Spaulding's telling him that while he 
was writing a preface for the book the manuscript was 
spirited away, that a Sidney Rigdon was suspected of tak- 
ing it. Miller also said that when he read the Book of 
Mormon he at once recognized Spaulding's story. Redick 


McKee, of Washington County, bears the same testimony 
and says that Rigdon was employed in Patterson's office. 
Some of Rigdon's friends deny that he was employed 
there, but Mrs. R. J. Eichbaum, who died in Pittsburg in 
1882, was clerk in the Pittsburgh postoffice from 181 1 to 
1816, her father being postmaster. She gave testimony to 
the intimacy between Rigdon and Lamdin, their coming 
to the office together, and Engles' telling her that "Rig- 
don was always hanging about the printing office." It is 
also a matter of fact that Lamdin became Patterson's 
business partner in 1818. Spaulding's widow testified 
that Rigdon was connected with the office in some way. 
It seems evident that Rigdon was about the office, to say 
the least. Six years later he returned to Pittsburgh as 
the pastor of the Baptist church. Patterson had died in 
1814; Lamdin died in 1825; Engles in 1827. Rigdon's 
pastorate was while both were yet alive and he was inti- 
mate with both. 

Rev. John Winter, M. D., known to many in western 
Pennsylvania, testified that he was in Rigdon's study in 
Pittsburg in the winter of 1822-3, that Rigdon took from 
his desk a large manuscript and said in substance : "A 
Presbyterian minister, Mr. Spaulding, whose health 
failed, brought this to the printer to see if it would pay 
to publish it. It is a romance of the Bible." Rev. A. J. 
Bonsall, now pastor of the Baptist church in Rochester, 
Pa., tells me that Dr. Winter, who was his stepfather, 
often referred to this incident, saying that the manuscript 
purported to be a history of the American Indian, and 
that Rigdon said he got it from the printers. Mrs. Mary 
W. Irvine, of Sharon, Pa., Dr. Winter's daughter, says : 
"I have frequently heard my father speak of Rigdon's 
having Spaulding's manuscript, that he said he got it 


from the printer to read as a curiosity. As such he showed 
it to my father and then seemed to have no intention of 
using it as he evidently afterward did. Father always 
said that Rigdon helped Smith in his scheme by revising 
and transforming this manuscript into the Mormon Bible." 

As late as 1879 a Mrs. Amos Dunlap, of Warren, Ohio, 
wrote of having visited the Rigdons when she was young 
and of his taking a manuscript from his trunk and becom- 
ing greatly absorbed in it. His wife threatened to burn it, 
but he said, "No, indeed, you will not ; this will be a great 
thing some day." 

In 1820 the Widow Spaulding married Mr. Davidson, 
of Hartwick, Otsego County, New York; in May, 1839, 
the Boston Recorder published a statement from her made 
to and recorded by Rev. D. R. Austin, of Monson, Mass., 
to the effect that a Mormon preacher took a copy of the 
Mormon Bible to New Salem, Ohio, where her husband 
had lived and written much of his manuscript, and read 
from it at a public meeting. She said that many of the 
older people immediately recognized it as her husband's 
romance and that his brother, John Spaulding, arose then 
and there and protested against such a use of his late 
brother's writings. Rigdon wrote to the Boston Recorder 
an emphatic and coarse denial of this fact and said that he 
had never heard of such a man as Spaulding. 

The reader may judge, after what has been said, 
whether he ever had. In August, 1880, Scribner's Month- 
ly published some testimony from Solomon Spaulding's 
daughter, Mrs. M. S. McKinstry, of Washington, D. C. 
She certifies to the same facts and bears testimony to the 
parallelism between the Book of Mormon and her father's 
romance. Mrs. President Garfield's father, Mr. Z. Ru- 
dolph, knew Rigdon well and says that "during the win- 


ter previous to the appearance of the Mormon Bible Rig- 
don spent weeks away from home, gone no one knew 
where; when he returned he seemed very much pre- 
occupied, talked in a dreamy, imaginative way, and puz- 
zled his listeners. His joining the Mormons so quickly 
made his neighbors sure that he was in the secret of the 
authorship of the Book of Mormon." The book was 
printed in the office of the Wayne Sentinel, Palmyra, N. 
Y. The editor was Pomeroy Tucker. In 1867 he printed 
a book, "Origin and Progress of Mormonism." In it he 
says that during the summer of 1827 (the "Leaves of 
Gold" were found in September, 1827) a stranger made 
several mysterious visits at Smith's home. He was after- 
ward recognized as Rigdon, who afterward preached the 
first Mormon sermon in Palmyra. This statement is 
corroborated by Mrs. Dr. Horace Eaton, who lived in 
Palmyra for more than thirty years. 

Not to weary patience, let me say that testimony has 
been secured from many others. As early as 1835 Mr. E. 
D. Howe, of Painesville, Ohio, printed the full testimony 
of eight reliable witnesses, such persons as John Spauld- 
ing and wife, Martha; Henry Lake, a former business 
associate of Solomon Spaulding; Oliver Smith, Aaron 
Wright, and Nahum Howard, all of Conneaut, Ohio, all 
of whom certified that the Book of Mormon and Spauld- 
ing's romance were in substance identical. Finally, Rig- 
don's brother-in-law, Rev. Adam Bently, and Alexander 
Campbell both testify ("The Millennial Harbinger/' 
1844) that as much as two years before the Mormon 
Bible made its appearance Rigdon told them that "such a 
book was coming out, the manuscript of which had been 
found engraved on gold plates." In spite of this Rigdon 
claimed that he first heard of the Book of Mormon from 


Parley P. Pratt in August, 1830. In the light of this evi- 
dence, whence think ye came the Book of Mormon, and 
what is its claim to divine authority? Was not Rigdon 
Joseph Smith's angel? 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



As I have said, no one is admitted to the Mormon Tem- 
ple except a good Mormon. It is used only on special 
occasions, such as initiations, marriages and baptisms. 
The preaching services are all held in the Tabernacle, or 
in the ward meeting houses. The following account of the 
ceremonies which took place in the Endowment House, 
before the Temple was built, is taken from "An English- 
woman in Utah," by Mrs. T. B. H. Stenhouse. Mrs. 
Stenhouse was a lady of much culture and refinement, 
who was converted to Mormonism in England, married 
a Mormon elder, and emigrated to Utah. Her husband 
was quite prominent in Mormon circles for a time. But 
after a while both he and she became disgusted with it, 
and, showing too much independence of spirit, they were 
excommunicated, along with W. S. Godbe, E. L. T. Har- 
rison, and others. Both Mr. and Mrs. Stenhouse have 
written very interesting books on the subject of Mor- 
monism. I leave Mrs. Stenhouse to tell her own story : 


"Not many weeks after our arrival in Salt Lake City 
my husband told me that we might now enjoy the privilege 
of going through the Endowment House. 

"This was intended as a great favor to us, on the part 
of the authorities, for most people have to wait a long 
while before receiving their endowments; but my hus- 
band's influence and position in the church was, I pre- 
sume, the reason why we were admitted so soon. 



"Now, I had heard so much of the endowments and the 
Endowment House that I quite dreaded to pass through 
this ordeal. The idea of the whole ceremony was, that 
thereby we should receive the special grace of God; be 
united, man and woman, making one perfect creature; 
receive our inheritance as children of God ; and, in fact, 
be made partakers of the plenitude of every blessing. 

"I knew well that no marriage was considered binding 
unless it had been celebrated in that place. I knew that 
the Saints, however long they might have been wedded, 
were under the necessity of being reunited there before 
they could be considered lawfully married and their chil- 
dren legitimate. According to the highest Mormon author- 
ity, no marriage is valid unless the ceremony is performed 
in the Temple. The Temple is not yet built, and as Joseph 
the Prophet said : 'No fellow can be damned for doing 
the best he knows how,' the Saints do 'the next best thing' 
and are married in the Endowment House. I knew that 
there and then the faithful were said to be 'endowed' with 
their heavenly inheritance. I saw how absolutely needful 
it was that my husband and myself should become par- 
takers of those mysteries ; but I was influenced by the 
strange stories which I had heard of unhallowed and 
shameful doings in that same Endowment House, and 
consequently I feared to enter in. 

"My fears were not, however, altogether groundless or 
visionary. It has been whispered— falsely, perhaps— that 
in that Endowment House scenes have been enacted so 
fearful that words would falter on the lips of those who 
told the tale concerning them. I have heard of such 
things from men of integrity and honor ; but they were 
not eye-witnesses of what they related, and they could 
not, or would not, give me their authorities. One thing 


I am certain of : if such horrible deeds were ever perpe- 
trated within those walls, there remains no living witness 
to testify of them. The lips of those who alone could tell 
the whole truth are sealed in a silence which the trump of 
doom alone shall break. 

"It was, of course, no fear of any personal violence or 
any painful disclosures in that respect, that made me re- 
luctant to receive my endowments, for at this time I was 
by profession apparently a good Mormon; if I had my 
doubts and misgivings, I had them in common with nine- 
tenths of the Mormon women, and had therefore nothing 
to fear. The true cause of my reluctance was of a more 
delicate and personal nature. I had been informed that, if 
I refused to go, my husband could not go alone ; he would 
be compelled to take another wife, and go with her. This 
was not all. I found that it was quite common for the 
elders to take a second wife when they took their first 
endowments, and thus, as they coarsely expressed it, 'kill 
two birds with one stone.' Moreover, I had heard of men 
who feared to introduce polygamy into their households, 
presenting to their wives, while going through the House, 
a young girl as their intended bride, feeling sure that the 
wife would not dare to make a scene before the 'Assembly. 
How could I know that my husband also had not such an 
idea in his mind ? True, I trusted him implicitly, and did 
not believe it possible that he could deceive me. But had 
not men who were universally known for their integrity 
and honor acted in the same way to their wives ; and with 
s\d many evidences of the best and most honest natures 
being corrupted by the unrighteous teachings of their re- 
ligion, could I be blamed for doubting him whom I loved 

"There was also another reason why I particularly ob- 
jected to passing through the Endowment House. I had 


been told many strange and revolting stories about the 
ceremonies which were there performed, for it was said 
that in the Nauvoo Temple the most disgraceful things 
were done. About what was done at Nauvoo I can say 
nothing, as it was before my time, but still it is only fair 
to say that people who, in every other relation in life, 1 
should have deemed most reliable and trustworthy, were 
my informants respecting those strange stories. Of the 
endowments in Utah I can, of course, speak more posi- 
tively, as I myself passed through them; and I wish to 
say most distinctly that, although the initiation of the 
Saints into 'The Kingdom' appears now to my mind as 
a piece of the most ridiculous absurdity, there was never- 
theless, nothing in it indecent or immoral-of which the 
reader himself shall presently be the judge. 

"It is an invariable rule among the Mormons, as I have 
before intimated, for every man or woman to mind his or 
her own business, and nothing else. Thus it was that until 
I myself went through the endowments, I was totally 
ignorant of what they were; although, of course many 
people with whom I had daily intercourse could easily 
have enlightened me if they had been thus minded. Be- 
sides this, every Mormon's mouth was closed by the oath 
of that same Endowment Hduse— the penalty of winch 
was death, a penalty which, no one doubted, would be 
sternly enforced. Thus, totally in the dark, and remem- 
bering only the strange stories told about 'washings and 
'anointings' and an imitation of the Garden of Eden, 
with Adam and Eve clothed in their own innocence alone, 
it can be no wonder that any modest woman should wish 
to evade all participation in such scenes. 

"I spoke to my husband about it, and he tried to reas- 
sure me, but what he said had rather a contrary effect. 


"Before we left England, when speaking of these cere- 
monies, my husband told me that they were simply a 
privilege and a matter of choice. But what a choice ! I 
might go or refuse to go ; but, if I refused, he must — if he 
went through at all — take another wife in my place, and, 
as I knew, there would be no difficulty in finding one. I 
should in consequence be known as a rebellious woman ; 
annoyance and indignity would be heaped upon me ; while 
within my own home I should be compelled to occupy the 
position of second wife — as the one who is married first in 
the Endowment House is considered the first wife, and 
has the control of everything. 

"My husband told me that now he was most anxious to 
go; he had already been notified three times that such was 
his privilege, and there were, he said, good reasons why 
we ought gladly to accept the opportunity. It was an 
honor, he said, for which many people had waited for 

"My husband reminded me that we had been married by 
a Gentile, and while living among Gentiles, and that, as I 
said before, our marriage was not valid, and our children 
were not legitimate. Only those children of ours who 
were born after the ceremony in the Endowment House 
would be legitimate; the others were outcasts from the 
'Kingdom'' unless we adopted them after our initiation, 
and thus made them heirs. In any case, poor children, 
they could never be considered the real heirs ; they could 
only be 'heirs by adoption/ 

"So I agreed to go, trying to persuade myself that it 
was a sacred duty ; for, although my faith in Mormonism 
had been roughly shaken, I still believed that its origin 
was divine. 

"The Temple robe, which is a long, loose, flowing gar- 
ment, made of white linen or bleached muslin, and reach- 



ing to the ankle, had been placed upon us just before we 
took the oaths. It was gathered to a band about twelve 
inches long, which rested on the right shoulder, passed 
across the breast, and came together under the left arm, 
and was then fastened by a linen belt. This leaves the 
left arm entirely free. The veil consists of a large square 
of Swiss muslin, gathered in one corner so as to form a 
sort of cap to fit the head ; the remainder falls down as a 
veil. The men wear the same kind of undergarment as the 
women, and their robes are the same, but their head-dress 
is a round piece of linen drawn up with a string and a bow 
in front, something after the fashion of a Scotch cap. All 
good Mormons, after they have received their first endow- 
ments, get whole suits of Temple robes made on purpose 
for them, so they may be ready for use at any time when 
they are needed. All marriages in the Endowment House 
are performed in these robes, and in them all Saints who 
have received their endowments are buried. Besides our 
robes we were instructed to take with us a bottle of the 
best olive oil. 

"At seven o'clock in the morning of the day appointed, 
we presented ourselves at the door of the Endowment 
House, and were admitted by Brother Lyon, the Mormon 
poet. Everything within was neat and clean and a 
solemn silence pervaded the whole place. The only 
sound that could be heard was the splashing of water, but 
whence the sound proceeded we could not see. In spite 
of myself, a feeling of dread and uncertainty respecting 
what I had to go through would steal over my mind, and 
I earnestly wished that the day was over. 

"We waited patiently for a little while, and presently a 
man entered and seated himself at a table placed there for 
that purpose, upon which was a large book. He opened 


the book, and then calling each person in turn, he took 
their names and ages, and the names of their fathers and 
mothers, and carefully entered each particular in the book. 
Our bottles of oil were then taken from us, and we were 
supposed to be ready for the ceremony. 

"First we were told to take off our shoes, and leave 
them in the anteroom, and then to take up our bundles 
and pass into another room beyond. This was a large 
bathroom, which was divided down the middle by a cur- 
tain of heavy material placed there for the purpose of 
separating the men from the women. Here my husband 
left me — he going to the men's and I to the women's 
division. In the bathroom were two or three large bath- 
ing tubs supplied by streams of hot and cold water. We 
were as much concealed from the men as if we had been in 
an entirely separate room, and everything was very quiet 
and orderly. 

"Miss Eliza R. Snow, the poetess, and a Mrs. Whitney, 
were the officiating attendants on that occasion. The 
former conducted me to one of the bathing tubs, and 
placing me in it, she proceeded to wash me from the 
crown of my head to the soles of my feet. As she did this 
she repeated various formulas to the effect that I was 
now washed clean from the blood of this generation and 
should never, if I remained faithful, be partaker in the 
plagues and miseries which were about to come upon the 
earth. When I had thus been washed clean, she wiped 
me dry, and then taking a large horn filled with the olive 
oil which we had brought, she anointed me. The oil was 
poured from the horn by Mrs. Whitney, into the hand of 
Eliza Snow, who then applied it to me. The horn was 
said to be the horn of plenty, which, like the widow's 
cruse of oil, would never fail as long as the ordinance 


should continue to be administered. In addition to the 
crown of my head, my eyes, ears, and mouth were also 
anointed ; my eyes that they might be quick to see, my ears 
that they might be apt at hearing, and my mouth that I 
might with wisdom speak the words of eternal life. She 
also anointed my feet, that they might be swift to run in 
the ways of the Lord. I was then given a certain garment 
to put on. 

"Now, this garment is one peculiar to the Mormon 
people. It is made so as to envelop the whole body, and 
it is worn night and day. I was told that after having 
once put it on, I must never wholly take it of! before put- 
ting on another, but that I should change one-half at a 
time, and that if I did so I should be protected from dis- 
ease, and even from death itself; for the bullet of an 
enemy would not penetrate that garment, and that from 
it even the dagger's point should be turned aside. It has 
been said that the Prophet Joseph carelessly left oft* this 
peculiar garment on the day of his death, and that, had 
he not done so, the rifles of his assassins would have been 
harmless against him. 

"When thus arrayed, I proceeded to put on a white 
nightdress and skirt, stockings, and white linen shoes. A 
new name was then whispered into my ear, which I was 
told I must never mention to any living soul except my 
husband in the Endowment House. This name was taken 
from the Bible, and I was given to understand that it 
would be the name whereby I should be admitted into the 
celestial kingdom. This was, of course, very gratifying. 
A circumstance, however, occurred which took from me 
all the pride which might have been mine in the possession 
of a new name. There was among our number a deaf 
woman ; Mrs. Whitney had to tell her her name once or 


twice over, loud enough for me to hear, and thus I found 
that her new name, as well as mine, was Sarah. To make 
the matter worse, another sister whispered, "Why, that is 
my name, too." This entirely dispelled any enthusiasm 
which otherwise I might have felt. I could well under- 
stand that I might yet become a Sarah in Israel, but if we 
all were Sarahs, there would not be much distinction or 
honor in being called by that name. As a matter of 
course, I supposed that the men would all become Abra- 

"Our washing and anointing being now over, we were 
ready for the initiation — there were about fifteen couples 
in all. 

"A voice from behind the curtain asked Miss Snow if 
we were ready, and was answered in the affirmative. We 
were then arranged in a row, the curtain was drawn 
aside, and we stood face to face with the men, who had, 
of course, on their side of the curtain been put through 
the same ordeal. I felt dreadfully nervous, for 1 did not 
know what was coming next, and I could not quite dis- 
miss from my mind the stories that I had heard about 
these mysteries. But in spite of my nervousness, curiosity 
was strong in me at that moment, as it was, I suppose, 
in the others ; for as soon as the curtain was drawn aside 
we all cast our eyes in the direction of the men. They, 
as might be expected, were looking in our direction, and 
when I beheld them I must say that my sympathies were 
drawn out towards the poor creatures. However little 
vanity or personal pride they possessed, they must have 
felt it unpleasant to have to appear in the presence of 
ladies in such a dress — or rather Mwdress; and notwith- 
standing the solemn meaning of the ceremony, there was 
just the ghost of a smile upon our faces as we looked at 


each other and dropped our eyes again. To anyone who 
did not feel as we did the religious nature of the initia- 
tion, the scene must have appeared perfectly ludicrous. 
In fact, some of us felt it so. One sister, just as the cur- 
tain was drawn up and we came in full view of our lords, 
cried out, "Oh dear, oh dear, where shall I go? What 
shall I do?" This, as may be supposed, caused a laugh, 
which was, of course, immediately suppressed. 

"We could see how the men looked, but of our own 
appearance we could not so easily judge. Certainly we 
must have looked anything but handsome in our white 
garments, and with the oil trickling down our faces and 
into our eyes, making them smart and look red. There 
was nothing, however, for us to do but to submit quietly 
and make the best of it we could. Ashamed as I was, I 
thought I might venture to look at my husband; there 
could be no harm in that; but when I saw his demure- 
looking countenance and his efforts to keep his clothing 
in order, I thought I should be compelled to laugh out- 
right, for I could see that his thoughts were more occu- 
pied about his personal appearance than with the solemn- 
ity of the occasion. The men were all dressed in the same 
kind of garments as the women — drawers and shirt all in 
one, very much like those which are used for children to 
sleep in, and over that an ordinary white shirt, such as 
men always wear ; that, with socks and white linen shoes, 
completed their toilet. 

"Clad after this interesting fashion, we sat opposite 
to each other for several minutes, and then my husband 
and myself were instructed to come forward and kneel at 
the altar while all the rest remained standing. It is the 
custom thus to select two persons, and we were either 
picked out by chance, or it might be, as my husband was 


thought a good deal of by the authorities, that they con- 
sidered he would feel honored by the preference. 

"Suddenly a voice was heard speaking to someone, who 
also replied. This voice from the unseen was supposed to 
be the voice of Elohim in conversation with Jehovah, and 
the words that were used were much the same as those 
contained in the first chapter of the book of Genesis, de- 
scribing the creation of the world. Finally, Jehovah and 
Elohim declare their intention to come down and visit 
the earth. This they do, and pronounce all that they be- 
hold very good; but they declare that it is necessary that 
one of a higher order of intelligence than the brute crea- 
tion should be placed in the world to govern and control 
all else. 

"Michael the Archangel is now called, and he is placed 
upon the earth under the name of Adam, and power is 
given him over all the beasts of the field, the fowls of the 
air, and the fishes of the sea. Moreover, the fruits of the 
earth are all given to him for his sustenance and pleasure ; 
but he is strictly charged, as in Bible story, not to eat of 
one particular tree which stands in the midst of the gar- 
den. This tree is represented by a small real evergreen, 
and a few bunches of dried raisins are hung upon it as 

"It is now discovered that it is not good for man to be 
alone ; Elohim and Jehovah, therefore, hold another con- 
versation upon that subject, and they finally determine to 
give a companion to Adam. They therefore cause a deep 
sleep to fall upon Michael— or Adam as he is now called— 
and they prepare to operate upon him. Here we are all 
instructed to assume the attitude of deep sleep by drop- 
ping our heads upon our breasts. Elohim and Jehovah 
then come down and go through the motions of removing 


a rib from the side of the sleeper, which said rib appears 
immediately upon the scene in the person of Eliza R. 
Snow. Elohim and Jehovah are generally represented by 
two of the Twelve Apostles. When Brigham is present 
he plays a prominent part. 

"And now the devil makes his appearance in the person 
of W. W. Phelps. Phelps used always to personate the 
devil in the endowments, and the role suited him ad- 
mirably. He is dead now, but whether it has made any 
difference in his status I cannot tell. Nor do I know who 
has succeeded him in his office. The devil wears a 
very tight-fitting suit of black muslin, with knee breeches 
and black stockings and slippers. This dress had all the 
appearance of a theatrical costume, and the man looked as 
much like what one might imagine the devil would look as 
he possibly could. He began by trying to scrape ac- 
quaintance with Eve, whom he meets while taking a walk 
in the garden. The innocent, unsuspecting woman is 
fascinated by his attentions. Father Adam— who seems 
to have had a touch of the Mormon about him— perhaps 
was not the most attentive of husbands ; or he may have 
made the same mistake as that which so many of his sons 
have since made— neglecting to pay the same attentions 
after marriage as he was wont to before — and left his 
young wife to the mercy of the tempter. However that 
may be, Satan and Eve are soon discovered in conversa- 
tion together, and Eve appears to be particularly pleased 
with Satan. At length he offers her some of the fruit of 
the forbidden tree, and after some little demur she accepts 
it and eats thereof. 

"Then the devil leaves her, Adam makes his appearance, 
and Eve persuades him also to eat of the fruit of the tree. 
After this they make a dumb show of perceiving their con- 


dition, and an apron of white linen is produced, on which 
are sewn pieces of green silk, in imitation of fig leaves, 
and in these they both attire themselves. 

'Then all the brethren and sisters produce similar 
aprons which they had brought with them on purpose, and 
these they put on, as Adam and Eve had already done. 
Elohim now appeared again, and called Adam ; but Adam 
was afraid, and hid himself in the garden with Eve. The 
curse was now pronounced upon the serpent — the devil — 
who reappears upon his hands and knees, making a hiss- 
ing noise as one might suppose a serpent would do. We 
were then all driven out of the Garden of Eden into an- 
other room, which represented the world — and this ended 
the 'First Degree.' 

"We were now supposed to be out in the world, earning 
our daily bread by the sweat of our brows, and we were 
informed that although we had been driven out from the 
presence of the Lord, yet a plan of salvation would be 
devised for us, by which we should be enabled to return 
to our first estate. We are to wait patiently until this 
plan should be disclosed to us. 

"There was here such a mixture of persons and events 
that I could not exactly follow the idea that was intended 
to be conveyed — if there was any idea at all. Men repre- 
senting the ancient prophets entered, and gave instruc- 
tions to the people to prepare themselves for the first com- 
ing of our Savior upon earth. Then we were taught cer- 
tain passwords and grips ; and then we were all arranged 
in a circle. The women covered their faces with their 
veils, and we all kneeled down, and, with our right hands 
uplifted towards heaven, we took the solemn oath of obe- 
dience and secrecy. (I myself made a movement with my 
hand— for I believed that my life was at stake, and I dared 


not do otherwise. The words of the oath I did not utter. 
See explanation at the end of this chapter.) We swore 
that by every means in our power we would seek to 
avenge the death of Joseph Smith, the Prophet, upon the 
Gentiles who had caused his murder, and that we would 
teach our children to do so ; we swore, that without mur- 
mur or questioning, we would implicitly obey the com • 
mands of the priesthood in everything; we swore that we 
would not commit adultery— which, with reference to the 
men, was explained to mean the taking of wives without 
the permission of the holy priesthood ; and we swore that 
we would never, under any circumstances, reveal that 
which transpired in the Endowment House. 

"The penalty for breaking this oath, which was worded 
in the most startling and impressive way, was then ex- 
plained to us. His bowels were— while he was yet liv- 
ing—to be torn from him, his throat was to be cut from 
ear to ear, and his heart and tongue were to be cut out. 
In the world to come, everlasting damnation would be his 


"Let not the reader think that this was merely an 
imaginary penalty, or that it was expressed merely for 
the purpose of frightening the weak-minded ; for, as will 
be shown, punishments quite as horrible as that have been 
deliberately meted out to the Apostate, the Gentile, and 
the suspected Saint, by the Mormon Priesthood. The 
innocent blood which cries for vengeance against Brig- 
ham Young and some of the leaders of the church is suffi- 
cient to weigh the purest spirit which stands before the 
throne of God down to the nethermost abysses of hell. 

"After these fearful oaths had been taken with due 
solemnity, we were instructed in the various signs repre- 
senting those dreadful penalties ; and we were also given a 
'grip' peculiar to this degree. 


"We were next entertained by a long address from the 
Apostle Heber C. Kimball. Never in my life— except from 
Brigham Young — have I listened to such disgusting lan- 
guage, and I trust I never shall be compelled to listen to 
anything like it again. Brother Kimball always used to 
pride himself upon using 'plain' language, but that day I 
think he surpassed himself; he seemed to take quite a 
pleasure in saying anything which could make us blush. 
The subject of which he discoursed was the married life in 
the 'Celestial Order'; he also laid great stress upon the 
necessity of our keeping silence concerning all that we 
had witnessed in the Endowment House — even husbands 
to their wives, and wives to their husbands, were not to 
utter a single word. With the sermon ended our 'Second 

"We were now taken to another room for the purpose 
of passing through the 'Third Degree' of the Order of the 
Melchisedec Priesthood. When all were arranged on one 
side against the wall, a number of individuals entered 
who were supposed to represent the ministers of every 
denomination and religion upon the face of the earth. The 
devil also makes his appearance again. The ministers set 
forth the various claims of their respective creeds — each 
one striving to show that his is the purest and the best — 
but the devil sows division and hatred among them, and a 
good deal of confusion ensues. 

"Then came in personages representing Peter, James, 
and John, the Apostles ; and they commanded ministers, 
devil and all to depart. They then appeared to organize 
a new church, in which the true principles of the Gospel 
were to be taught ; our Temple robes were also all changed 
from the right shoulder to the left, indicating that we 
were now in the true church, and that we were to be 


absolutely and in every way dependent upon the priest- 
hood. Another grip was then given to us, and thus we 
received the third degree of the Order of Melchisedec 
Priesthood. In that room was a division made of bleached 
muslin ; in the division a door, and in the door a hole, with 
a lap of muslin over it, through which to pass the hand. 
Whoever was on the other side could see us, but we could 
not see them. The men first approached this door. A 
person representing the Apostle Peter appeared at the 
opening and demanded who was there. He was told that 
someone desired to enter. Hands came through the open- 
ing in the muslin curtain, and mysterious fingers cut a 
mark on the left breast of the men's shirts— one mark also 
over the abdomen, and one over the right knee — which 
marks the women religiously imitated upon their own gar- 
ments when they got home. The applicant was then told 
to put his hand through the opening, and give the last 
grip belonging to the 'Third Degree/ and mention his 
new name. He was then permitted to enter. This wa? 
called 'going behind the veil.' When the men were all 
admitted, the women were suffered to approach, and were 
passed through by their own husbands. When a woman 
has no husband she is passed through by one of the 
brethren, and to those who are not going to be married 
or sealed for eternity here the ceremonies end. 

"Now, as I before stated, according to Mormon ideas 
we had never before been legally married. It was there- 
fore necessary that we should now pass through that 
ceremony. We accordingly were conducted to a desk, 
where our names were entered, and we were then passed 
into another room. In that room was a long, low altar, 
covered with red velvet, and an armchair placed at one 
end of it, in which sat Brigham Young. My husband 


knelt at one side of the altar and I at the other, with our 
hands clasped above it in the last grip which had been 
given to us. Then the ordinary formula of marriage was 
gone through with, and we were informed that we were 
sealed for time and eternity. 

"Thus we passed through the mysteries of the Endow- 
ment House, and at three o'clock in the afternoon we 
found ourselves at liberty to return home. The various 
ceremonies had occupied eight hours. 

"When we reached home, my husband said/Well, what 
do you think of the endowments ?' But I did not dare to 
answer him truthfully at that time. Had I done so, I 
should have told him that I was ashamed and disgusted. 
Never in all my life did I suffer such humiliation as I did 
that day ; for the whole time I was under the impression 
that those who officiated looked upon us as a set of silly 
dupes, and I felt annoyed to think that I dared not tell 
them so. So I told my husband that I would rather not 
speak about it, and we never have spoken of it to this day. 
What were his own feelings about the matter I do not 
know, for Mormon wives are taught never to pry into 
their husband's feelings or meddle with their actions. 
But notwithstanding all my feelings in reference to the 
endowments, so foolish was I that when I afterwards 
heard the brethren and sisters talking about the hap- 
piness which they had experienced while going through, 
and saying how privileged we ought to feel at being in 
Zion among the Saints of God, secure in His Kingdom 
where we could bring up our children in the fear of the 
Lord, I began again to think that the fault was all in 
myself, and that it was I who was wrong and not the 
endowments. I wondered how, with such a rebellious 
heart, I should ever get salvation, and I mourned to think 


that I had not accepted everything with the simplicity of a 


"Some time after our initiation I met the Apostle 
Heber C. Kimball, and he asked me how I felt upon the 
occasion. I frankly told him all, but added that I re- 
gretted feeling so. He said, 'I shall see if you cannot go 
through again; it is not just the thing, and I shall try and 
make the opportunity.' Nothing more, however, was said 
about it. But that which troubled me most was the fact 
that while the oaths were being administered, I dropped 
my hand and inwardly vowed that I would never sub- 
scribe to such things, and at the same time my heart was 
filled with bitter opposition. This, although I did it in- 
voluntarily—my better nature rising within me, and over- 
coming my superstition— I thought at the time was sinful. 
I now, however, rejoice that such was the case; for not 
having actually vowed to keep secret those abominable 
oaths, I can say, without any cavil or equivocation, that I 
have broken no promise and betrayed no trust by the rev- 
elations which I have just made." 

To the above account I may only add that these cere- 
monies now take place in the Temple, and I was told by an 
ex-Mormon in Salt Lake City that they are practically the 
same as those related by Mrs. Stenhouse, except that they 
are, perhaps, still more coarse and vulgar. 


Mrs. T. B. H. Stenhouse thus tells her experience when 
her husband, under the counsel of the Mormon leaders, 
decided to take another wife, so as to "build up the king- 

"The dreaded day at length arrived, the day which for 
so long, and with such painful forebodings, I had antici- 
pated. I had spent a very wakeful and unhappy night, 
and felt very sick and nervous, for I was about to become 
a mother, and my health was anything but strong. I 
hardly felt as if I should have courage to go through that 
day. I was, however, compelled to nerve myself to the 
task, and I began to make my preparations for going to 
the Endowment House. 

"Ever since I had first embraced Mormonism I had 
been entirely cut off from Gentile society, although living 
in the Gentile world. Abroad, and also when in New 
York, the cares of a family kept me very much at home, 
and the continual state of apprehension in which I was 
rendered me averse to visiting among friends. Thus it 
was that I never conversed freely with anyone who could 
have informed me truthfully of the origin of Mormonism, 
and consequently I brooded over my religion as a melan- 
choly fact; but, though with moments of weakness and 
wavering, I never thoroughly doubted its divine origin. 
The terrible sacrifice which was about to be required of 
me might, I thought, be painful to make, but it was no 
less the will of God. I must submit, whatever the effort 
might cost me. 



"The morning was bright and lovely — a morning cal- 
culated to inspire happy hopes and pleasant feelings ; but 
to me it brought nothing but fear and trembling. Even 
the innocent prattle of my children annoyed me, and 
they, not knowing how deeply I was suffering, looked 
at me with wonder in their eyes. Oh, I thought, surely 
my husband will at length comprehend the greatness of 
the love I bear him? Surely he will now appreciate 
the sacrifice I make for his sake and for my religion? 
Even now, if I did not know that he believes this doctrine 
to be true, and he would feel condemned if, through any 
opposition of mine, he were not allowed to practice it, I 
would at the last moment dash this bitter cup from 
my lips and take my chance of the consequences in a fu- 
ture state ! 

"Utterly cast down and broken-hearted, I felt almost as 
if the Lord Himself had forsaken me, and there was no 
one to whom I could look for aid. I could not go to my 
husband in that hour for sympathy ; for I well knew that 
his thoughts must be with his intended bride, and that my 
sorrows would only trouble him at a time when he must 
desire to be at peace. Besides which, I was too proud to 
plead for love at a shrine that I felt should rightfully be 
all my own. And then, too, I knew not but what he might 
tell her of my feelings ; and it would be too great a humili- 
ation for me should she think me jealous of the position 
which she now occupied, and her influence over my hus- 

"With such feelings I went to the Endowment House. 
There at the altar I was to give proof of my obedience 
and of my faith in my religion, by placing the hand of 
the new wife in that of my husband. The thought was 
almost madness. To have followed my husband to the 


grave would bave been a terrible blow to me, but to live 
to see him the husband of another woman was something 
that seemed to me beyond endurance. Notwithstanding 
every effort of faith, doubts would arise, and in bitterest 
anguish I thought — this is more like the work of cruel 
man than of God. Why should man have this power over 
woman, and she so helpless? Surely a just and impartial 
God can have nothing to do with this ! There was a dark- 
ness before my eys, and, struggle as I might, I could see 
no ray of light, no glimmering of hope. 

"Brigham Young performed the ceremony. He sat 
at the end of the altar and we three knelt down — my hus- 
band on one side, and Miss Pratt and myself on the 
other. Speaking to me, Brigham Young asked: 'Are 
you willing to give this woman to your husband to be his 
lawful wife for time and for all eternity? If you are, 
you will signify it by placing her right hand within the 
right hand of your husband.' 

"I did so, but what words can describe my feelings? 
The anguish of a whole lifetime was crowded into that 
one single moment. The painful meaning of those words, 
'for all eternity,' withered my soul, and the unending con- 
tract which my husband had made with another woman 
was practically a divorce from me. I had now laid every- 
thing upon the altar of sacrifice, for I had given away my 
husband. What more could the Lord require of me that 
I was not prepared to do ? 

"I was bewildered and almost beside myself, and yet I 
had to hide my feelings. Hope was forever banished 
from my life. To whom could I look for sympathy 
among those who were around me ? They were most of 
them men who had ruthlessly wrecked the lives and lacer- 
ated the hearts of hundreds of women before my turn 
came, and the sight of an unhappy wife was so common 


in their experience that it was more likely to awaken their 
anger than their pity. I felt this instinctively, and I re- 
solved that they should never know how much my poor 
heart was torn. My husband, it is true, was there. My 
husband! Was he not now the husband of another 
woman, and therefore no longer belonging to me? I 
knew that I never could overcome my early teaching suffi- 
ciently to feel that this was right, though such was my 
wretched fanaticism that I mentally and verbally assented 
to it. I felt that now I stood alone — our union was sev- 
ered; there could never be any copartnership between 
that other wife and myself — no, never ! Salvation or no 
salvation, it was impossible that I could ever love her. 
From that day I began to hide all my sorrows from my 
husband, and it was but very seldom that I uttered a 
word of discontent, and when I expressed what I felt, it 
was in anger ; but never in sorrow seeking sympathy. 

"I remembered when we returned home — that home 
which had now lost its charm, for the young wife was to 
live there — my husband said to me : 'You have been very 
brave, but it is not so hard to bear, after all, is it ?' I had 
hidden my feelings so well that he really thought that I 
was indifferent. But during the remainder of the day, 
how I watched their looks and noticed every word! To 
me their tender tones were daggers, piercing my heart and 
filling me with a desire, to revenge myself upon the father 
of my children. Oh, what fanatics we Mormon women 
have been ever to have believed for a single moment that 
a just and loving Father and God would have given a 
command that in almost every instance has produced such 
fearful results upon those who should have been happy 
wives and mothers, and consequently upon their children ! 
Indeed, even then it made me feel that there was no 


justice in heaven, if this love which is the best part of 
woman's nature — this love that we had always believed 
was a part of divinity itself — this principle, without which 
there would be nothing worth living for — if this was to 
be our greatest curse, and the woman who showed herself 
most actuated by this gentle influence was to be the great- 
est victim. 

"I felt that day that if I could not get away by 
myself alone and give expression to my overcharged feel- 
ings, I should certainly lose my reason. I was utterly 
miserable. It was only in the dead of night, in my own 
chamber, that I gave way to the terrible anguish that was 
consuming me. God and my own soul can alone bear 
witness to what I suffered in that time of woe. That 
night was to me such as even the most God-forsaken 
might pray never to know ; and morning dawned without 
my having for a moment closed my eyes." 

In illustration of how Mormon women regard polygamy 
Mrs. Stenhouse presents this picture : 

"Let me ask the good brethren who read this to act for 
once impartially, and try to put themselves in a woman's 
place ; and let me for their benefit draw a little picture for 
them to contemplate. 

"It is evening, and the family are all assembled in their 
pleasant home — a home made happy by the kind and 
thoughtful care of a loving father. Peace and tranquillity 
dwell in every heart, and the father is happy in being 
surrounded by his children, to whom he is fondly attached. 
He listens to the prattle of the little ones, or the music 
and songs of the elder children ; and for a time he is for- 
getful of everything save the happiness of the hour. 

"Suddenly his wife, the mother of his children, whom 
he dearly loves, rises from her seat beside the fire and 


retires to her own apartment. There she arranges her 
toilet with irreproachable care, sees that every straying 
curl is in its place, and gives every touch to her appear- 
ance which she thinks is likely to render her attractive 
in the eyes of a man. She now descend: the stairs, ready 
to leave the home of this, her first husband, for she is 
going to see her second husband, or some young man to 
whom she has taken a fancy, and who she thinks would 
be suitable for a third. She kisses her children good-bye, 
and is about to take an affectionate farewell of their 
father, when she suddenly discovers that he is not looking 
happy. 'What is the matter now ?' she says ; 'is not your 
home a pleasant one? Have I not taken pains to train 
your children in a proper manner, and have I not remained 
an hour longer than usual with you ? What folly it is for 
you to be moping in this way ! This is not the way to live 
our religion, if we expect to get the blessing of God. You 
know very well it is very painful for me to leave you and 
my children; but we must be obedient to the commands 
of God, and I owe attentions to my other husband as well 
as to you!' 

"Can any man be supposed who would for a moment 
endure such an outrage upon decency and common sense, 
such a violation of all that is sacred in the human heart ? 
And yet this is only reversing the case ; and just as any 
Mormon man can suppose he would feel, if the wife he 
loved were to act in the way I have described, so do 
Mormon wives feel, only as much more acutely, as women 
are more sensitive in their affections than men." 



In the month of September, 1857, the company of 
emigrants, known as the "Arkansas Company," arrived 
at Parowan, Iron county, Utah, on their way to California. 
At Parowan young Aden, one of the company, saw and 
recognized one William Laney, a Mormon resident of 
Parowan. Aden and his father had rescued Laney from 
an anti-Mormon mob in Tennessee several years before, 
and saved his life. He (Laney) at the time he was 
attacked by the mob was a Mormon missionary in Tennes- 
see. Laney was glad to see his friend and benefactor, 
and invited him to his house and gave him some "garden 
sauce" to take back to the camp with him. The same 
evening it was reported to Bishop (Colonel) Dame that 
Laney had given potatoes and onions to the man Aden, 
one of the emigrants. When the report was made to 
Bishop Dame he raised his hand and crooked his little 
finger in a significant manner to one Barney Carter, his 
brother-in-law, and one of the "Angels of Death." Carter, 
without another word, walked out, went to Laney's house 
with a long picket in his hand, called Laney out and 
struck him a heavy blow on the head, fracturing his skull, 
and left him on the ground for dead. C. Y. Webb and 
Isaac Naoman, President of the "High Council," both 
told me they saw Dame's manoeuvres. James McGufTee, 
then a resident of Parowan, but through oppression has 



been forced to leave there and is now a merchant in 
Pahranagat Valley, near Pioche, Nev., knows these facts. 
About the last of August, 1857, some ten days before the 
Mountain Meadows Massacre, the company of emigrants 
passed through Cedar City. George A. Smith, then first 
counselor in the church and Brigham Young's right-hand 
man, came down from Salt Lake City, preaching to the 
different settlements. I at that time was in Washington 
county, near where St. George now stands. He sent for 
me. I went to him and he asked me to take him to Cedar 
City by way of Fort Clara and Pinto settlements, as he 
was on business and must visit all the settlements. We 
started on our way up through the canyon. We saw 
herds of Indians, and he (George A. Smith) remarked 
to me that these Indians, with the advantages they had 
of the rocks, could use up a large company of emigrants, 
or make it very hot for them. After pausing for a short 
time he said to me, "Brother Lee, what do you think the 
brethren would do if a company of emigrants should 
come down through here making threats? Don't you 
think they would pitch into them?" I replied that "they 
certainly would." This seemed to please him, and he 
again said to me, "And you really think the brethren 
would pitch into them?" "I certainly do," was my reply, 
"and you had better instruct Colonel Dame and Haight 
to tend to it that the emigrants are permitted to pass, if 
you want them to pass unmolested." He continued, "I 
asked Isaac (meaning Haight) the same question, and he 
answered me just as you do, and I expect the boys would 
pitch into them." I again said to him that he had better 
say to Gov. Young that if he wants emigrant companies to 
pass without molestation that he must instruct Col. Dame 
or Major Haight to that effect: for if they are not 


ordered otherwise they will use them up by the help of the 
Indians. He told the people at the Clara not to sell their 
grain to the emigrants, nor to feed it to their animals, as 
they might expect a big fight the next spring with the 
United States. President Young did not intend to let 
the troops into the territory. He said : "We are going 
to stand up for our rights, and will no longer be imposed 
upon by our enemies, and want every man to be on hand 
with his gun in good order and his powder dry," and 
instructed the people to part with nothing that would sus- 
tain life. From the ist to the ioth of September, 1857, a 
messenger came to me — his name was Sam Wood — and 
told me that President Isaac C. Haight wanted me to be 
at Cedar City that evening without fail. This was Satur- 
day. He told me that a large company of emigrants had 
gone south. I think he lived at Harmony, twenty miles 
south of Cedar City. 

I obeyed the summons. President Haight met me. It 
was near sundown. We spent the night in an open house 
on some blankets, where we talked most all night. He 
told me that a company of emigrants had passed through 
some two days before, threatening the Mormons with 
destruction, and that one of them had said he had helped 
to kill old Joe Smith and his brother Hyrum, that other 
members of the company of emigrants had helped drive 
the Mormons out of Missouri ; that others had said they 
had come to help Johnson's army clean the Mormons out 
of Utah ; that they had the halters ready to hang old Brig- 
ham and Heber, and would have them strung up before 
the snow flew ; that one of the emigrants called one of his 
oxen (a pair of stags) "Brig." and the other "Heber;" 
and that several of the emigrants had used all kinds of 
threats and profanity. John M. Higbee, the City Mar- 


shal, had informed them that it was a breach of the city 
ordinances to use profane language, whereupon one of 

them replied that he did not care a for the Mormon 

laws or the Mormons either ; that they had fought their 
way through the Indians, and would do it through the 

Mormons ; and if their god, old Brigham, and his 

priests would not sell their provisions, by they 

would take what they wanted any way they could get it ; 
that thus enraged, one of them let loose his long whip and 
killed two chickens, and threw them into the wagon ; that 
the widow Evans said, "Gentlemen, those are my chick- 
ens ; please don't kill them ; I am a poor widow ;" that they 

ordered her to "shut up," or they would blow her 

brains out, etc. ; that they had been raising trouble with all 
the settlements and Indians on their way; that we were 
threatened on the North by Johnson's army ; that now our 
safety depended on prompt and immediate action ; that a 
company of Indians had already gone South from Parowan 
and Cedar City to surprise the emigrants, who were then 
at the Mountain Meadows, and he wanted me to return 
home in the morning (Sunday), and send Carl Schurtz 
(Indian interpreter) from my home (Harmony), to raise 
the Indians South, at Harmony, Washington, and Santa 
Clara, to join the Indians from the North and make the 
attack upon the emigrants at the Meadows. I said to 
him, "Would it not be well to hold a council of the breth- 
ren before making a move ?" He replied that "every true 
Latter-Day Saint that regarded their covenants knew well 
their duty, and that the company of emigrants had for- 
feited their lives by their acts," and that Bishop P. K. 
Smith (Klingensmith) and Joel White had already gone 
by way of Pinto, to raise the Indians in that direction, and 
those that had gone from Parowan and here would make 


the attack, and might be repulsed. "We can't now delay 
for a council of the brethren. Return immediately, and 
start Carl Schurtz ; tell him that I ordered you to tell him 
to go; and I want you to try and get there before the 
attack is made, and make the plan for the Indians, and 
will send Nephi Johnson, the interpreter, to the Meadows 
as soon as he can be got to help Carl Schurtz manage the 
Indians." I did just as I was ordered. The Indians from 
the North and about Harmony had already started for the 
Meadows before I reached home. Schurtz started imme- 
diately to do his part. 

I arrived at home in the night, and remained till morn- 
ing. I thought over the matter, and the more I thought 
the more my feelings revolted against such a horrid deed. 
Sleep had fled from me. I talked to my wife Rachel 
about it. She felt as I did about it, and advised me to let 
them do their own dirty work, and said that if things did 
not go just to suit them the blame would be laid on me. 
She never did believe in blood atonement, and said it was 
from the devil, and that she would rather break such a 
covenant, if she had to die for so doing, than to live and 
be guilty of doing such an act. I finally concluded that 
I would go, that I would start by daybreak in the morn- 
ing, and try to get there before an attack was made on the 
company, and use my influence with the Indians to let 
them alone. I crossed the mountains by a trail, and 
reached the Meadows between nine and ten in the morn- 
ing, the distance from my place being about twenty-five 
miles. But I was too late. The attack had been made 
just before daybreak in the morning, the Indians repulsed, 
with one killed and two of their chiefs from Cedar City 
shot through the legs, breaking a leg for each of them. 
The Indians were in a terrible rage. I went to some of 


them that were in a ravine. They told me to go to the 
main body, or they would kill me for not coming before 
the attack was made. While I was standing there I 
received a shot just above the belt, cutting through my 
clothes to the skin, some six inches across. The Indians 
with whom I was talking lived with me at Harmony. I 
was Indian Farmer. They told me I was in danger, and 
to get down into the ravine. I said that it was impossible 
for me to do anything there, and I dare not venture to the 
camp of the emigrants without endangering my life. I 
mounted my horse and started south to meet Carl Schurtz. 
I traveled sixteen miles and stopped on the Megotsy to 
bait my animal, as there was good grass and water. I 
had rode over forty miles without eating or drinking. 
This is the place where Mr. Tobin met his assassinators. 
About sunset I saw Schurtz and some ten or fifteen white 
men and about one hundred and fifty Indians. We 

During the night the Indians left for the Meadows. I 
reported to the men what had taken place. They attacked 
the emigrants again, about sunrise the next morning, 
which was Tuesday, and had one of their number killed 
and several wounded. I, with the white men, reached the 
Meadows about one o'clock p. m. On the way we met a 
small band of Indians returning, with some eighteen or 
twenty head of cattle. One of the Indians was wounded 
in the shoulder. They told me that the Indians were 
encamped east of the emigrants, at some springs. On 
our arrival at the springs we found some two hundred 
Indians, among whom were the two wounded chiefs, 
Moqueetus and Bill. The Indians were in a high state of 
excitement; had killed many cattle and horses belonging 
to the company. I counted sixty head near their encamp- 


merit, that they had killed in revenge for the wounding 
of their men. By the assistance of Oscar Hamblin 
(brother of Jacob Hamblin) and Schurtz, we succeeded 
in getting the Indians to desist from killing any more 
stock that night. The company of emigrants had cor- 
raled all their wagons but one for better defense. This 
corral was about one hundred yards above the springs. 
This they did to get away from the ravine and from the 
rocks on the west. The attack was renewed that night 
by the Indians, in spite of all we could do to prevent it. 

When the attack commenced, Oscar Hamblin, William 
Young, and myself started to go to the Indians. When 
opposite the corral, on the north, the bullets came around 
us like a shower of hail. We had two Indians with us to 
pilot us ; they threw themselves flat on the ground to pro- 
tect themselves from the bullets. I stood erect and asked 
my Father in heaven to protect me from the missies of 
death, and enable me to reach the Indians. One ball 
passed through my hat and the hair of my head, and 
another through my shirt, grazing my arm near the 
shoulder. A most hideous yell of the Indians com- 
menced. The cries and shrieks of the women and chil- 
dren so overcame me that I forgot my danger and rushed 
through the fire to the Indians, and pleaded with them, 
in tears, to desist. I told them that the Great Spirit would 
be angry with them for killing women and little children. 
They told me to leave or they would serve me the same 
way, and that I was not their friend, but a 
friend of their enemies; that I was a squaw, 
and did not have the heart of a brave, and that 
I could not see blood shed without crying like a baby, 
and called me cry-baby, and by that name I am known by 
all the Indians to this day. I owe my life on that occa- 


sion to Oscar Hamblin who was a missionary with the 
Indians, and had much influence with the Santa Clara 
Indians. They were the ones that wanted to kill me. 
Hamblin shamed them, and called them dogs and wolves 
for wanting to shed the blood of their father (myself), 
who had fed and clothed them. We finally prevailed on 
them to return to camp, where we would hold a council; 
that I would send for big Captains to come and talk. We 
told them that they had punished the emigrants enough 
and may be they had killed nearly all of them. We to d 
them that Bishop Dame and President Haight would 
come, and may be they would give them part of the cat- 
tle and let the company go with the teams. In this way 
we reconciled them to suspend hostilities for the present. 
The two that had been with Hamblin and myself the 
night before said they had seen two men on horseback 
come out of the emigrant's camp under full speed, and 
that they went toward Cedar City. 

Wednesday morning I asked a man— I think his name 
was Edwards-to go to Cedar City and say to President 
Haight, for God's sake, for my sake, and for the sake of 
suffering humanity, to send out men to rescue that com- 
pany This day we all lay still, waiting orders. Occa- 
sionally a few of the Indians withdrew, taking a few head 
of animals with them. 'About noon I crossed the valley 
north of the corral, thinking to examine their location 
from the west range. The company recognized me as a 
white man, and sent two little boys, about four years old, 
to meet me. I hid from them, fearing the Indians, who 
discovered the children. I called the Indians, who wanted 
my gun or ammunition to kill them. I prevailed with 
them to let the children go back to camp, which they very 
soon did when they saw the Indians. I crept up behind 


some rock, on the west range, where I had a full view of 
the corral. In it they had dug a rifle-pit. The wheels of 
their wagons were chained together, and the only chance 
for the Indians was to starve them out, or shoot them as 
they went for water. I lay there some two hours, and 
contemplated their situation, and wept like a child. When 
I returned to camp, some six or eight men had come from 
Cedar City. Joel White, William C. Stewart, and Elliot 
C. Weldon were among the number, but they had no 
orders. They had come merely to see how things were. 
The Meadows are about fifty miles from Cedar City. 
Thursday afternoon the messenger from Cedar City 
returned. He said that President Haight had gone to 
Parowan to confer with Col. Dame, and a company of 
men and orders would be sent on tomorrow (Friday) ; 
that up to the time he had left, the council had come to no 
definite conclusion. During this time the Indians and 
men were engaged in broiling beef and making up their 
hides into lassos. I had flattered myself that bloodshed 
was at an end. After the emigrants saw me cross the 
valley, they hoisted a white flag in the midst of their 

Friday afternoon four wagons drove up with armed 
men. When they saw the white flag in the corral, they 
raised one also, but drove to the springs where we were, 
and took refreshment, after which a council meeting was 
called of Presidents, Bishops, and other Church officers 
and members of the High Council, societies, High Priests, 
etc. Major John M. Higbee presided as chairman. Sev- 
eral of the dignitaries bowed in prayer, invoked the aid 
of the Holy Spirit to prepare their minds, and guide them 
to do right, and carry out the counsels of their leaders. 
Higbee said that "President J. C. Haight had been to Par- 


owan to confer with Col. Dame and their counsel, and 
orders were that this emigrant camp must be used up." 
I replied, "Men, women, and children ?" "All," said he, 
"except such as are too young to tell tales; and if the 
Indians cannot do it without help, we must help them." 
I commenced pleading for the company, and I said, 
though some of them behaved badly, they have been 
pretty well chastised. My policy would be to draw off 
the Indians, let them have a portion of the loose cattle, 
and withdraw with them, under promise that they would 
not molest the company any more; that the company 
would then have teams enough left to take them to Cal- 
ifornia. I told them that this course could not bring 
them into trouble. Higbee said, "White men have inter- 
posed, and the emigrants know it, and there lies the dan- 
ger in letting them go." I said, "What white man inter- 
fered ?" He replied that in the attack on Tuesday night 
two men broke out of the corral and started for Cedar 
City on horseback ; that they were met at Richey's Spring 
by Stewart, Joel White, and another man, whose name has 
passed from me. Stewart asked the two men their names 
when they met at the spring, and being told in reply by 
one of the men that his name was Aden, and that the 
other was a Dutchman from the emigrant's company, 
Stewart shoved a pistol to Aden's breast, and killed him, 

saying, "Take that, you." The other man (the 

Dutchman) wheeled to leave as Joel White fired and 
wounded him. I asked him how he knew the wounded 
Dutchman got back to the emigrants' camp. He said 
because he was tracked back, and they knew he was there. 
I again said that it was better to deliver the man to them, 
and let them do anything they wished with them, and tell 
them that we did not approve such things. Ira Allen, 


high councillor, and Robert Wiley, and others, spoke, 
reproving me sharply for trying to dictate to the priest- 
hood; that it would set at naught all authority; that he 
would not give the life of one of our brethren for a thou- 
sand such persons. "If we let them go," he continued, 
"they will raise hell in California, and the result will be 
that our wives and children will have to be butchered, and 
ourselves too, and they are no better to die than ours, and 
I am surprised to hear Brother Lee talk as he does, as he, 
who has always been considered one of the staunchest in 
the Church, now is the first to shirk his duty." I said, 
"Brethren, the Lord must harden my heart before I can 
do such a thing." Allen said, "It is not wicked to obey 
counsel/' At this juncture I withdrew, walked off some 
fifty paces, and prostrated myself on the ground and wept 
in the bitter anguish of my soul, and asked the Lord to 
avert that evil. 

While in that situation Councillor C. Hopkins, a near 
friend of mine, came to me and said, "Brother Lee, come, 
get up, and don't draw off from the priesthood. You 
ought not to do so. You are only endangering your own 
life by standing out. You can't help it, if this is wrong ; 
the blame won't rest on you." I said, "Charley, this is 
the worst move this people ever made; I feel it." He 
said, "Come, go back, and let them have their way." I 
went back, weeping like a child, and took my place, and 
tried to be silent, and was until Higbee said they (the 
emigrants) must be decoyed out through pretended 
friendship. I could no longer hold my peace, and said 
I, "Joseph Smith said that God hated a traitor, and so do 
I : before I would be a traitor, I would rather take ten 
men, and go to that camp and tell them they must die, 
and now to defend themselves, and give them a show for 


their lives; that would be more honorable than to betray 
them like Judas." Here I got another reproof, and was 
ordered to hold my peace. The plan agreed upon there 
was to meet them with a flag of truce, tell them that the 
Indians were determined on their destruction; that we 
dare not oppose the Indians, for we were at their mercy ; 
that the best we could do for them (the emigrants) was 
to get them and what few traps we could take in the 
wagons, to lay their arms in the bottom of the wagon 
and cover them up with bed-clothes, and start for the 
settlement as soon as possible, and to trust themselves in 
our hands. The small children and wounded were to 
go with the two wagons, the women to follow the wag- 
ons, and the men next, the troops to stand in readiness 
on the east side of the road ready to receive them. Schurtz 
and Nephi Johnson were to conceal the Indians in the 
brush and rocks till the company was strung out on the 
road to a certain point, and at the watchword, "Halt ; do 
your duty!" each man was to cover his victim and fire. 
Johnson and Schurtz were to rally the Indians, and rush 
upon and dispatch the women and larger children. It 
was further told the men that President Haight said, if 
we were united in carrying out the instructions, we would 
all receive "celestial reward." I said I was willing to put 
up with a less reward if I could be excused. "How can 
you do this without shedding innocent blood?" Here I 
got another lampooning for my stubbornness and disobe- 
dience to the priesthood. I was told that there was not a 
drop of innocent blood in the whole company of emi- 
grants. Also referred to the Gentile nations who refused 
the children of Israel passage through their country when 
Moses led them out of Egypt — that the Lord held that 
crime against them, and when Israel waxed strong the 


Lord commanded Joshua to slay the whole nation, men, 
women, and children.. "Have not these people done 
worse than that to us ? Have they not threatened to mur- 
der our leaders and prophets, Joseph and Hyrum ? Now 
talk about shedding innocent blood." They said I was 
a good, liberal, free-hearted man, but too much of this 
sympathy would be always in the way; that every man 
now had to show his colors ; that it was not safe to have 
a Judas in camp. Then it was proposed that every man 
express himself; that if there was a man who would not 
keep a close mouth, they wanted to know it then. This 
gave me to understand what I might expect if I con- 
tinued to oppose. Major Higbee said, "Brother Lee is 
right. Let him take an expression of the people." I 
knew I dared not refuse ; so I had every man speak and 
express himself. All said they were willing to carry out 
the counsel of their leaders; that the leaders had the 
spirit of God, and knew better what was right than they 
did. They then wanted to know my feelings. I replied, 
I have already expressed them. Every eye was upon me 
as I paused ; "but," said I, "you can do as you please ; I 
will not oppose you any longer." "Will you keep a close 
mouth ?" was the question. "I will try," was my answer. 
I will here say that the fear of offending Brigham Young 
and George A. Smith had saved my life. I was near 
being "blood-atoned" in Parowan, under J. C. L. Smith, 
in 1854, but on this I have spoken in my autobiography. 

Saturday morning all was ready, and every man 
assigned to his post of duty. During the night, or rather 
just before daylight, Johnson and Schurtz ambushed their 
Indians, the better to deceive the emigrants. About 11 
o'clock a. m. the troops under Major Higbee took their 
position on the road. The white flag was still kept up in 


the corral. Higbee called William Bateman out of the 
ranks to take a flag of truce to the corral. He was met 
about half way with another white flag from the emi- 
grants' camp. They had a talk. The emigrants were told 
we had come to rescue them if they would trust us. Both 
men with flags returned to their respective places and 
reported, and were to meet again and bring word. Hig- 
bee called me out to go and inform them the conditions, 
and if accepted, Dan McFarland, brother to John McFar- 
land, lawyer, who acted as aide-de-camp, would bring 
back word, and then the wagons would be sent for the 
firearms, children, clothing, etc. I obeyed, and the v terms 
proposed were accepted, but not without distrust. I had 
as little to say as possible ; in fact, my tongue refused to 
perform its office. I sat down on the ground in the cor- 
ral, near where some young men were engaged in paying 
their last respects to some person who had just died of a 
wound. A large fleshy old lady came to me twice, and 
talked while I sat there. She related their troubles ; said 
that seven of their number were killed, and forty-seven 
wounded on the first attack ; that several had died since. 
She asked me if I were an Indian agent. I said, "In one 
sense I am, as Government has appointed me farmer to 
the Indians." I told her this to satisfy her. I heard 
afterwards that the same question was asked and an- 
swered in the same manner by McFarland, who had been 
sent by Higbee to the corral to "hurry me up, for fear that 
the Indians would come back and be upon them." 

When all was ready, Samuel McMurdy, counsel to 
Bishop P. K. Smith (Klingensmith), drove out on the 
lead. His wagon had the seventeen children, clothing, 
and arms. Samuel Knight drove the other team, with 
five wounded men and one boy about fifteen years old. I 


walked behind the front wagon to direct the course, and 
to shun being in the heat of the slaughter ; but this I kept 
to myself. When we got turned fairly to the east, I 
motioned to McMurdy to steer north, across the valley. 
I, at the same time, told the women, who were next to the 
wagon, to follow the road up to the troop, which they 
did. Instead of saying to McMurdy not to drive so fast 
(as he swore on my trial), I said to the contrary, to drive 
on, as my aim was to get out of sight before the firing 
commenced, which we did. We were about half a mile 
ahead of the company when we heard the first firing. We 
drove over a ridge of rolling ground, and down on a low 
flat. The firing was simultaneous along the whole line. 
The moment the firing commenced McMurdy halted and 
tied his lines across the rod of the wagon-box, stepped 
down coolly with double-barreled shot-gun, walked back 
to Knight's wagon, who had the wounded men, and was 
about twenty feet in the rear. As he raised his piece, he 
said, "Lord, my God, receive their spirits, for it is for the 
kingdom of heaven's sake that we do this," fired and killed 
two men. Samuel Knight had a muzzle-loading rifle, and 
he shot and killed the three men, then struck the wounded 
boy on the head, who fell dead. In the meantime I drew 
a five-shooter from my belt, which accidentally went off, 
cutting across McMurdy's buskin pantaloons in front, 
below the crotch. McMurdy said, "Brother Lee, you are 
excited ; take things cool ; you was near killin' me. Look 
where the bullet cut," pointing to the place in his panta- 
loons. At this moment I heard the scream of a child. I 
looked up and saw an Indian have a little boy by the hair 
of his head, dragging him out of the hind end of the 
wagon, with a knife in his hand, getting ready to cut his 
throat. I sprang for the Indian with my revolver in 



hand, and shouted to the top of my voice, "Arick, oomo, 
cot too sooet" (stop, you fool!). The child was terror- 
stricken. His chin was bleeding. I supposed it was the 
cut of a knife, but afterwards learned that it was done on 
the wagon-box, as the Indian yanked the boy down by 
the hair of the head. I had no sooner rescued this child 
than another Indian seized a little girl by the hair. I 
rescued her as soon as I could speak; I told the Indians 
that they must not hurt the children — that I would die 
before they should be hurt ; that we would buy the chil- 
dren of them. Before this time the Indians had rushed 
around the wagon in quest of blood, and dispatched the 
two runaway wounded men. In justice to my statement 
I would say that if my shooter had not prematurely 
exploded, I would have had a hand in despatching the 
five wounded. I had lost control of myself, and scarce 
knew what I was about. I saw an Indian pursue a little 
girl who was fleeing. He caught her about one hundred 
feet from the wagon, and plunged his knife through her. 
I said to McMurdy that he had better drive the children 
to Hamblin's ranch, and give them some nourishment, 
while I would go down and get my horse at the camp. 
Passing along the road I saw the dead strung along the 
distance of about half a mile. The women and children 
were killed by the Indians. I saw Schurtz with the In- 
dians, and no other white man with them. When I came 
to the men, they lay about a rod apart. Here I came up 
with Higbee, Bishop Smith, and the rest of the company. 
As I came up, Higbee said to me, "Let us search these 
persons for valuables," and asked me to assist him ; gave 
me a hat to hold. Several men were already engaged in 
searching the bodies. I replied that I was unwell, and 
wanted to get upon my horse and go to the ranch and 


nurse myself. My request was granted. Reaching Ham- 
blin's ranch — being heartsick and worn out — I lay down 
on my saddle-blanket and slept, and knew but little of 
what passed during the night. 

About daybreak in the morning, I heard the voices of 
Col. Dame and Isaac C. Haight. I heard some very angry 
words pass between them, which drew my attention. 
Dame said he would have to report the destruction of the 
emigrant camp and company. Haight said, "How, as an 
Indian massacre?" Dame said he did not know so well 
about that. This reply seemed to irritate Haight, who 

spoke quite loudly, saying, "How the can you 

report it any other way without implicating yourself?" 
At this Dame lowered his voice almost to a whisper; I 
could not understand what he said, and the conversation 

I got up, saw the children, and among the others the 
boy who was pulled by the hair of his head out of the 
wagon by the Indian and saved by me; that boy I took 
home and kept until Dr. Forney, Government agent, came 
to gather up the children and take them East ; he took the 
boy with the others ; that boy's name was William Fan- 
cher; his father was captain of the train; he was taken 
East and adopted by a man in Nebraska, named Richard 
Sloan ; he remained East several years, and then returned 
to Utah, and is now a convict in the Utah penitentiary, 
having been convicted the past year for the crime of 
highway robbery. He is know known by the name of 
"Idaho Bill," but his true name is William Fancher. His 
little sister was also taken East, and is now the wife of 
a man working for the Union Pacific Railroad Company, 
near Green River. The boy (now man) has yet got the 
scar on his chin caused by the cut on the wagon-box, 


and those who are curious enough to examine will find a 
large scar on the ball of his left foot, caused by a deep cut 
made by an ax while he was with me. 

I got breakfast that morning. Then all hands returned 
to the scene of the slaughter to bury the dead. The bodies 
were all in a nude state. The Indians, through the night, 
had stripped them of every vestige of clothing. Many of 
the parties were laughing and talking as they carried the 
bodies to the ravine for burial. They were just covered 
over a little, but did not long remain so ; for the wolves 
dug them up, and after eating the flesh from them, the 
bones laid upon the ground until buried, some time after, 
by a Government military officer. At the time of bury- 
ing the bodies Dame and Haight got into another quarrel. 
Dame seemed to be terror-stricken, and again said he 
would have to publish it. They were about two paces 
from me. Dame spoke low, as if careful to avoid being 
heard. Haight spoke loud, and said, "You know that you 
counseled it, and ordered me to have them used up." 
Dame said, "I did not think that there were so many 
women and children. I thought they were nearly all 
killed by the Indians." Haight said, "It is too late in the 
day for you to back water. You know you ordered and 
counseled it, and now you want to back ont." Dame said, 
"Have you the papers for that?" or "Show the papers for 
that." This enraged Haight to the highest pitch, and 
Dame walked off. Haight said, "You throw the blame 
of this thing on me, and I will be revenged on you, if I 
have to meet you in hell to get it." From this place we 
rode to the wagons ; we found them stripped of their 
covers and every particle of clothing, even the feather- 
beds had been ripped open and the contents turned upon 
the ground, looking for plunder. I crossed the mount- 


ains by an Indian trail, taking my little Indian boy with 
me on my horse. The gathering up of the property and 
cattle was left in charge of Bishop P. K. Smith. The tes- 
timony of Smith in regard to the property and the dispo- 
sition of it was very nearly correct. 

I must not forget to state, that after the attack a mes- 
senger by the name of James Haslem was sent with a dis- 
patch to President Brigham Young, asking his advice 
about interfering with the company, but he did not return 
in time. This I had no knowledge of until the massacre 
was committed. Some two weeks after the deed was 
done, Isaac C. Haight sent me to report to Governor 
Young in person. I asked him why he did not send a 
written report. He replied that I could tell him more 
satisfactorily than he could write, and if I would stand 
up and shoulder as much of the responsibility as I could 
conveniently, that it would be a feather in my cap some 
day, and that I would get a celestial salvation, but that 
the man who shrank from it now would go to hell. I 
went and did as I was commanded. Brigham asked me 
if Isaac C. Haight had written a letter to him. I replied, 
not by me, but I said he wished me to report in person. 
"All right," said Brigham; "were you an eye-witness?" 
"To the most of it," was my reply. Then I proceeded 
and gave him a full history of all except that of my oppo- 
sition. That I left out entirely. I told him of the killing 
of the women and children, and the betraying of the com- 
pany. That, I told him, I was opposed to, but I did not 
say to him to what extent I was opposed to it, only that I 
was opposed to shedding innocent blood. "Why," said he, 
"you differ from Isaac (Haight), for he said there was 
not a drop of innocent blood in the whole company." 
When I was through, he said that it was awful ; that he 


cared nothing about the men, but the women and children 
was what troubled him. I said, "President Young, you 
should either release men from their obligation or sustain 
them when they do what they have entered into the most 
sacred obligations to do." He replied, "I will think over 
the matter, and make it a subject of prayer, and you may 
come back in the morning and see me." I did so, and he 
said, "John, I feel first-rate ; I asked the Lord if it was all 
right for that deed to be done, to take away the vision of 
the deed from my mind, and the Lord did so, and I feel 
first-rate. It is all right. The only fear I have is of 
traitors." He told me never to lisp it to any mortal being, 
not even to Brother Heber. President Young has always 
treated me with the friendship of a father since, and has 
sealed several women to me since, and has made my house 
his home when in that part of the territory, until danger 
has threatened him. This is a true statement according 
to the best of my recollection. 

John D. Lee. 



It is a well-known fact that the worshiper is assimilated 
to the character of his deity. The contrasts between 
heathenism and Christianity have established that fact dur- 
ing all the ages. Ancient paganism taught its devotees to 
worship the gods of war, of lust, of every vile passion of 
the human soul. That worship developed and intensified 
those passions, until the nation and individuals became 
monsters, and incarnate crime stalked forth to amaze the 
world and call down the vengeance of God. On the ether 
hand, where God's revelation of Himself has been ".iade 
known, and has been accepted, passion and hate have been 
swept out of human life. It has been well said that "Chris- 
tendom, in contrast with heathenism, is the best argument 
for Christianity." The deities of any people determine 
the morals of those who worship them. 

It ought to be pretty well known to Christian people 
everywhere that the Mormon people worship Adam. When 
they meet in the great tabernacle and their minister leads 
the worship of the people, he usually begins his prayer 
with the scriptural address, "Our Father which art in 
heaven." That is an address to Adam. He is not address- 
ing the God of the Bible, the God of the Christian, but the 
Mormon God, Adam. The inspired (?) prophet, Joseph 
Smith, taught the Mormon people that "God himself was 
once as we are now, and is an exalted man," and they ac- 
cept that doctrine. Their definition of God is this : "What 



I am now God once was; what He now is, I shall be." 
That is, the Mormon God was a man, and we are to be 
gods if we live in polygamy and secure a numerous pos- 
terity. Brigham Young explained the pagan theology of 
the Mormon church when he taught that "he (Adam) is 
our father and our God, and the only God with whom we 
have to do." This doctrine of the Mormon deity lies at 
the base of the Mormon system and permeates it. 

With such doctrines everywhere taught in Utah, what 
may we expect of the morals of the people who accept the 
system ? We are authorized to expect just what we find- 
corruption, treachery and falsehood in religion, politics 
and social life. 

In religion the Mormon teachers preach this Adam-god 
doctrine in Utah, and deny it when they go before the 
people in the East. They secretly, and sometimes openly, 
teach polygamy in Utah, and deny it when they go out. 
They practice this crime against law, against our State 
constitution, against the home, against God, and deny it 
everywhere outside of Utah. 

A recent convert to Mormonism, Mr. Frank S. Johnson, 
makes the following statement, viz. : 

"To the public : My home is in Vicksville, Southampton 
County, Virginia. I am thirty-eight years old, and have a 
family of six children. My sister-in-law died after the 
death of her husband and left five children to my care. I 
had been a Christian more than four years before the 
Mormon missionaries came to my house, and had found 
great comfort in the Christian life. I was a member of 
the Christian church, sometimes called the Disciples. Nine 
members of my family were also members of the church. 
George Whittle and Henry Taggart, Mormon missiona- 
ries, came to my home early in December, 1899. They 


have made their home with me since they came until this 
time, May, 1900. (That is the way they preach the gos- 
pel without purse or scrip.) There were six other mis- 
sionaries coming often to my house and remaining sev- 
eral days at a time. They told us that we must gather to 
Israel, flee to the mountains ; that this was the command- 
ment of the Lord. They talked like Christians, and I be- 
lieved what they said and trusted them. They said when 
Christ came he would come to the temple, and we ought to 
be there. They said polygamy had been done away with 
— that no one was living in polygamy, nor had been for a 
great many years. They told us we could not live our 
religion in -Virginia, but ought to come to the mountains. 
They said the saints here (in Utah) were a pure people — 
no such wickedness as in the States. They represented 
Utah as a paradise. They wanted us to come to the tem- 
ple and be sealed to each other as husband and wife and 

They wanted me to sell all and come with my family. 
We all joined the Mormon Church, and believed what the 
missionaries told us. But I did not want to sell my little 
home until I had come to see. They said I could take up 
as much land as I wanted when I came, so I decided to 
come, and sold all my farming implements, my mechanical 
tools, my horse and timber that I had ready to work. I 
got money enough to come and go back again. They did 
not want me to take money enough for me to return — said 
I would like it here. I came on and went to the friends at 
Preston, Idaho, to which place they directed me. I called 
at Mrs. Whittle's, and learned that her daughter, sister of 
our missionary, was living in polygamy. I learned also 
from the Mormons that the sister of Elder Taggart was a 
polygamous wife. 


These facts startled me, as both of the missionaries had 
declared to us again and again that no one had been in 
polygamy for a long time ; polygamy was a thing of the 
long past. If they had told me the truth I would not 
have come to Utah, nor would I have sacrificed my prop- 
erty to come. 

While visiting among the brethren at Preston I discov- 
ered that the saints would swear, for I heard them. They 
would ask a blessing at the table, and presently begin to 
curse. They would pray and swear right along. I had 
never been used to that, and it hurt me. 

President Snow, the Mouthpiece of God, Prophet, Seer 
and Revelator, came up to conference at Preston. I 
thought, Now we will hear something good ; if he does 
speak for God, he will surely say something good and help- 
ful. But to my surprise he did not. He talked all the 
time about tithing. They must pay up. It was money, 
money, money all the time ; no Gospel at all ; nothing about 
the love of God ; nothing about our Savior whom I loved. 
I was sick and disheartened. I could neither sleep nor eat. 
The saints wanted me to come to all their meetings, but 
I could not. The missionaries had deceived me. Instead 
of a paradise, I found the saints swearing, living in pblyg- 
amy, and the young people were vile beyond description. 
Instead of the prayer meeting they had the dance. Instead 
of the gospel of love they preached money. I went out 
and lay down in the fields, crying to God for help to get 
away, back to my home again. 

All these facts and conditions I found out from the 
saints. I did not go to any of the denominations for 
information. I heard with my own ears, saw with my 
own eyes, and sorrowed in my own heart. The Mormon 
missionaries who profess to preach without purse or scrip, 


cost me, a poor man, with a large family, about three hun- 
dred dollars. But I am thankful that I did not bring my 
family. I thank God that he has made it possible for me 
to go back home. I will warn all my neighbors against 
the falsehoods and deceptions of the Mormon missionaries. 
I make these statements to warn all people against the 
Mormon deceivers. It is the worst thing I ever heard of. 


Mr. Johnson's experience is not infrequent. A lady 
who had embraced Mormonism through the misrepresenta- 
tions and false teachings of their missionaries recently 
came to Salt Lake City. When she discovered that the 
great pretender, "the Mouthpiece of God," as he calls him- 
self, had seven or eight wives, and that the men calling 
themselves apostles had followed his example, were living 
in violation of the law of God and man, her heart sank 
within her, and she sought to escape to her home again in 
the South. The more painful experience is that some of 
these perverts to Mormonism bring their families. They 
exhaust their means in reaching Utah. And when they dis- 
cover the deception practiced upon them they are unable 
to return. To avoid being boycotted and persecuted, they 
settle down, pretending to believe what they know to be 
false. Our missionaries get hold of some of this class, and 
help them back to the acknowledgment of the truth. Their 
poverty is often pitiful, and our missionaries need to help 
support them, instead of receiving support from them. 
We trust the day is coming when our brethren in the East 
can understand conditions in Utah. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Sept. 24, 1900. 



On March n, 1901, the House of Representatives of 
Utah by a vote of 25 to ij, after a spirited debate, passed 
the following bill : "Every person who has reason to 
believe that a crime or public offense has been committed 
may make complaint before some magistrate having 
authority to pass on same; provided that no prosecution 
for adultery shall be commenced, except on complaint of 
the husband or wife or relative of the accused within 
the first degree of consanguinity or of the person with 
whom the unlawful act is alleged to have been committed, 
or of the father or mother of said person, and no prosecu- 
tion for unlawful cohabitation shall be commenced except 
on complaint of the wife or alleged plural wife of the 
accused, but this provision shall not apply to prosecutions 
under section 4208 of the Revised Statutes of 1898, 
defining and punishing polygamous marriages." This bill 
had already passed the Senate by a vote of 11 to 7. It 
is said that the Mormon authorities were back of the 
bill. It will be remembered by my readers that in order 
to secure Statehood the Mormons not only incorporated a 
clause in their constitution prohibiting polygamy, but they 
put a statute in their penal code against it. As I have 
pointed out, this was intended for foreign consumption, 
not for home consumption. When, however, it was 
charged that there was a large number of cases of polyg- 
amy in Utah, the Mormons denied it and said, "If that 
is so, there is a law against it here. The courts are open. 

3 6 7 


Prove it." No one had cared to bring the matters before 
the courts, as it would involve him in unpleasant relations 
with his neighbors, but Mr. Charles Mostyn Owen de- 
cided that he would not take a dare and had a number 
of the polygamists arrested and fined. His action created 
intense indignation. The passage of this law shows the 
insincerity of Mormons in putting the anti-polygamy 
statute in the penal code. Its evident purpose is to stop 
prosecutions for polygamy by Mr. Owen and others. Of 
course the husband or wife or children are not going to 
bring complaint. There was likelihood, however, that 
this law would result in the passage of an amendment 
to the United States Constitution, giving Congress the 
power to legislate against polygamy. This would again 
give the United States Government control over the 
question of polygamy in Utah, as was the case when Utah 
was a territory. It must come to that sooner or later, and 
the sooner the better. 

Seeing this danger Gov. Wells, himself a Mormon, 
vetoed the bill in the following message: 

"To the Senate : I have the honor to return herewith, 
without approval, Senate bill No. 113, 'An act amending 
section 461 1 of the Revised Statutes of Utah, 1898, in 
relation to the making of complaints and commencing 
prosecutions in criminal cases.' 

"No official act of my life has been approached by 
me with a sense of responsibility so profound as is in- 
volved in the consideration of this bill. It is a measure 
of the supremest importance and in its consequences for 
good or ill it easily surpasses any other proposition that 
ever came before this Commonwealth for legislative and 
executive determination. It has been argued in both 
branches of the assembly with splendid force and ability, 


while its provisions have doubtless been eagerly discussed 
in the remotest hamlet of our State. 


"The patience, loyalty and conservatism of our citizens 
are so widely recognized that only by the passing of such 
a bill as this can their reputation be injured. The 
broadminded and intelligent everywhere accept the situa- 
tion here as it exists, and are content to let time complete 
the solution of the problem. Even the bigoted and the 
meddlesome have to admit that with rare exceptions the 
conduct and integrity of the people are above reproach. 

"In my opinion nothing can be clearer than that this 
bill, if passed, would be welcomed and employed as a most 
effective weapon against the very classes whose condition 
it is intended to ameliorate. Furthermore. I have reason 
to believe its enactment would be the signal for a general 
demand upon the national Congress for a constitutional 
amendment directed against social conditions here, a de- 
mand which, under the present circumstances, would sure- 
ly be complied with. 

"In the shortest memory still remain incidents of the 
distressing period shortly before Statehood during which 
so much sorrow and bitterness stalked through our com- 
munity. Of still more recent date, no longer than two 
years ago, another outburst was threatened, and to some 

extent was manifested. 


"But as a termination of the first, came concession and 
amnesty and evidence of good faith, and at length State- 
hood, in which everybody rejoiced ; and while, as a result 
of the second, the sun of our prosperity was for a time 
obscured, the clouds at length have rolled away, and 


Utah, united, hopeful and vigorous, is marching bravely 
forward to the music of the Union. 

"I yield to no one in affection for these, my people, 
who, from the highest motives, and because they believed 
it a divine command, entered into the relation of plural 
marriage. Born and reared in Utah, myself a product 
if that marriage system (taught from infancy to regard 
my lineage as approved of the Almighty, and proud to-day 
as I have ever been, of my heritage), it will be granted, 
I trust, that every instinct of my nature reaches out to 
shield my friends from harm and to protect them from 
unjust attack. Their cause is my cause, and when they 
are hurt I am hurt, for I am part of them. 

"But in that same heart which is filled with sympathy 
for them I find also the solemn feeling that this bill holds 
out only a false hope of protection and that, in offering 
a phantom of relief to a few, it in reality invites a deluge 
of discord and disaster upon all. 

"For these reasons and many others, I am unable to 
approve the bill now before me. Very respectfully, 

"Heber M. Wells, Governor/' 

The following facts are made evident from this mes- 

i. The interest felt by the Mormons of Utah in the 
passage of the bill. Governor Wells says that "Its pro- 
visions have doubtless been eagerly discussed in the re- 
motest hamlet of our State." He regarded it as "a meas- 
ure of supremest importance and in its consequences for 
good or ill it easily surpasses any other proposition that 
ever came before this Commonwealth for legislative and 
executive determination." 

2. Governor Wells admits the existence of polygamy 
in the State. 


3. Not only that, but that he himself is "a product 
of that marriage system," and that he had been "taught 
from infancy to regard my lineage as approved of the 
Almighty, and proud today as I have ever been of my 
heritage/' which means that he still regards polygamy 
as "approved of the Almighty" and is "proud" of being 
a product of that system. This, mind you, is from the 
Governor of the State of Utah. But remember that he is 
a Mormon and in these sentiments he has only expressed 
Mormon feelings. 

4. He makes it clear that his only reason for vetoing 
the bill was his fear of the adoption by Congress of an 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States di- 
rected against polygamy and putting the control of polyg- 
amy again in the hands of the United States Government 

The Mormons are as afraid of the United States Gov- 
ernment as of death. They have had some experience 
and have occasion to fear the Government. But that is 
about the only thing in the world they are afraid of. 
Remove the fear of that constitutional amendment and a 
bill of the kind recently passed by the legislature of Utah 
would again pass overwhelmingly in both branches, be 
signed by the Governor and polygamy would be again 
resumed. In order to prevent this much to be dreaded 
event, the Congress of the United States should by all 
means pass an anti-polygamy amendment to the Constitu- 
tion at its next session. 

If such an amendment is to be passed at all — and it 
certainly must be if the practice of polygamy is ever 
stopped — it must be done soon. It requires a two-thirds 
majority of the States in the Union to pass a constitu- 
tional amendment. There are now forty-five States. 


One-third of this number would be fifteen. The Mor- 
mons now dominate Utah completely, and hold the bal- 
ance of power in Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Nevada, 
Arizona and New Mexico, making seven States over 
which they exercise controlling influence to a greater or 
less extent. They are reaching out after the eight others 
needed, and when they get them they will snap their 
fingers in the face of Congress and defy it to attempt the 
passage of an anti-polygamy law. This has been their 
history from the beginning, and there is no reason to be- 
lieve that their character has undergone any radical change 
in regard to their political ambition. 

In short they believe in polygamy, they practice polyg- 
amy as much as they dare, they refrain from it only under 
the stress of law, and if that were removed, they would 
again resume their polygamous practices. The decision 
of the matter rests not with the legislature of Utah, but 
with the congress of the United States. 

By a vote of 9 to 9, the Senate of Utah refused to pass 
the bill over the veto of Governor Wells. Speaking of 
this incident the Nashville American of March 18th had 
the following very significant paragraph : 

"The Governor of Utah is wise in his day and genera- 
tion. Though of Mormon parentage and in full sym- 
pathy with all the tenets of that faith he vetoed the bill 
rendering prosecution of polygamists well nigh impossi- 
ble on the ground that it would prove disastrous to the 
people. The fact that such a law was passed overwhelm- 
ingly in both branches of the Legislature shows how tricky 
and knavish the Mormons are, and the day of retribution 
for them is only postponed, not averted. There will yet 
come a time when a less discreet Governor than the pres- 
ent one will let fanaticism run away with judgment, and 
then— the deluge." 

Date Due 


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